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2.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500540

RESUMO

Heterozygous pathogenic variants in SLC12A2 are reported in patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss. Recently, homozygous loss-of-function variants have been reported in two patients with syndromic intellectual disability, with or without hearing loss. However, the clinical and molecular spectrum of SLC12A2 disease has yet to be characterized and confirmed. Using whole-exome sequencing, we detected a homozygous splicing variant in four patients from two independent families with severe developmental delay, microcephaly, respiratory abnormalities, and subtle dysmorphic features, with or without congenital hearing loss. We also reviewed the reported cases with pathogenic variants associated with autosomal dominant and recessive forms of the SLC12A2 disease. About 50% of the cases have syndromic and nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss. All patients harboring the recessive forms of the disease presented with severe global developmental delay. Interestingly, all reported variants are located in the c-terminal domain, suggesting a critical role of this domain for the proper function of the encoded co-transporter protein. In conclusion, our study provides an additional confirmation of the autosomal recessive SLC12A2 disease.

3.
Clin Genet ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495992

RESUMO

Protein disulfide isomerase A6 (PDIA6) is an unfolded protein response (UPR)-regulating protein. PDIA6 regulates the UPR sensing proteins, Inositol requiring enzyme 1, and EIF2AK3. Biallelic inactivation of the two genes in mice and humans resulted in embryonic lethality, diabetes, skeletal defects, and renal insufficiency. We recently showed that PDIA6 inactivation in mice caused embryonic and early lethality, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Here, we present a case with asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD) syndrome and infantile-onset diabetes. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous frameshift variant in the PDIA6 gene. RNA expression was reduced in a gene dosage-dependent manner, supporting a loss-of-function effect of this variant. Phenotypic correlation with the mouse model recapitulated the growth defect and delay, early lethality, coagulation, diabetes, immunological, and polycystic kidney disease phenotypes. In general, the phenotype of the current patient is consistent with phenotypes associated with the disruption of PDIA6 and the sensors of UPR in mice and humans. This is the first study to associate ATD to the UPR gene, PDIA6. We recommend screening ATD cases with or without insulin-dependent diabetes for variants in PDIA6.

4.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291713

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread globally with significantly high morbidity and mortality rates. Antigen-specific responses are of unquestionable value for clinical management of COVID-19 patients. Here, we investigated the kinetics of IgM, IgG against the spike (S) and nucleoproteins (N) proteins and their neutralizing capabilities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with different disease presentations (i.e., mild, moderate or severe), need for intensive care units (ICU) admission or outcomes (i.e., survival vs death). We show that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were readily detectable in almost all COVID-19 patients with various clinical presentations. Interestingly, significantly higher levels of nAbs as well as anti-S1 and -N IgG and IgM antibodies were found in patients with more severe symptoms, patients requiring admission to ICU or those with fatal outcomes. More importantly, early after symptoms onset, we found that the levels of anti-N antibodies correlated strongly with disease severity. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the kinetics of antibody responses in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16561, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024213

RESUMO

As the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread rapidly around the world, there is a need for well validated serological assays that allow the detection of viral specific antibody responses in COVID-19 patients or recovered individuals. In this study, we established and used multiple indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)-based serological assays to study the antibody response in COVID-19 patients. In order to validate the assays we determined the cut off values, sensitivity and specificity of the assays using sera collected from pre-pandemic healthy controls, COVID-19 patients at different time points after disease-onset, and seropositive sera to other human coronaviruses (CoVs). The developed SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid (N)-based ELISAs not only showed high specificity and sensitivity but also did not show any cross-reactivity with other CoVs. We also show that all RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients tested in our study developed both virus specific IgM and IgG antibodies as early as week one after disease onset. Our data also suggest that the inclusion of both S1 and N in serological testing would capture as many potential SARS-CoV-2 positive cases as possible than using any of them alone. This is specifically important for tracing contacts and cases and conducting large-scale epidemiological studies to understand the true extent of virus spread in populations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Soroconversão , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Pandemias , Fosfoproteínas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4625, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934225

