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1.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(2): 45-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-485385

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 health crisis engulfs the planet, we are sub-merged in a parallel pandemic: the glut of misinformation and disinformation. The data associated with this phenomenon are creating a disaster within a disaster. In early April 2020, the Span-ish news agency EFE[1] reported that over one million internet ac-counts were dedicated to rumor-mongering, spreading unverifi ed information about the coronavirus. From January through April 13, fact-checkers at Maldita.es[2] had tracked over 400 lies and false alerts circulated about COVID-19 in Spain alone.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Revelação da Verdade , Cuba , Humanos , Internet
2.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(2): 45-46, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478708

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 health crisis engulfs the planet, we are sub-merged in a parallel pandemic: the glut of misinformation and disinformation. The data associated with this phenomenon are creating a disaster within a disaster. In early April 2020, the Span-ish news agency EFE[1] reported that over one million internet ac-counts were dedicated to rumor-mongering, spreading unverifi ed information about the coronavirus. From January through April 13, fact-checkers at Maldita.es[2] had tracked over 400 lies and false alerts circulated about COVID-19 in Spain alone.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Revelação da Verdade , Cuba , Humanos , Internet
3.
MEDICC Rev ; 21(2-3): 29-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION Chronic kidney disease has reached epidemic levels in several Central American countries since the early years of this century. In El Salvador, it is the second cause of death in men, the fifth in persons over 18 years old and the third cause of hospital deaths in the adult population. Its features, especially those of a subtype unassociated with traditional risk factors such as diabetes and high blood pressure, are only partially understood. OBJECTIVE Estimate the magnitude of chronic kidney disease in the adult population of El Salvador, considering both prevalence of the disease in its diverse forms as well as presence of potential risk factors nationally and in major subpopulations. METHODS A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on data obtained from the Survey of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases in Adults in El Salvador, completed in 2015. The original data (interviews and measurements) were collected between October 2014 and March 2015 from 4817 adults employing a two-stage probabilistic cluster sample, with stratification of primary sampling units. Our analysis, using 20 of the 118 primary variables included in the original survey, focused on point estimation of prevalence rates and means, related to both traditional biological risk factors and nontraditional ones, such as insufficient hydration, strenuous working conditions and exposure to toxic agents. A separate analysis was performed to estimate prevalence of chronic kidney disease from nontraditional causes. Corresponding confidence intervals were calculated with proper weighting. RESULTS The general prevalence of chronic kidney disease in El Salvador was 12.8% (men 18.0%; women 8.7%). Of the chronically ill kidney patients, 13.1% were between 20 and 40 years of age. Among biological risk factors, the most frequent was high blood pressure (37.0%). Among nontraditional risk factors, high levels of sugary drink consumption (81.0%), insufficient hydration (65.9%) and high levels of exposure to agrochemicals in the work environment (12.6%) were also observed. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease from nontraditional causes was 3.9% (men 6.1%; women 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS Chronic kidney disease has reached epidemic proportions in El Salvador. The data confirm a health tragedy that, although especially striking older men, also takes a severe toll on young men and women. The results confirm findings of previous research in several Salvadoran agricultural communities. The relatively high level of population exposure to agrochemicals is important and alarming, especially in rural areas, meriting health-impact studies that include and go beyond possible impact on chronic kidney disease. KEYWORDS Kidney, renal insufficiency, chronic, risk factors, epidemics, El Salvador.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , El Salvador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
4.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 29(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-960297

RESUMO

El uso de redes sociales en la salud pública favorece el flujo de información, el aprendizaje autónomo, el trabajo en equipo, la comunicación, el acceso a redes afines y el contacto entre expertos. El presente trabajo examina el empleo de las redes sociales en el Sistema Nacional de Salud cubano, expone la estrategia desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas en Facebook y Twitter y sus principales resultados. Para identificar los diferentes actores en redes sociales se consultaron los espacios de participación de la red Infomed y se realizaron búsquedas en Facebook y Twitter. Los componentes de la estrategia desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas fueron identificados mediante consulta a los especialistas del Grupo del Portal Web y Comunicación de esa institución. Para examinar sus principales resultados se emplearon herramientas especializadas. Se identificaron 64 blogs, 363 listas de correo y 97 grupos de colaboración en la red Infomed. 87 instituciones de salud cubanas tienen perfiles en Facebook y/o Twitter. Con tendencia ascendente, destacan los de Infomed con 7 245 y 1 814 seguidores, respectivamente. La analítica de estos últimos mostró elevado alcance, audiencia comprometida e impacto favorable en las estadísticas web. El uso de redes sociales en el sistema de salud cubano se encuentra en desarrollo. La definición de políticas y de estrategias institucionales y la alfabetización informacional de los gestores y usuarios, constituyen hoy el reto más importante para su integración a los procesos de gestión de la información y el conocimiento en salud(AU)


