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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053350

RESUMO

Micron-sized lasers fabricated from upconverting nanoparticles (UCNP) coupled to whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators can exhibit continuous-wave anti-Stokes lasing useful for tracking cells, environmental sensing, and coherent stimulation of biological activity. The integration of these microlasers into organisms and microelectronics requires even smaller diameters, however, which raises threshold pump powers beyond practical limits for biological applications. To meet the need for low lasing thresholds and high fidelity fabrication methods, we use correlative optical and electron microscopy to uncover the nanoparticle assembly process and structural factors that determine efficient upconverted lasing. We show that 5 µm microspheres with controlled submonolayer UCNP coatings exhibit, on average, 25-fold lower laser thresholds (1.7 ± 0.7 kW/cm2) compared to the mean values of the lowest threshold UCNP lasers, and variability is reduced 30-fold. WGMs are observed in the upconversion spectra for TiO2-coated microspheres as small as 3 µm, a size at which optical losses had previously prevented such observations. Finally, we demonstrate that the WGM signatures of these upconverting microlasers can be imaged and distinguished through tissue-mimicking phantoms. These advances will enable the fabrication of more efficient upconverting lasers for imaging, sensing, and actuation in optically complex environments.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 076801, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491121

RESUMO

Structural defects in 2D materials offer an effective way to engineer new material functionalities beyond conventional doping. We report on the direct experimental correlation of the atomic and electronic structure of a sulfur vacancy in monolayer WS_{2} by a combination of CO-tip noncontact atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Sulfur vacancies, which are absent in as-grown samples, were deliberately created by annealing in vacuum. Two energetically narrow unoccupied defect states followed by vibronic sidebands provide a unique fingerprint of this defect. Direct imaging of the defect orbitals, together with ab initio GW calculations, reveal that the large splitting of 252±4 meV between these defect states is induced by spin-orbit coupling.

3.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10520-10534, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393700

RESUMO

Control of impurity concentrations in semiconducting materials is essential to device technology. Because of their intrinsic confinement, the properties of two-dimensional semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are more sensitive to defects than traditional bulk materials. The technological adoption of TMDs is dependent on the mitigation of deleterious defects and guided incorporation of functional foreign atoms. The first step toward impurity control is the identification of defects and assessment of their electronic properties. Here, we present a comprehensive study of point defects in monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) grown by chemical vapor deposition using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, CO-tip noncontact atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force spectroscopy, density functional theory, and tight-binding calculations. We observe four different substitutional defects: chromium (CrW) and molybdenum (MoW) at a tungsten site, oxygen at sulfur sites in both top and bottom layers (OS top/bottom), and two negatively charged defects (CD type I and CD type II). Their electronic fingerprints unambiguously corroborate the defect assignment and reveal the presence or absence of in-gap defect states. CrW forms three deep unoccupied defect states, two of which arise from spin-orbit splitting. The formation of such localized trap states for CrW differs from the MoW case and can be explained by their different d shell energetics and local strain, which we directly measured. Utilizing a tight-binding model the electronic spectra of the isolectronic substitutions OS and CrW are mimicked in the limit of a zero hopping term and infinite on-site energy at a S and W site, respectively. The abundant CDs are negatively charged, which leads to a significant band bending around the defect and a local increase of the contact potential difference. In addition, CD-rich domains larger than 100 nm are observed, causing a work function increase of 1.1 V. While most defects are electronically isolated, we also observed hybrid states formed between CrW dimers. The important role of charge localization, spin-orbit coupling, and strain for the formation of deep defect states observed at substitutional defects in WS2 as reported here will guide future efforts of targeted defect engineering and doping of TMDs.

4.
Nanoscale ; 11(36): 16801-16809, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469380

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms behind crystal nucleation and growth is a fundamental requirement for the design and production of bespoke nanomaterials with controlled sizes and morphologies. Herein, we select gold (Au) nanoparticles as the model system for our study due to their representative applications in biology, electronics and optoelectronics. We investigate the radiation-induced in situ growth of gold (Au) particles using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) and study the growth kinetics of non-spherical Au structures. Under controlled electron fluence, liquid flow rate and Au3+ ion supply, we show the favoured diffusion-limited growth of multi-twinned nascent Au seed particles into branched structures when using thin liquid cells (100 nm and 250 nm) in LCTEM, whereas faceted structures (e.g., spheres, rods, and prisms) formed when using a 1 µm thick liquid cell. In addition, we observed that anisotropic Au growth could be modulated by Au-binding amyloid fibrils, which we ascribe to their capability to regulate Au3+ ion diffusion and mass transfer in solution. We anticipate that this study will provide new perspectives on the shape-controlled synthesis of anisotropic metallic nanomaterials using LCTEM.