RESUMO

A hallmark of neurodegeneration is defective protein quality control. The E3 ligase Listerin (LTN1/Ltn1) acts in a specialized protein quality control pathway-Ribosome-associated Quality Control (RQC)-by mediating proteolytic targeting of incomplete polypeptides produced by ribosome stalling, and Ltn1 mutation leads to neurodegeneration in mice. Whether neurodegeneration results from defective RQC and whether defective RQC contributes to human disease have remained unknown. Here we show that three independently-generated mouse models with mutations in a different component of the RQC complex, NEMF/Rqc2, develop progressive motor neuron degeneration. Equivalent mutations in yeast Rqc2 selectively interfere with its ability to modify aberrant translation products with C-terminal tails which assist with RQC-mediated protein degradation, suggesting a pathomechanism. Finally, we identify NEMF mutations expected to interfere with function in patients from seven families presenting juvenile neuromuscular disease. These uncover NEMF's role in translational homeostasis in the nervous system and implicate RQC dysfunction in causing neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doenças Neuromusculares/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Doenças Neuromusculares/patologia , Proteólise , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2071-2080, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741967

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASNSD) is a rare neurometabolic disease. Patients may not demonstrate low asparagine levels, which highlights the advantage of molecular over biochemical testing in the initial work-up of ASNSD. We aimed to further delineate the ASNSD variant and phenotypic spectrum and determine the value of biochemical testing as a frontline investigation in ASNSD. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the clinical and molecular information on 13 families with ASNSD from the major metabolic clinics in Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: The major phenotypes included congenital microcephaly (100%), facial dysmorphism (100%), global developmental delay (100%), brain abnormalities (100%), spasticity (86%), and infantile-onset seizures (93%). Additional unreported phenotypes included umbilical hernia, osteopenia, eczema, lung hypoplasia, and hearing loss. Overall, seven homozygous variants accounted for ASNSD. The p.Tyr398Cys and p.Asn75Ile variants accounted for 54% of the cases. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the proposed biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the detection of patients with ASNSD were 83% and 98%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study describes the largest reported ASNSD cohort with clinical, molecular, and biochemical characterization. Taking into consideration the suboptimal sensitivity of biochemical screening, the delineation of the phenotype variant spectrum is of diagnostic utility for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, counseling, and carrier screening.

9.
Virus Res ; 288: 198129, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822689

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 affects all aspects of human life. Detection platforms that are efficient, rapid, accurate, specific, sensitive, and user friendly are urgently needed to manage and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. RT-qPCR based methods are the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, these methods require trained personnel, sophisticated infrastructure, and a long turnaround time, thereby limiting their usefulness. Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), a one-step nucleic acid amplification method conducted at a single temperature, has been used for colorimetric virus detection. CRISPR-Cas12 and CRISPR-Cas13 systems, which possess collateral activity against ssDNA and RNA, respectively, have also been harnessed for virus detection. Here, we built an efficient, rapid, specific, sensitive, user-friendly SARS-CoV-2 detection module that combines the robust virus amplification of RT-LAMP with the specific detection ability of SARS-CoV-2 by CRISPR-Cas12. Furthermore, we combined the RT-LAMP-CRISPR-Cas12 module with lateral flow cells to enable highly efficient point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 detection. Our iSCAN SARS-CoV-2 detection module, which exhibits the critical features of a robust molecular diagnostic device, should facilitate the effective management and control of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Colorimetria/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Endodesoxirribonucleases/química , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
J Hum Genet ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759993

RESUMO

Biallelic variants in the USP53 gene have recently been reported to segregate with normal gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) cholestasis. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we detected two USP53 homozygous variants (c.951delT; p. Phe317fs and c.1744C>T; p. Arg582*) in five additional cases, including an unpublished cousin of a previously described family with intractable itching and normal GGT cholestasis. Three patients, a child and two adults, presented with recurrent episodes of normal GGT cholestasis, consistent with a diagnosis of benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). Cholangiopathic changes, possibly autoimmune in origin, were recognized in some patients. Additional phenotypic details in one patient included an enlarged left kidney, and speech/developmental delay. Notably, two patients exhibited a complete response to rifampicin, and one responded to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Two adult patients were suspected to have autoimmune liver disease and treated with steroids. This report describes new cases of USP53 disease presenting with normal GGT cholestasis or BRIC in three children and two adults. We also describe the novel finding of a dramatic response to rifampicin. The association of cholangiopathy with normal GGT cholestasis provides a diagnostic challenge and remains poorly understood.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11160, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636473

