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1.
Langmuir ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097015

RESUMO

We report methods to synthesize sub-micron- and micron-sized patchy silica particles with fluorescently labeled hemispherical titania protrusions, as well as routes to efficiently characterize these particles and self-assemble these particles into non-close-packed structures. The synthesis methods expand upon earlier work in the literature, in which silica particles packed in a colloidal crystal were surface-patterned with a silane coupling agent. Here, hemispherical amorphous titania protrusions were successfully labeled with fluorescent dyes, allowing for imaging by confocal microscopy and super-resolution techniques. Confocal microscopy was exploited to experimentally determine the numbers of protrusions per particle over large numbers of particles for good statistical significance, and these distributions were compared to simulations predicting the number of patches as a function of core particle polydispersity and maximum separation between the particle surfaces. We self-assembled these patchy particles into open percolating gel networks by exploiting solvophobic attractions between the protrusions.

2.
Nature ; 558(7708): 100-103, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849144

RESUMO

Water directs the self-assembly of both natural1,2 and synthetic3-9 molecules to form precise yet dynamic structures. Nevertheless, our molecular understanding of the role of water in such systems is incomplete, which represents a fundamental constraint in the development of supramolecular materials for use in biomaterials, nanoelectronics and catalysis 10 . In particular, despite the widespread use of alkanes as solvents in supramolecular chemistry11,12, the role of water in the formation of aggregates in oils is not clear, probably because water is only sparingly miscible in these solvents-typical alkanes contain less than 0.01 per cent water by weight at room temperature 13 . A notable and unused feature of this water is that it is essentially monomeric 14 . It has been determined previously 15 that the free energy cost of forming a cavity in alkanes that is large enough for a water molecule is only just compensated by its interaction with the interior of the cavity; this cost is therefore too high to accommodate clusters of water. As such, water molecules in alkanes possess potential enthalpic energy in the form of unrealized hydrogen bonds. Here we report that this energy is a thermodynamic driving force for water molecules to interact with co-dissolved hydrogen-bond-based aggregates in oils. By using a combination of spectroscopic, calorimetric, light-scattering and theoretical techniques, we demonstrate that this interaction can be exploited to modulate the structure of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(23): 7168-7175, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733207

RESUMO

Supramolecular block copolymers are becoming attractive materials in nascent optoelectronic and catalytic technologies. However, their dynamic nature precludes the straightforward tuning and analysis of the polymer's structure. Here we report the elucidation on the microstructure of triarylamine triamide-based supramolecular block copolymers through a comprehensive battery of spectroscopic, theoretical, and super-resolution microscopic techniques. Via spectroscopic analysis we demonstrate that the direct mixing of preassembled homopolymers and the copolymerization induced by slow cooling of monomers lead to the formation of the same copolymer's architecture. The small but pronounced deviation of the experimental spectra from the linear combination of the homopolymers' spectra hints at the formation of block copolymers. A mass balance model is introduced to further unravel the microstructure of the copolymers formed, and it confirms that stable multiblock supramolecular copolymers can be accessed from different routes. The multiblock structure of the supramolecular copolymers originates from the fine balance between favorable hydrogen-bonding interactions and a small mismatch penalty between two different monomers. Finally, we visualized the formation of the supramolecular block copolymers by adapting a recently developed super-resolution microscopy technique, interface point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (iPAINT), for visualizing the architectures formed in organic media. Combining multiple techniques was crucial to unveil the microstructure of these complex dynamic supramolecular systems.

4.
ACS Nano ; 12(5): 4431-4439, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697958

RESUMO

Despite the rapid development of complex functional supramolecular systems, visualization of these architectures under native conditions at high resolution has remained a challenging endeavor. Super-resolution microscopy was recently proposed as an effective tool to unveil one-dimensional nanoscale structures in aqueous media upon chemical functionalization with suitable fluorescent probes. Building upon our previous work, which enabled photoactivation localization microscopy in organic solvents, herein, we present the imaging of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers in their native environment by interface point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (iPAINT). The noncovalent staining, typical of iPAINT, allows the investigation of supramolecular polymers' structure in situ without any chemical modification. The quasi-permanent adsorption of the dye to the polymer is exploited to identify block-like arrangements within supramolecular fibers, which were obtained upon mixing homopolymers that were prestained with different colors. The staining of the blocks, maintained by the lack of exchange of the dyes, permits the imaging of complex structures for multiple days. This study showcases the potential of PAINT-like strategies such as iPAINT to visualize multicomponent dynamic systems in their native environment with an easy, synthesis-free approach and high spatial resolution.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(9): 2953-6, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26885701