In the field of public health, the use of social networks fosters information flow, autonomous learning, teamwork, communication, access to related networks, and contact between experts. The present work examines the use of social networks in the Cuban National Health System. We presents the strategy developed by the Cuban National Center of Medical Sciences Information in Facebook and Twitter, and its main results. In order to identify the different actors in social networks, the social participation platforms of Infomed were consulted and a search was conducted in Facebook and Twitter. The components of the strategy developed by the Cuban National Center of Medical Sciences Information were identified by consulting the specialists of the Website and Communication group of that institution. The main results of the strategy were examined with specialized tools. Sixty-four blogs, 3 063 mailing lists and 97 collaboration groups were identified in the Infomed network. Eighty-seven Cuban healthcare institutions were found to have profiles in Facebook and/or Twitter. Infomed shows a growing trend, with 7 245 and 1 814 followers, respectively. Analytics revealed a broad scope, a committed audience and a favorable impact on web statistics. The use of social networks in the Cuban health system is under development. The definition of institutional policies and strategies, as well as the information literacy of managers and users, constitutes the greatest challenges for their integration into the processes of information and knowledge management in health(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gestão da Informação/métodos , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Competência em Informação , Rede Social , Cuba
5.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 29(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-74078

RESUMO

El uso de redes sociales en la salud pública favorece el flujo de información, el aprendizaje autónomo, el trabajo en equipo, la comunicación, el acceso a redes afines y el contacto entre expertos. El presente trabajo examina el empleo de las redes sociales en el Sistema Nacional de Salud cubano, expone la estrategia desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas en Facebook y Twitter y sus principales resultados. Para identificar los diferentes actores en redes sociales se consultaron los espacios de participación de la red Infomed y se realizaron búsquedas en Facebook y Twitter. Los componentes de la estrategia desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas fueron identificados mediante consulta a los especialistas del Grupo del Portal Web y Comunicación de esa institución. Para examinar sus principales resultados se emplearon herramientas especializadas. Se identificaron 64 blogs, 363 listas de correo y 97 grupos de colaboración en la red Infomed. 87 instituciones de salud cubanas tienen perfiles en Facebook y/o Twitter. Con tendencia ascendente, destacan los de Infomed con 7 245 y 1 814 seguidores, respectivamente. La analítica de estos últimos mostró elevado alcance, audiencia comprometida e impacto favorable en las estadísticas web. El uso de redes sociales en el sistema de salud cubano se encuentra en desarrollo. La definición de políticas y de estrategias institucionales y la alfabetización informacional de los gestores y usuarios, constituyen hoy el reto más importante para su integración a los procesos de gestión de la información y el conocimiento en salud(AU)


In the field of public health, the use of social networks fosters information flow, autonomous learning, teamwork, communication, access to related networks, and contact between experts. The present work examines the use of social networks in the Cuban National Health System. We presents the strategy developed by the Cuban National Center of Medical Sciences Information in Facebook and Twitter, and its main results. In order to identify the different actors in social networks, the social participation platforms of Infomed were consulted and a search was conducted in Facebook and Twitter. The components of the strategy developed by the Cuban National Center of Medical Sciences Information were identified by consulting the specialists of the Website and Communication group of that institution. The main results of the strategy were examined with specialized tools. Sixty-four blogs, 3 063 mailing lists and 97 collaboration groups were identified in the Infomed network. Eighty-seven Cuban healthcare institutions were found to have profiles in Facebook and/or Twitter. Infomed shows a growing trend, with 7 245 and 1 814 followers, respectively. Analytics revealed a broad scope, a committed audience and a favorable impact on web statistics. The use of social networks in the Cuban health system is under development. The definition of institutional policies and strategies, as well as the information literacy of managers and users, constitutes the greatest challenges for their integration into the processes of information and knowledge management in health(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gestão da Informação/métodos , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Competência em Informação , Rede Social , Cuba
9.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 27(1)ene.-mar. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-64452

RESUMO

La comunicación y la gestión de la información y del conocimiento son elementos clave para el desarrollo es una realidad a la que no escapa ninguna sociedad. Su integración genuina al necesario enfoque multidisciplinar y transdisciplinar para analizar y buscar soluciones a los problemas actuales es hoy uno de los desafíos más importantes de quienes lideran el campo de las ciencias de la información, aunado a la necesidad de una postura crítica hacia los procesos y modelos actuales de producción, gestión y comunicación del conocimiento...


