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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 227, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515504

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation due to chronic inflammation is a hypothesized risk factor underlying psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Whether tonsillectomy and acute appendicitis used, respectively, as proxies for chronic and acute inflammation within the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are associated with psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior is currently unknown. A birth cohort study was conducted including 3,052,875 individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 2003. We identified 210,686 individuals ever exposed to tonsillectomy and 86,928 individuals ever exposed to acute appendicitis, as well as 317,214 clusters of siblings discordant for tonsillectomy, and 160,079 sibling clusters discordant for acute appendicitis. Outcomes were an aggregate risk of 'any psychiatric disorder', 'any suicidal behavior', 12 individual psychiatric disorders, suicide attempts and deaths by suicide. Tonsillectomy was associated with increased odds of 'any psychiatric disorder' (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-1.41) and 'any suicidal behavior' (aOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.37-1.44), and most individual disorders. Acute appendicitis also increased the odds of 'any psychiatric disorder' and 'any suicidal behavior' (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.20-1.25, and aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.28-1.37, respectively). Exposure to both tonsillectomy and appendicitis was associated with the highest odds of 'any psychiatric disorder' (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.59-1.82) and 'any suicidal behavior' (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.70-2.12). In sibling comparisons, the associations were attenuated but remained significant. We conclude that inflammation within the MALT, particularly when chronic, is robustly associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13101, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511586

RESUMO

To evaluate associations between maternal anxiety or depression and adverse pregnancy outcomes, taking possible familial confounding and interaction with asthma into account, we conducted a cohort study of all singleton births in Sweden 2001-2013. We retrieved information about pregnancy, diagnoses of anxiety/depression, asthma, and prescribed medication from the Swedish Medical Birth, National Patient, and Prescribed Drug Registers. We estimated associations with regression models, performed cousin and sibling comparisons, and calculated interactions. In 950 301 identified pregnancies; 5.9% had anxiety/depression and 4.0% had asthma. Anxiety/depression was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g. preeclampsia, adjusted Odds Ratio 1.17 (95% Confidence Interval 1.12, 1.22), instrumental delivery (1.14 (1.10, 1.18)), elective (1.62 (1.57, 1.68)) and emergency (1.32 (1.28, 1.35)) caesarean section (CS)). Their children had lower birth weight (-54 g (-59, -49)) and shorter gestational age (-0.29 weeks (-0.31, -0.28)). Associations were not confounded by familial factors and asthma did not modify the effect of anxiety/depression for outcomes other than elective CS, p < 0.001. In women with anxiety/depression diagnosis, untreated women had higher odds of elective CS compared to women on medication (1.30 (1.17, 1.43)). In conclusion, anxiety/depression should be considered when evaluating pregnant women's risk of complications such as preeclampsia and non-vaginal deliveries.

4.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424531

RESUMO

Importance: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with psychiatric morbidity in adults, although previous studies have not accounted for familial confounding. In children, IBD has an even more severe course, but the association between childhood-onset IBD and psychiatric morbidity remains unclear. Objective: To examine the risk of psychiatric morbidity in individuals with childhood-onset IBD, controlling for potential confounding shared between siblings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Swedish national health care and population registers of all children younger than 18 years born from 1973 to 2013. The study included 6464 individuals with a diagnosis of childhood-onset IBD (3228 with ulcerative colitis, 2536 with Crohn disease, and 700 with IBD unclassified) who were compared with 323 200 matched reference individuals from the general population and 6999 siblings of patients with IBD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 1973, to December 1, 2013. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was any psychiatric disorder and suicide attempt. Secondary outcomes were the following specific psychiatric disorders: psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, personality, and behavioral disorders; substance misuse; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; autism spectrum disorders; and intellectual disability. Results: The study included 6464 individuals with a diagnosis of childhood-onset IBD (2831 girls and 3633 boys; mean [SD] age at diagnosis of IBD, 13 [4] years). During a median follow-up time of 9 years, 1117 individuals with IBD (17.3%) received a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder (incidence rate, 17.1 per 1000 person-years), compared with 38 044 of 323 200 individuals (11.8%) in the general population (incidence rate, 11.2 per 1000 person-years), corresponding to an HR of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.5-1.7), equaling 1 extra case of any psychiatric disorder per 170 person-years. Inflammatory bowel disease was significantly associated with suicide attempt (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) as well as mood disorders (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.7), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0) eating disorders (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0), personality disorders (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4), and autism spectrum disorders (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7) Results were similar for boys and girls. Hazard ratios for any psychiatric disorder were highest in the first year of follow-up but remained statistically significant after more than 5 years. Psychiatric disorders were particularly common for patients with very early-onset IBD (<6 years) and for patients with a parental psychiatric history. Results were largely confirmed by sibling comparison, with similar estimates noted for any psychiatric disorder (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.8) and suicide attempt (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). Conclusions and Relevance: Overall, childhood-onset IBD was associated with psychiatric morbidity, confirmed by between-sibling results. Particularly concerning is the increased risk of suicide attempt, suggesting that long-term psychological support be considered for patients with childhood-onset IBD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393570