RESUMO

The introduction of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRM) opened an unprecedented vista into nanoscopic length scales, unveiling a new degree of complexity in biological systems in aqueous environments. Regrettably, supramolecular chemistry and material science benefited far less from these recent developments. Here we expand the scope of SRM to photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) imaging of synthetic nanostructures that are highly dynamic in organic solvents. Furthermore, we characterize the photophysical properties of commonly used photoactivatable dyes in a wide range of solvents, which is made possible by the addition of a tiny amount of an alcohol. As proof-of-principle, we use PALM to image silica beads with radii close to Abbe's diffraction limit. Individual nanoparticles are readily identified and reliably sized in multicolor mixtures of large and small beads. We further use SRM to visualize nm-thin yet µm-long dynamic, supramolecular polymers, which are among the most challenging molecular systems to image.

6.
Biointerphases ; 11(1): 018906, 2016 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787386

RESUMO

Ice binding proteins (IBPs) are produced by various cold-adapted organisms to protect their body tissues against freeze damage. First discovered in Antarctic fish living in shallow waters, IBPs were later found in insects, microorganisms, and plants. Despite great structural diversity, all IBPs adhere to growing ice crystals, which is essential for their extensive repertoire of biological functions. Some IBPs maintain liquid inclusions within ice or inhibit recrystallization of ice, while other types suppress freezing by blocking further ice growth. In contrast, ice nucleating proteins stimulate ice nucleation just below 0 °C. Despite huge commercial interest and major scientific breakthroughs, the precise working mechanism of IBPs has not yet been unraveled. In this review, the authors outline the state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical IBP research and discuss future scientific challenges. The interaction of IBPs with ice, water and ions is examined, focusing in particular on ice growth inhibition mechanisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Gelo , Íons/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Moleculares , Plantas
7.
Biomed Opt Express ; 6(10): 4000-13, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26504649

RESUMO

An ultrafast investigation is carried out on synthetic eumelanin suspended either in water or in DMSO-methanol. Upon photoexcitation by visible femtosecond pulses, the transient absorption (TA) dynamics of the suspensions are probed in a broad visible spectral range, showing clear nonlinearities. The latter arise from pump-probe interactions that induce the inverse Raman scattering (IRS) effect. We show how eumelanin TA dynamics are modified in proximity of the solvent Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering peaks, demonstrating that IRS affects the sign of TA but not the relaxation times. We compare the results obtained in both suspensions, unveiling the role of the surrounding environment. Eventually, the intrinsic response of synthetic eumelanin to ultrafast photoexcitation is evaluated.

8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 42(1): 184-92, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25449383

RESUMO

Infectious diseases and breeding conditions can influence fish health status. Furthermore it is well known that human and animal health are strongly correlated. In lower vertebrates melano-macrophage centres, clusters of pigment-containing cells forming the extracutaneous pigment system, are widespread in the stroma of the haemopoietic tissue, mainly in kidney and spleen. In fishes, melano-macrophage centres play an important role in the immune response against antigenic stimulants and pathogens. Hence, they are employed as biomarker of fish health status. We have investigated this cell system in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) following the enzyme activities involved in melanin biosynthesis. We have found a possible relationship between kidney disease of farmed fishes and dopa oxidase activity level, suggesting it as an indicator of kidney disease. Moreover variations of dopa oxidase activity in extracutaneous pigment system have been observed with respect to environmental temperature. At last, for the first time, using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (Femto-TA), we pointed out that pigment-containing cells of fish kidney tissue present melanin pigments.


Assuntos
Bass , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/enzimologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Nefrocalcinose/veterinária , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Aquicultura , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Melaninas/biossíntese , Nefrocalcinose/enzimologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
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