5.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357733

RESUMO

As one of the highest mobility semiconductor materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively studied for use in field effect transistors (FETs). To fabricate surround-gate FETs- which offer the best switching performance-deposition of conformal, weakly-interacting dielectric layers is necessary. This is challenging due to the chemically inert surface of CNTs and a lack of nucleation sites-especially for defect-free CNTs. As a result, a technique that enables integration of uniform high-k dielectrics, while preserving the CNT's exceptional properties is required. In this work, we show a method that enables conformal atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-k dielectrics on defect-free CNTs. By depositing a thin Ti metal film, followed by oxidation to TiO2 under ambient conditions, a nucleation layer is formed for subsequent ALD deposition of Al2O3. The technique is easy to implement and is VLSI-compatible. We show that the ALD coatings are uniform, continuous and conformal, and Raman spectroscopy reveals that the technique does not induce defects in the CNT. The resulting bilayer TiO2/Al2O3 thin-film shows an improved dielectric constant of 21.7 and an equivalent oxide thickness of 2.7 nm. The electrical properties of back-gated and top-gated devices fabricated using this method are presented.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3382, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358753

RESUMO

Chalcogen vacancies are generally considered to be the most common point defects in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors because of their low formation energy in vacuum and their frequent observation in transmission electron microscopy studies. Consequently, unexpected optical, transport, and catalytic properties in 2D-TMDs have been attributed to in-gap states associated with chalcogen vacancies, even in the absence of direct experimental evidence. Here, we combine low-temperature non-contact atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art ab initio density functional theory and GW calculations to determine both the atomic structure and electronic properties of an abundant chalcogen-site point defect common to MoSe2 and WS2 monolayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Surprisingly, we observe no in-gap states. Our results strongly suggest that the common chalcogen defects in the described 2D-TMD semiconductors, measured in vacuum environment after gentle annealing, are oxygen substitutional defects, rather than vacancies.

7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(5): 420-425, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833691

RESUMO

Electron microscopy has been instrumental in our understanding of complex biological systems. Although electron microscopy reveals cellular morphology with nanoscale resolution, it does not provide information on the location of different types of proteins. An electron-microscopy-based bioimaging technology capable of localizing individual proteins and resolving protein-protein interactions with respect to cellular ultrastructure would provide important insights into the molecular biology of a cell. Here, we synthesize small lanthanide-doped nanoparticles and measure the absolute photon emission rate of individual nanoparticles resulting from a given electron excitation flux (cathodoluminescence). Our results suggest that the optimization of nanoparticle composition, synthesis protocols and electron imaging conditions can lead to sub-20-nm nanolabels that would enable high signal-to-noise localization of individual biomolecules within a cellular context. In ensemble measurements, these labels exhibit narrow spectra of nine distinct colours, so the imaging of biomolecules in a multicolour electron microscopy modality may be possible.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/química
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2768, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808883

RESUMO

Materials for nanophotonic devices ideally combine ease of deposition, very high refractive index, and facile pattern formation through lithographic templating and/or etching. In this work, we present a scalable method for producing high refractive index WS2 layers by chemical conversion of WO3 synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD). These conformal nanocrystalline thin films demonstrate a surprisingly high index of refraction (n > 3.9), and structural fidelity compatible with lithographically defined features down to ~10 nm. Although this process yields highly polycrystalline films, the optical constants are in agreement with those reported for single crystal bulk WS2. Subsequently, we demonstrate three photonic structures - first, a two-dimensional hole array made possible by patterning and etching an ALD WO3 thin film before conversion, second, an analogue of the 2D hole array first patterned into fused silica before conformal coating and conversion, and third, a three-dimensional inverse opal photonic crystal made by conformal coating of a self-assembled polystyrene bead template. These results can be trivially extended to other transition metal dichalcogenides, thus opening new opportunities for photonic devices based on high refractive index materials.