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a relatively common monogenic recessive disorder. It has been suggested that CYP21A2 deficiency is relatively common because carriers may have a survival advantage, 1/15,000 in most populations. Carriers of CYP21A2 mutations typically do not have clinical symptoms but have a defined phenotype with a more prompt cortisol response to ACTH. OBJECTIVE: We investigated if the mortality was lower, and the cause of death in carriers and population controls. DESIGN: A total of 1,143 (561 men) obligate carriers of a CYP21A2 mutation were identified using the Swedish National CAH Registry encompassing more than 700 CAH patients and the Multi-Generation Registry to identify their parents. The mortality and cause of death was identified through the Swedish Cause of Death Registry. The Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated. The results were compared with controls from the general population, matched for sex and age. RESULTS: The overall mortality was lower in carriers of a CYP21A2 mutation compared to the controls (HR 0.79; 95%CI 0.678-0.917; p=0.002). The difference was more marked among carriers of a classic, more severe mutation. Infection as the cause of death was significantly lower (HR 0.65; 95%CI 0.48-0.87; p<0.01). In particular for death in pneumonia was seen (HR 0.22;95%CI 0.06-0.88; p=0.03). The lower overall mortality among women compared to men in the general population was confirmed in our study, both among the carriers and the controls. CONCLUSION: Obligate CYP21A2 carriers of a classic mutation had a reduced mortality. Specifically, a possible reduced mortality due to pneumonia was seen.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0214180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations of individual antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with pregnancy duration and size at birth, and potential dose relations, are not well characterized. METHODS: This cohort study used nationwide Swedish register data (1996-2013). Adjusting for smoking, epilepsy and other AED indications, we used linear and quantile regression to explore associations with pregnancy duration, and birth weight, length, and head circumference (the last three operationalized as z-scores). We used logistic regression for preterm delivery, small for gestational age, and microcephaly. Lamotrigine was the reference drug. RESULTS: 6,720 infants were exposed to AEDs in utero; AED exposure increased over the study period. Relative to lamotrigine-exposed infants, carbamazepine-exposed infants were born, on average, 1.3 days earlier (mean [95% confidence interval]: -1.3 [-2.3 to -0.3]); were 0.1 standard deviations (SDs) lighter (-0.1 [-0.2 to 0.0]); and had a head circumference that was 0.2 SDs smaller (-0.2 [-0.3 to -0.1]). Pregabalin-exposed infants were born, on average, 1.1 days earlier (-1.1 [-3.0 to 0.8]); were 0.1 SDs lighter (-0.1 [-0.3 to 0.0]); and had the same head circumference as lamotrigine-exposed infants. Levetiracetam-exposed infants were born, on average, 0.5 days earlier (-0.5 [-2.6 to 1.6]); were 0.1 SDs lighter (-0.1 [-0.3 to 0.0]); and had a head circumference 0.1 SDs smaller (-0.1 [-0.3 to 0.1]). Valproic acid-exposed infants had, on average, the same duration of gestation and birth weight z-score as lamotrigine-exposed infants, but had a head circumference 0.2 SDs smaller (-0.2 [-0.2 to -0.1]). Associations between carbamazepine exposure and pregnancy duration and between valproic acid exposure and pregnancy duration and birth weight z-score were more negative at the left than at the right tails of the outcome distributions. Effect-measure modification and dose-response relations were noted for some of the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to lamotrigine, valproic acid and carbamazepine were associated with smaller head circumference.