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9382, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523032

RESUMO

Global untargeted metabolomics (GUM) has entered clinical diagnostics for genetic disorders. We compared the clinical utility of GUM with traditional targeted metabolomics (TM) as a screening tool in patients with established genetic disorders and determined the scope of GUM as a discovery tool in patients with no diagnosis under investigation. We compared TM and GUM data in 226 patients. The first cohort (n = 87) included patients with confirmed inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) and genetic syndromes; the second cohort (n = 139) included patients without diagnosis who were undergoing evaluation for a genetic disorder. In patients with known disorders (n = 87), GUM performed with a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI: 78-91) compared with TM for the detection of 51 diagnostic metabolites. The diagnostic yield of GUM in patients under evaluation with no established diagnosis (n = 139) was 0.7%. GUM successfully detected the majority of diagnostic compounds associated with known IEMs. The diagnostic yield of both targeted and untargeted metabolomics studies is low when assessing patients with non-specific, neurological phenotypes. GUM shows promise as a validation tool for variants of unknown significance in candidate genes in patients with non-specific phenotypes.

13.
Clin Genet ; 97(3): 447-456, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730227

RESUMO

Retinal arterial macroaneurysms with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis (RAMSVPS), also known as Familial Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysms (FRAM) syndrome, is a very rare multisystem disorder. Here, we present a case series comprising ophthalmologic and systemic evaluation of patients homozygous for RAMSVPS syndrome causative IGFBP7 variant. New clinical details on 22 previously published and 8 previously unpublished patients are described. Age at first presentation ranged from 1 to 34 years. The classical feature of macroaneurysms and vascular beading involving the retinal arteries was universal. Follow up extending up to 14 years after initial diagnosis revealed recurrent episodes of bleeding and leakage from macroaneurysms in 55% and 59% of patients, respectively. The majority of patients who underwent echocardiography (18/23) showed evidence of heart involvement, most characteristically pulmonary (valvular or supravalvular) stenosis, often requiring surgical correction (12/18). Four patients died in the course of the study from complications of pulmonary stenosis, cerebral hemorrhage, and cardiac complications. Liver involvement (usually cirrhosis) was observed in eight patients. Cerebral vascular involvement was observed in one patient, and stroke was observed in two. We conclude that RAMSVPS is a recognizable syndrome characterized by a high burden of ocular and systemic morbidity, and risk of premature death. Recommendations are proposed for early detection and management of these complications.

17.
Genet Med ; 20(5): 536-544, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048421

RESUMO

PurposeHearing loss is more prevalent in the Saudi Arabian population than in other populations; however, the full range of genetic etiologies in this population is unknown. We report the genetic findings from 33 Saudi hearing-loss probands of tribal ancestry, with predominantly prelingual severe to profound hearing loss.MethodsTesting was performed over the course of 2012-2016, and involved initial GJB2 sequence and GJB6-D13S1830 deletion screening, with negative cases being reflexed to a next-generation sequencing panel with 70, 71, or 87 hearing-loss genes.ResultsA "positive" result was reached in 63% of probands, with two recurrent OTOF variants (p.Glu57* and p.Arg1792His) accountable for a third of all "positive" cases. The next most common cause was pathogenic variants in MYO7A and SLC26A4, each responsible for three "positive" cases. Interestingly, only one "positive" diagnosis had a DFNB1-related cause, due to a homozygous GJB6-D13S1830 deletion, and no sequence variants in GJB2 were detected.ConclusionOur findings implicate OTOF as a potential major contributor to hearing loss in the Saudi population, while highlighting the low contribution of GJB2, thus offering important considerations for clinical testing strategies for Saudi patients. Further screening of Saudi patients is needed to characterize the genetic spectrum in this population.