Assuntos
Comunicação , Pesquisa , Países Desenvolvidos , Gestão da Informação em Saúde
10.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 48(3): 416-422, jul.-set. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-740916

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: en la práctica clínica, el número de pacientes que ingresa por insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada y recibe tratamiento antimicrobiano, supera la prevalencia descrita de infecciones (15,3 %) como causa de descompensación. OBJETIVO: determinar el uso inadecuado de antimicrobianos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en 184 pacientes que ingresaron con diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardiaca en el Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Joaquín Albarrán", entre enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2011. Se consideró inadecuada la utilización de antimicrobianos, en caso de ausencia de infección asociada a la insuficiencia cardiaca. RESULTADOS: hubo un predominio de infección asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca de 40,8 % y se prescribió antimicrobianos al 69 % de estos pacientes. La prevalencia global de utilización inadecuada de antimicrobianos en la población estudiada fue del 32,6 %. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados indican que existe la necesidad de mejorar la prescripción de antimicrobianos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca.


INTRODUCTION: in medical practice, the number of patients who are admitted to hospital due to uncompensated heart failure and are treated with antimicrobials outweighs the prevalence of infections (15.3 %) as cause of non-compensation. OBJECTIVE: to determine the inadequate use of antimicrobials in patients suffering heart failure. METHODS: retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study of 184 patients who were admitted to the internal medicine service of "Joaquin Albarran" clinical-surgical and teaching hospital and diagnosed with heart failure from January 2010 through December 2011. It was considered that the antimicrobials had been misused since there was no infection linked to the heart failure. RESULTS: the heart failure-associated infection prevailed in 40.8 % of patients and antimicrobials were prescribed for 69 % of them. The global prevalence of misuse of antimicrobials in this population reached 32.6 %. CONCLUSIONS: the results reveal that it is required to improve the prescription of antimicrobials for patients with heart failure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Anti-Infecciosos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 48(3): 416-422, jul.-set. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-61953

RESUMO

Introducción: en la práctica clínica, el número de pacientes que ingresa por insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada y recibe tratamiento antimicrobiano, supera la prevalencia descrita de infecciones (15,3 por ciento) como causa de descompensación. Objetivo: determinar el uso inadecuado de antimicrobianos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo en 184 pacientes que ingresaron con diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardiaca en el Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Joaquín Albarrán, entre enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2011. Se consideró inadecuada la utilización de antimicrobianos, en caso de ausencia de infección asociada a la insuficiencia cardiaca. Resultados: hubo un predominio de infección asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca de 40,8 por ciento y se prescribió antimicrobianos al 69 por ciento de estos pacientes. La prevalencia global de utilización inadecuada de antimicrobianos en la población estudiada fue del 32,6 por ciento. Conclusiones: los resultados indican que existe la necesidad de mejorar la prescripción de antimicrobianos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca(AU)


Introduction: in medical practice, the number of patients who are admitted to hospital due to uncompensated heart failure and are treated with antimicrobials outweighs the prevalence of infections (15.3 percent) as cause of non-compensation. Objective: to determine the inadequate use of antimicrobials in patients suffering heart failure. Methods: retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study of 184 patients who were admitted to the internal medicine service of Joaquin Albarran clinical-surgical and teaching hospital and diagnosed with heart failure from January 2010 through December 2011. It was considered that the antimicrobials had been misused since there was no infection linked to the heart failure. Results: the heart failure-associated infection prevailed in 40.8 percent of patients and antimicrobials were prescribed for 69 percent of them. The global prevalence of misuse of antimicrobials in this population reached 32.6 percent. Conclusions: the results reveal that it is required to improve the prescription of antimicrobials for patients with heart failure(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
12.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 39(3): 556-570, jul.-sep. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-686862