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 1284-1291, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645100

RESUMO

Two-dimensional materials with engineered composition and structure will provide designer materials beyond conventional semiconductors. However, the potentials of defect engineering remain largely untapped, because it hinges on a precise understanding of electronic structure and excitonic properties, which are not yet predictable by theory alone. Here, we utilize correlative, nanoscale photoemission spectroscopy to visualize how local introduction of defects modifies electronic and excitonic properties of two-dimensional materials at the nanoscale. As a model system, we study chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer WS2, a prototypical, direct gap, two-dimensional semiconductor. By cross-correlating nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, core level spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, we unravel how local variations in defect density influence electronic structure, lateral band alignment, and excitonic phenomena in synthetic WS2 monolayers.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(7): 572-577, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915271

RESUMO

Reducing the size of lasers to microscale dimensions enables new technologies1 that are specifically tailored for operation in confined spaces ranging from ultra-high-speed microprocessors2 to live brain tissue3. However, reduced cavity sizes increase optical losses and require greater input powers to reach lasing thresholds. Multiphoton-pumped lasers4-7 that have been miniaturized using nanomaterials such as lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs)8 as lasing media require high pump intensities to achieve ultraviolet and visible emission and therefore operate under pulsed excitation schemes. Here, we make use of the recently described energy-looping excitation mechanism in Tm3+-doped UCNPs9 to achieve continuous-wave upconverted lasing action in stand-alone microcavities at excitation fluences as low as 14 kW cm-2. Continuous-wave lasing is uninterrupted, maximizing signal and enabling modulation of optical interactions10. By coupling energy-looping nanoparticles to whispering-gallery modes of polystyrene microspheres, we induce stable lasing for more than 5 h at blue and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously. These microcavities are excited in the biologically transmissive second near-infrared (NIR-II) window and are small enough to be embedded in organisms, tissues or devices. The ability to produce continuous-wave lasing in microcavities immersed in blood serum highlights practical applications of these microscale lasers for sensing and illumination in complex biological environments.


Assuntos
Lasers , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Túlio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Desenho de Equipamento , Luz , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Microesferas , Poliestirenos/química , Soro/química
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5761, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636534

RESUMO

We report visualizations of the bidirectional near-field optical transfer function for a waveguide-coupled plasmonic transducer as a metrology technique essential for successful development for mass-fabricated near-field devices. Plasmonic devices have revolutionized the observation of nanoscale phenomena, enabling optical excitation and readout from nanoscale regions of fabricated devices instead of as limited by optical diffraction. Visualizations of the plasmonic transducer modes were acquired both by local near-field excitation of the antenna on the front facet of a waveguide using the focused electron beam of a scanning electron microscope as a probe of the near-field cathodoluminescence during far-field collection from the back facet of the waveguide, and by local mapping of the optical near-field for the same antenna design using scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy as a probe of the near-field optical mode density for far-field light focused into the back facet of the waveguide. Strong agreement between both measurement types and numerical modeling was observed, indicating that the method enables crucial metrological comparisons of as fabricated device performance to as-modeled device expectations for heat-assisted magnetic recording heads, which can be extended to successful development of future near-field-on-chip devices such as optical processor interconnects.

12.
ACS Nano ; 12(1): 533-541, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294285

RESUMO

Macroscale arrays of cobalt oxide-silica core-shell nanotubes with high aspect ratio and ultrathin walls of less than 20 nm have been fabricated. The silica shells feature embedded oligo-para(phenylenevinylene) molecules for charge transport across the insulating silica layer, which is tightly controlled by their electronic properties. The assembly is based on the use of a sacrificial Si nanorod array template combined with atomic layer deposition, covalent anchoring of organic wire molecules, and dry cryo-etching. High-resolution TEM imaging of samples prepared by microtome affords structural details of single core-shell nanotubes. The integrity of silica-embedded organic wire molecules exposed to atomic layer deposition, thermal treatment, and harsh etching procedures is demonstrated by grazing angle ATR FT-IR, FT-Raman, and XPS spectroscopy. The inorganic oxide-based core-shell nanotubes with ultrathin gas-impermeable, proton-conducting silica shells functionalized by molecular wires enable complete nanoscale photosynthetic units for CO2 reduction by H2O under membrane separation. Arrays of massive numbers of such core-shell nanotube units afford a design that extends the separation of the incompatible H2O oxidation and CO2 reduction catalysis environments across the continuum of length scales from nanometers to centimeters.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15096, 2017 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29118413