Assuntos
Surdez/epidemiologia , Surdez/genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Conexinas/genética , Surdez/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Vigilância da População , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 12(3): 199-204, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435240

RESUMO

The 9p21.3 risk locus is the first locus to be associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD)-related events and many other phenotypes. This locus contains 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a region with multiple long range enhancers and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that affect the expression of neighbouring genes, cyclin-dependent kinase 2A and 2B (CDKN2A and CDKN2B), which are required for controlling vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and ageing. Several studies have attempted to identify the precise mechanism by which this locus exerts its pathogenic effect to increase the risk of CAD-related events. In this review, we will highlight the major advances in our understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation at the mechanistic and phenotypic levels. The high population attributable risk of the 9p21.3 risk locus, mechanistic knowledge acquired thus far, and ongoing research efforts could facilitate the design of novel therapeutic molecules to reduce the risk of CAD and its related events.

19.
J Mol Diagn ; 18(6): 882-889, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27639548

RESUMO

Diagnostic next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based gene panels are increasingly used for prevalent disorders with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Clinical development, validation, and quality management of these panels ideally includes reference samples containing prevalent pathogenic variants; however, clinical domain expertise to select appropriate variants may not be present, samples are often not publicly available, and their inclusion is associated with added cost. Expert-designed, multiplexed controls can remedy some of these challenges. One approach relies on spiking biosynthetic fragments carrying desired variants into human genomic DNA. We piloted the utility of this approach for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Data from >3000 previously sequenced probands were used to select 10 common pathogenic and/or technically challenging variants in the top hypertrophic cardiomyopathy genes. Multiplexed controls were constructed across a range of ideal and realistic allelic fractions for heterozygous germline variants. NGS was performed in quadruplicate, and results were compared with diagnostic NGS data for the source patient samples. Overall, results were indistinguishable from patient-derived data with variants being detected at or reasonably close to the targeted allelic fraction ratios. The exception was a common 25-bp deletion in MYBPC3, underscoring the importance of including such variants in test development. These controls may be an attractive addition to the repertoire of materials for development, validation, and quality monitoring of clinical NGS assays.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Padrões de Referência , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Marcadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Mutação
20.
Circulation ; 132(21): 1969-78, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26487755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism whereby the 9p21.3 locus confers risk for coronary artery disease remains incompletely understood. Risk alleles are associated with reduced expression of the cell cycle suppressor genes CDKN2A (p16 and p14) and CDKN2B (p15) and increased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. We asked whether risk alleles disrupt transcription factor binding to account for this effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bioinformatic screen was used to predict which of 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms at the 9p21.3 locus disrupt (or create) transcription factor binding sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase reporter assays examined the binding and functionality of the predicted regulatory sequences. Primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) were genotyped for 9p21.3, and HAoSMCs homozygous for the risk allele showed reduced p15 and p16 levels and increased proliferation. rs10811656 and rs4977757 disrupted functional TEF-1 TEC1 AbaA domain (TEAD) transcription factor binding sites. TEAD3 and TEAD4 overexpression induced p16 in HAoSMCs homozygous for the nonrisk allele, but not for the risk allele. Transforming growth factor ß, known to activate p16 and also to interact with TEAD factors, failed to induce p16 or to inhibit proliferation of HAoSMCs homozygous for the risk allele. Knockdown of TEAD3 blocked transforming growth factor ß-induced p16 mRNA and protein expression, and dual knockdown of TEAD3 and TEAD4 markedly reduced p16 expression in heterozygous HAoSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we identify a novel mechanism whereby sequences at the 9p21.3 risk locus disrupt TEAD factor binding and TEAD3-dependent transforming growth factor ß induction of p16 in HAoSMCs. This mechanism accounts, in part, for the 9p21.3 coronary artery disease risk.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Aorta/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genes Reporter , Genes p16 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
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