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(8): 577-586, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs) frequently co-occur, little is known about the shared etiology. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the genetic association between ADHD and various EDs, including anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs such as bulimia nervosa. METHODS: We applied different genetically informative designs to register-based information of a Swedish nationwide population (N = 3,550,118). We first examined the familial coaggregation of clinically diagnosed ADHD and EDs across multiple types of relatives. We then applied quantitative genetic modeling in full-sisters and maternal half-sisters to estimate the genetic correlations between ADHD and EDs. We further tested the associations between ADHD polygenic risk scores and ED symptoms, and between AN polygenic risk scores and ADHD symptoms, in a genotyped population-based sample (N = 13,472). RESULTS: Increased risk of all types of EDs was found in individuals with ADHD (any ED: odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.81, 4.14; AN: OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.15, 2.86; other EDs: OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 4.47, 4.87; bulimia nervosa: OR = 5.01, 95% CI = 4.63, 5.41) and their relatives compared with individuals without ADHD and their relatives. The magnitude of the associations decreased as the degree of relatedness decreased, suggesting shared familial liability between ADHD and EDs. Quantitative genetic models revealed stronger genetic correlation of ADHD with other EDs (.37, 95% CI = .31, .42) than with AN (.14, 95% CI = .05, .22). ADHD polygenic risk scores correlated positively with ED symptom measures overall and with the subscales Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction despite small effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed stronger genetic association with ADHD for non-AN EDs than for AN, highlighting specific genetic correlation beyond a general genetic factor across psychiatric disorders.

8.
Clin Lab ; 65(7)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin is widely used as a marker for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). IBD often affects women during their reproductive years, but there are no established reference intervals during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to define reference values during pregnancy and in the postpartum period to allow comparisons between patient results and reference values. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 84 healthy females during pregnancy week 26 to 28 and a second sample was collected six months after delivery. The samples were weighed, extracted, and centrifugated to remove debris. The extracted samples were then analyzed on a chemistry analyzer using a particle enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay reagent. RESULTS: The calculated reference interval during pregnancy was < 127 µg/g (90% confidence interval, 90 - 164 µg/g) and the corresponding reference interval during the postpartum period was < 143 µg/g (60 - 226 µg/g). There were no significant statistical differences between F-calprotectin values analyzed at the two sampling times. CONCLUSIONS: The reference values are slightly higher than the cutoff values of 50 - 100 µg/g often used as General cutoff for fecal calprotectin.

9.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(8): 1109-1116, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our aim was to study the association between sibship and dispensing patterns of asthma medication in young children, focusing on incidence and persistence, and taking sibship status, asthma diagnoses, and siblings' medication into account. METHODS: A register-based cohort study including all children (n = 50 546) born in Stockholm, Sweden 2006 to 2007, followed up during 2006 to 2014. Exposure was sibling status; outcome was incidence of dispensed asthma medication and persistence over time. A Cox model was used to study the association between sibship and asthma medication. Persistence was defined using two different time windows (4 and 18 months) in a refill sequence model including siblings' and unrelated control children's medication. RESULTS: After 1 year of age, the adjusted hazard ratio of dispensed asthma medication was 0.85 (95% CI 0.80-0.90) among children with siblings compared with singletons. The estimated proportion of children with persistent controller medication was 7.2% (4-month model) and 64.5% (18-month model). When including the siblings' controller medication, the estimated proportion was 8.8% (4 months) and 7.8% for control children (relative risk (RR) 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98). The persistence was lower for those with siblings compared with singletons (adj. RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.62-0.85 for 4 months) with similar estimates for older, younger, and full siblings and regardless of asthma diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Siblings have different dispensing patterns of asthma medications compared with singletons regardless of asthma diagnoses. After including the siblings' asthma medication and compared with control children, the proportion of children with persistent medication increased which may indicate that siblings share asthma medications.

10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 224, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacotherapy is effective in reducing the core symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to investigate the concurrent association between pharmacotherapy for ADHD in offspring and depression-related specialty care visits by the parents with a history of depression. METHODS: Using data from a variety of Swedish national registers, we conducted a cohort study with 8-year follow-up of 5605 parents (3872 mothers and 1733 fathers) who had a history of depression and an offspring diagnosed with ADHD. The hazard rate for parental depression-related specialty care visits during exposed periods when the offspring was on medication for treatment of ADHD was compared with the hazard rate during unexposed periods when the offspring was off medication. Within-individual comparisons were employed to control for time-constant confounding factors. RESULTS: Among mothers, the crude rates of depression-related specialty care visits during exposed and unexposed periods were 61.33 and 63.95 per 100 person-years, respectively. The corresponding rates among fathers were 49.23 and 54.65 per 100 person-years. When the same parent was compared with him or herself, fathers showed a decreased hazard rate for depression-related visits during exposed periods when the offspring was on medication for treatment of ADHD as compared to unexposed periods (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.90]). No statistically significant associations were observed in mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Among parents with a history of depression, pharmacotherapy for ADHD in offspring is concurrently associated with a decreased rate of depression-related specialty care visits in fathers but not in mothers. Future research with refined measures of parental depression and other time-varying familial factors is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the association.