RESUMO

We demonstrate the fabrication of individual nanopores in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with atomically precise control of the pore shape and size. Previous methods of pore production in other 2D materials typically create pores with irregular geometry and imprecise diameters. In contrast, other studies have shown that with careful control of electron irradiation, defects in h-BN grow with pristine zig-zag edges at quantized triangular sizes, but they have failed to demonstrate production and control of isolated defects. In this work, we combine these techniques to yield a method in which we can create individual size-quantized triangular nanopores through an h-BN sheet. The pores are created using the electron beam of a conventional transmission electron microscope; which can strip away multiple layers of h-BN exposing single-layer regions, introduce single vacancies, and preferentially grow vacancies only in the single-layer region. We further demonstrate how the geometry of these pores can be altered beyond triangular by changing beam conditions. Precisely size- and geometry-tuned nanopores could find application in molecular sensing, DNA sequencing, water desalination, and molecular separation.

14.
ACS Nano ; 11(10): 10583-10590, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956598

RESUMO

In situ electron microscopy provides remarkably high spatial resolution, yet electron beam irradiation often damages soft materials and perturbs dynamic processes, requiring samples to be very robust. Here, we instead noninvasively image the dynamics of metal and polymer nanoparticles in a liquid environment with subdiffraction resolution using cathodoluminescence-activated imaging by resonant energy transfer (CLAIRE). In CLAIRE, a free-standing scintillator film serves as a nanoscale optical excitation source when excited by a low energy, focused electron beam. We capture the nanoscale dynamics of these particles translating along and desorbing from the scintillator surface and demonstrate 50 ms frame acquisition and a range of imaging of at least 20 nm from the scintillator surface. Furthermore, in contrast with in situ electron microscopy, CLAIRE provides spectral selectivity instead of relying on scattering alone. We also demonstrate through quantitative modeling that the CLAIRE signal from metal nanoparticles is impacted by multiplasmonic mode interferences. Our findings demonstrate that CLAIRE is a promising, noninvasive approach for super-resolution imaging for soft and fluid materials with high spatial and temporal resolution.

15.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 8579-8589, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771324

RESUMO

Determining the structural origins of amyloid fibrillation is essential for understanding both the pathology of amyloidosis and the rational design of inhibitors to prevent or reverse amyloid formation. In this work, the decisive roles of peptide structures on amyloid self-assembly and morphological diversity were investigated by the design of eight amyloidogenic peptides derived from islet amyloid polypeptide. Among the segments, two distinct morphologies were highlighted in the form of twisted and planar (untwisted) ribbons with varied diameters, thicknesses, and lengths. In particular, transformation of amyloid fibrils from twisted ribbons into untwisted structures was triggered by substitution of the C-terminal serine with threonine, where the side chain methyl group was responsible for the distinct morphological change. This effect was confirmed following serine substitution with alanine and valine and was ascribed to the restriction of intersheet torsional strain through the increased hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. We also studied the variation of fibril morphology (i.e., association and helicity) and peptide aggregation propensity by increasing the hydrophobicity of the peptide side group, capping the N-terminus, and extending sequence length. We anticipate that our insights into sequence-dependent fibrillation and morphological diversity will shed light on the structural interpretation of amyloidogenesis and development of structure-specific imaging agents and aggregation inhibitors.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Difração de Raios X
16.
Nano Lett ; 17(2): 1028-1033, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134530

RESUMO

The distinct physical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic materials can lead to unexpected nonequilibrium phenomena that are difficult to characterize due to the broad range of length and time scales involved. For instance, mixed halide hybrid perovskites are promising materials for optoelectronics, yet bulk measurements suggest the halides reversibly phase separate upon photoexcitation. By combining nanoscale imaging and multiscale modeling, we find that the nature of halide demixing in these materials is distinct from macroscopic phase separation. We propose that the localized strain induced by a single photoexcited charge interacting with the soft, ionic lattice is sufficient to promote halide phase separation and nucleate a light-stabilized, low-bandgap, ∼8 nm iodide-rich cluster. The limited extent of this polaron is essential to promote demixing because by contrast bulk strain would simply be relaxed. Photoinduced phase separation is therefore a consequence of the unique electromechanical properties of this hybrid class of materials. Exploiting photoinduced phase separation and other nonequilibrium phenomena in hybrid materials more generally could expand applications in sensing, switching, memory, and energy storage.