11.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 125(4): 360-369, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188534

RESUMO

In 2016, all prescription drugs included in the reimbursement system in Sweden were made available for children (age 0-17 years) without any patient fees. Our aim was to estimate the association between this intervention and the dispensing patterns of asthma medications among children. Dispensing data on asthma medications for all children living in Stockholm County during 2014-2017 were selected to include two years before (January 2014-December 2015) and after (January 2016-December 2017) the intervention. In an uncontrolled before and after study, the measures of utilization were as follows: the proportion of children with at least one dispensed asthma medication (prevalence); the number of children initiated on treatment after an 18-month drug-free period (incidence); the number of defined daily doses (DDDs) dispensed per child; and the number of children with at least two prescriptions with controller medication (inhaled corticosteroid or leukotriene receptor antagonist) dispensed during 18 months (persistence). In an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis, all measures were included except for persistence. Socio-economic status was defined using Mosaic data. The prevalence increased after the intervention (from 11.9% to 13.0%). However, the ITS analysis showed a positive trend already before the intervention, and consequently, the increase was not attributable to the intervention. For incidence, similar patterns were observed. There was an increase in dispensed volumes related to the intervention, 46.3 DDDs/child/month before and 51.1 after the intervention (P-value 0.01). The proportion of children with persistent asthma medication increased from 46.0% to 51.9% in children with low socio-economic status. In conclusion, the intervention was only modestly associated with changes in the dispensing patterns of asthma medication, with the volume dispensed per child increasing slightly, particularly in children with low socio-economic status.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 665-684, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929738

RESUMO

The extent to which genetic risk factors are shared between childhood-onset (COA) and adult-onset (AOA) asthma has not been estimated. On the basis of data from the UK Biobank study (n = 447,628), we found that the variance in disease liability explained by common variants is higher for COA (onset at ages between 0 and 19 years; h2g = 25.6%) than for AOA (onset at ages between 20 and 60 years; h2g = 10.6%). The genetic correlation (rg) between COA and AOA was 0.67. Variation in age of onset among COA-affected individuals had a low heritability (h2g = 5%), which we confirmed in independent studies and also among AOA-affected individuals. To identify subtype-specific genetic associations, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the UK Biobank for COA (13,962 affected individuals) and a separate GWAS for AOA (26,582 affected individuals) by using a common set of 300,671 controls for both studies. We identified 123 independent associations for COA and 56 for AOA (37 overlapped); of these, 98 and 34, respectively, were reproducible in an independent study (n = 262,767). Collectively, 28 associations were not previously reported. For 96 COA-associated variants, including five variants that represent COA-specific risk factors, the risk allele was more common in COA- than in AOA-affected individuals. Conversely, we identified three variants that are stronger risk factors for AOA. Variants associated with obesity and smoking had a stronger contribution to the risk of AOA than to the risk of COA. Lastly, we identified 109 likely target genes of the associated variants, primarily on the basis of correlated expression quantitative trait loci (up to n = 31,684). GWAS informed by age of onset can identify subtype-specific risk variants, which can help us understand differences in pathophysiology between COA and AOA and so can be informative for drug development.

13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(5): 855-865, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions. METHODS: A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling. RESULTS: Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Thereafter, higher parental education level was associated with lower BMI in males and females. Total and additive genetic variances of BMI were smaller in the offspring of highly educated parents than in those whose parents had low education levels. Especially in North American and Australian children, environmental factors shared by co-twins also contributed to the higher BMI variation in the low education level category. In Europe and East Asia, the associations of parental education with mean BMI and BMI variance were weaker than in North America and Australia. CONCLUSIONS: Lower parental education level is associated with higher mean BMI and larger genetic variance of BMI after early childhood, especially in the obesogenic macro-environment. The interplay among genetic predisposition, childhood social environment, and macro-social context is important for socioeconomic differences in BMI.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956207

RESUMO

Depression, anxiety and high neuroticism (affective traits) are often comorbid with asthma. A causal direction between the affective traits and asthma is difficult to determine; however, there may be a common underlying pathway attributable to shared genetic factors. Our aim was to determine whether a common genetic susceptibility exists for asthma and each of the affective traits.An adult cohort from the Swedish Twin Registry underwent questionnaire-based health assessments (n=23 693) and genotyping (n=15 908). Firstly, questionnaire-based associations between asthma and affective traits were explored. This was followed by genetic analyses: 1) polygenic risk scores (PRS) for affective traits were used as predictors of asthma in the cohort, and 2) genome-wide association results from UK Biobank were used in linkage-disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) to quantify genetic correlations between asthma and affective traits. Analyses found associations between questionnaire-based asthma and affective traits (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.50-1.86 major depression; OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.30-1.61 anxiety; and OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.40-1.82 high neuroticism). Genetic susceptibility for neuroticism explained the variance in asthma with a dose-response effect; that is, study participants in the highest neuroticism PRS quartile were more likely to have asthma than those in the lowest quartile (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17-1.61). Genetic correlations were found between depression and asthma (rg=0.17), but not for anxiety or neuroticism.We conclude that the observed comorbidity between asthma and the affective traits may in part be due to shared genetic influences between asthma and depression (LDSC) and neuroticism (PRS), but not anxiety.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880281

RESUMO

Many epidemiological studies have reported a positive association between prenatal exposure to paracetamol and childhood wheezing and asthma. We investigated whether the link between prenatal analgesic exposure and asthma/wheeze is specific to paracetamol, and whether it is causal or confounded.Using linked Swedish health register data we investigated the relation between various prescribed analgesics in pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma/wheeze in a population of 492 999, and used negative paternal control and sibling comparison approaches to explore unmeasured confounding.After controlling for potential confounders, prescribed opioids, antimigraine drugs and paracetamol were all positively associated with childhood asthma/wheeze risk at all ages (e.g. for asthma/wheeze at age 4 years: adjusted OR 1.39 (95% CI 1.30-1.49), 1.19 (95% CI 1.01-1.40) and 1.47 (95% CI 1.36-1.59) for opioids, antimigraine drugs and paracetamol, respectively). The results of the paternal control analysis did not suggest the presence of unmeasured confounding by genetics or shared environment. However, the sibling control analysis broadly suggested that associations between prenatal exposure to the analgesics and asthma/wheeze were confounded by specific maternal factors (e.g. for asthma/wheeze at age 4 years: adjusted OR 0.91 (95% CI 0.62-1.31), 0.50 (95% CI 0.17-1.45) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.50-1.29) for opioids, antimigraine drugs and paracetamol, respectively).We propose that analgesic use in pregnancy does not cause childhood asthma/wheeze and that the association is confounded by unmeasured factors that are intrinsic to the mother, such as chronic pain or anxiety.

17.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences. METHODS: A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Tourette's disorder and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). PCOS-exposed offspring (n = 21 280) were compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring (n = 200 816) and PCOS-unexposed cousins (n = 17 295). Associations were estimated with stratified Cox regression models. RESULTS: PCOS-exposed offspring had increased risk of being diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, and TD/CTD compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring. Associations were stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD but not TD/CTD [ADHD: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.99), ASD: aHR = 2.02 (95% CI 1.45-2.82)] than boys [ADHD: aHR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.19-1.57), ASD: aHR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.21-1.76)]. For ADHD and ASD, aHRs for girls were stronger when compared with PCOS-unexposed cousins, but slightly attenuated for boys. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates were similar when accounting for familial confounding (i.e. genetics and environmental factors shared by cousins) and stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD, potentially indicating a differential influence of prenatal androgen exposure v. genetic factors. These results strengthen evidence for a potential causal influence of prenatal androgen exposure on the development of male-predominant neuropsychiatric disorders in female offspring of women with PCOS.

18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(5): 536-543, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725083