17.
ACS Omega ; 2(7): 3681-3690, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457682

RESUMO

Self-assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) into two-dimensional patterns or three-dimensional (2-3D) superstructures has emerged as a promising low-cost route to generate thin-film transistors and solar cells with superior charge transport because of enhanced electronic coupling between the NCs. Here, we show that lead sulfide (PbS) NCs solids featuring either short-range (disordered glassy solids, GSs) or long-range (superlattices, SLs) packing order are obtained solely by controlling deposition conditions of colloidal solution of NCs. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the evaporation-driven self-assembly method results in PbS NC SL structures that are observed over an area of 1 mm × 100 µm, with long-range translational order of up to 100 nm. A number of ordered domains appear to have nucleated simultaneously and grown together over the whole area, imparting a polycrystalline texture to the 3D SL films. By contrast, a conventional, optimized spin-coating deposition method results in PbS NC glassy films with no translational symmetry and much shorter-range packing order in agreement with state-of-the-art reports. Further, we investigate the electronic properties of both SL and GS films, using a field-effect transistor configuration as a test platform. The long-range ordering of the PbS NCs into SLs leads to semiconducting NC-based solids, the mobility (µ) of which is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the disordered GSs. Moreover, although spin-cast GSs of PbS NCs have weak ambipolar behavior with limited gate tunability, SLs of PbS NCs show a clear p-type behavior with significantly higher conductivities.

18.
Langmuir ; 32(46): 12039-12046, 2016 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27933879

RESUMO

Clay swelling is a colloidal phenomenon that has a large influence on flow and solute migration in soils and sediments. While models for clay swelling have been proposed over many years, debate remains as to the interaction forces that combine to produce the observed swelling behavior. Using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering, we study the influence of salinity, in combination with layer charge, interlayer cation, and particle size, on montmorillonite swelling. We observe a decrease in swelling with increased layer charge, increased cation charge, and decreased cation hydration, each indicative of the critical influence of Coulombic attraction between the negatively charged layers and interlayer cations. Cryo-TEM images of individual montmorillonite particles also reveal that swelling is dependent upon the number of layers in a particle. Calculations of the van der Waals (vdW) interaction based on new measurements of Hamaker coefficients confirm that long-range vdW interactions extend beyond near-neighbor layer interactions and result in a decrease in layer spacing with a larger number of layers. This work clarifies the short- and long-range attractive interactions that govern clay structure and ultimately the stability and permeability of hydrated clays in the environment.

19.
ACS Nano ; 10(5): 5525-35, 2016 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124203

RESUMO

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen is a promising strategy to absorb solar energy and directly convert it into a dense storage medium in the form of chemical bonds. The continual development and improvement of individual components of PEC systems is critical toward increasing the solar to fuel efficiency of prototype devices. Within this context, we describe a study on the growth of wurtzite indium phosphide (InP) nanowire (NW) arrays on silicon substrates and their subsequent implementation as light-absorbing photocathodes in PEC cells. The high onset potential (0.6 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode) and photocurrent (18 mA/cm(2)) of the InP photocathodes render them as promising building blocks for high performance PEC cells. As a proof of concept for overall system integration, InP photocathodes were combined with a nanoporous bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanode to generate an unassisted solar water splitting efficiency of 0.5%.

20.
Nano Lett ; 16(5): 3352-9, 2016 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27070850

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: This work demonstrates the first method for controlled growth of heterostructures within hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposite thermoelectrics. Using a facile, aqueous technique, semimetal-alloy nanointerfaces are patterned within a hybrid thermoelectric system consisting of tellurium (Te) nanowires and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) ( PEDOT: PSS). Specifically, this method is used to grow nanoscale islands of Cu1.75Te alloy subphases within hybrid PEDOT: PSS-Te nanowires. This technique is shown to provide tunability of thermoelectric and electronic properties, providing up to 22% enhancement of the system's power factor in the low-doping regime, consistent with preferential scattering of low energy carriers. This work provides an exciting platform for rational design of multiphase nanocomposites and highlights the potential for engineering of carrier filtering within hybrid thermoelectrics via introduction of interfaces with controlled structural and energetic properties.

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