RESUMO

Importance: It is unclear if the associations between fetal growth and later mental health conditions remain after controlling for familial factors and psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: To examine the associations between fetal growth and general and specific mental health conditions, controlling for familial factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This register-based study conducted in Sweden analyzed 546 894 pairs of full siblings born between January 1, 1973, and December 31, 1998. Sibling pairs were followed up through December 31, 2013. First, population-based and within-sibling pair associations (which controlled for time-invariant familial confounders) between fetal growth and the outcomes were estimated. Second, exploratory factor analysis was applied to the outcomes to derive 1 general factor and 4 specific and independent factors. Third, the general and specific factors were regressed on fetal growth. Statistical analysis was performed from March 27, 2017, to October 27, 2018. Main Outcome and Measures: The outcomes were 11 psychiatric diagnoses (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol abuse, drug use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder) and court convictions of violent crimes. Birth weight (in kilograms) statistically adjusted for gestational age was the exposure. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 1 093 788 participants was 27.2 (6.8) years (range, 15.1-40.9 years) and 51.5% were male. Nine outcomes were significantly associated with birth weight in the population at large: depression (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98), anxiety (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.95), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.93), bipolar disorder (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-1.00), alcohol abuse (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87-0.91), drug use (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80-0.85), violent crimes (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.83-0.86), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.90), and autism (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). Only depression (OR, 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.89), and autism (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.69-0.76) remained significantly associated within sibling pairs. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that 1 general and 4 specific factors (capturing anxiety, externalizing, neurodevelopmental, and psychotic conditions) fit the outcomes well. Across almost all sensitivity analyses, an increase in birth weight by 1 kg significantly reduced the general (ß, -0.047; 95% CI, -0.071 to -0.023) and the specific neurodevelopmental factors (ß, -0.159; 95% CI, -0.190 to -0.128) within sibling pairs. Conclusions and Relevance: Controlling for familial confounders, reduced fetal growth was associated with a small but significant increase in the general factor of psychopathology and a moderate increase in a specific neurodevelopmental factor.

19.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(6): 883-891, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between parental asthma and prenatal exposure to asthma medications with offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. However, the associations might be confounded by unmeasured (genetic and shared environmental) familial factors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between (a) maternal/paternal asthma and offspring ASD, and (b) prenatal exposures to ß2-agonists, other asthma medications and offspring ASD using cases and controls selected from the population as well as biological relatives with different degrees of relatedness. METHODS: We included all children (N = 1 579 263) born in Sweden 1992-2007. A nested case-control design was used to compare 22 894 ASD cases identified from the National Patient Register to (a) 228 940 age-, county- and sex-matched controls randomly selected from the population, (b) their eligible full-siblings (n = 1267), (c) half-siblings (n = 1323), (d) full-cousins (n = 11 477) and (e) half-cousins (n = 3337). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ASD in children differentially exposed to parental asthma or prenatal asthma medications. RESULTS: Maternal asthma was associated with increased risk of offspring ASD (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.38-1.49); there was a weaker association for paternal asthma (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.23). The risk of offspring ASD in mothers with asthma showed similar estimates when adjusting for shared familial factors among paternal half-siblings (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.80-1.81), full-cousins (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.16-1.41) and half-cousins (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.10-1.54), albeit with wider confidence intervals. Prenatal exposure to asthma medications among subjects whose mothers had asthma was not associated with subsequent ASD. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In this large observational study, parental asthma was associated with slightly elevated risk of ASD in offspring. More specifically, the increased risk by maternal asthma did not seem to be confounded by familial factors. There was no evidence of an association between asthma medications during pregnancy and offspring ASD.

20.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(6): 892-899, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over a fifth of children and adolescents suffer with asthma or atopic disease. It is unclear whether asthma impacts academic performance in children and adolescents, and little is known about the association of eczema, food allergy or hayfever and academic performance. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether asthma, eczema, food allergy or hayfever impacts on adolescent academic performance and to assess the role of unmeasured confounding. METHODS: This study used the Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study of Sweden cohort born 1992-1998. At age 9-12 years, parents reported on their child's ever or current asthma, eczema, food allergy and hayfever status (n = 10 963). At age 15, linked national patient and medication register information was used to create current and ever asthma definitions including severe and uncontrolled asthma for the same children. Academic outcomes in Grade 9 (age 15-16 years) included: eligibility for high school (Grades 10-12), and total mark of the best 16 subject units, retrieved from the Grade 9 academic register. Whole cohort analyses adjusted for known covariates were performed, and co-twin control analyses to assess unmeasured confounders. RESULTS: There were no associations found for asthma or food allergy at 9-12 years and academic outcomes in adolescence. In addition, at age 15, there were no statistically significant associations with current, ever, severe or uncontrolled asthma and academic outcomes. Eczema and hayfever at age 9-12 years were found to be positively associated with academic outcomes; however, co-twin control analyses did not support these findings, suggesting the main analyses may be subject to unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Having asthma or an atopic disease during childhood or adolescence does not negatively impact on academic performance. This information can be used by clinicians when talking with children and parents about the implications of living with asthma or atopic disease.

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