RESUMO

El presente trabajo constituye la primera de las dos partes en que se ha organizado un conjunto de observaciones derivadas de la réplica realizada por el Dr. Jorge García Salman a nuestro artículo El debate sobre la Medicina Natural y Tradicional y sus implicaciones para la salud pública, publicado en esta misma revista. Expresamos aquí las zonas de confluencia con los argumentos expuestos por el García Salman y seguidamente analizamos aquellos criterios relacionados con aspectos metodológicos que merecen respuesta. Se ofrecen criterios en defensa del método científico como proceso universalmente aceptado para realizar aportes a la ciencia y se cuestiona que no sea utilizado con sistematicidad en el ámbito de la Medicina Natural y Tradicional. Se argumenta acerca de la experimentación como conquista intelectual y se fundamenta que los ensayos clínicos aleatorizados bien diseñados aportan la manera más penetrante y reveladora de hacer juicios sobre causalidad en los procesos biomédicos. Se exponen elementos esenciales relacionados con el papel del efecto placebo en la investigación. Se concluye que la mayor expresión de respeto a la ciencia en general, y a la Medicina Natural y Tradicional en particular, reside en señalar sus ocasionales errores, de los cuales se ofrecen numerosos ejemplos


The present paper is the first of the two parts showing a set of observations derived from Dr. Jorge Garcia Salman's reply to the article entitled The debate on Natural and Traditional Medicine and its implications for the public health published by this journal. The points of convergence with the opinions of Garcia Salman were stated and then an analysis was made on the criteria about the methodological aspects that deserve to be answered. Some criteria to defend the scientific method as a universally accepted process to make contributions to science were offered, and at the same time, the non-systematic use of this process by the Natural and Traditional Medicine was questioned. Some arguments were provided about the clinical experimentation as an intellectual conquest as well as the role of the randomized clinicals trials which provides the deepest and most revealing way of developing criteria about causality in the biomedical processes. Likewise, essential elements on the role of placebo in research were presented. It was concluded that the highest expression of respect to science in general and to Natural and Traditional Medicine in particular, lies in pointing out their occasional errors of which a number of examples was offered


Assuntos
Ciência/ética , Medicina Tradicional , Saúde Pública/ética
13.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 39(3): 571-587, jul.-sep. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-686863

RESUMO

La presente contribución complementa el trabajo Medicina Convencional y Medicina Natural y Tradicional: razones y sinrazones metodológicas, publicado por nosotros en este mismo número de la Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. La Medicina Natural y Tradicional, tal y como se desarrolla en nuestro país, exige un salto cualitativo que la ponga a tono con las demandas de ejercer la autocrítica, inherente a todo esfuerzo científico verdadero. Se reflexiona en torno a que dicha disciplina tiene un recorrido que transitar para alcanzar un desarrollo adecuado. Se fundamenta la necesidad de superar la precariedad teórico conceptual, con el fin de separarla de esoterismos y expresiones pseudocientíficas que actualmente lastran su posición en los medios académicos. Se reivindica e ilustra la importancia tanto metodológica como ética de manejar la información con el debido rigor y superar las endebleces metodológicas que suelen exhibir sus publicaciones. Fundamentamos la idea de que no existen paradigmas contradictorios que pugnen por una hegemonía conceptual y operativa. Se sostiene y justifica la convicción de que ha de prevalecer un cuerpo teórico-práctico coherente con las conquistas científicas ya conseguidas, independientemente de su origen


This is the second part of the article Conventional Medicine, and Natural and Traditional Medicine: reasons and unreasons published in this same issue of Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. This discipline, as it is developed in our country, requires a qualitative leap to be in tune with the demands for self-criticism inherent to every true scientific effort. Reflections were also made about the road that the Natural and Traditional Medicine must go in order to reach an adequate level of development. It is necessary to overcome the existing conceptual and theoretical scarcities to separate this discipline from esoteric elements and pseudoscientific expressions which affect its position in the academic circles. The ethical and methodological importance of handling information with due rigor and of overcoming methodological weaknesses in their publication were illustrated and underlined. The idea of non-existence of contradictory paradigms striving for conceptual hegemony was substantiated. This paper finally justified and supported the conviction that a coherent body of theories and practices in line with the already known accomplishments must prevail, regardless of their origin


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciência/ética , Medicina Tradicional , Saúde Pública/ética
14.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 39(3)jul.-sep. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-55640

RESUMO

El presente trabajo constituye la primera de las dos partes en que se ha organizado un conjunto de observaciones derivadas de la réplica realizada por el Dr. Jorge García Salman a nuestro artículo El debate sobre la Medicina Natural y Tradicional y sus implicaciones para la salud pública, publicado en esta misma revista. Expresamos aquí las zonas de confluencia con los argumentos expuestos por el García Salman y seguidamente analizamos aquellos criterios relacionados con aspectos metodológicos que merecen respuesta. Se ofrecen criterios en defensa del método científico como proceso universalmente aceptado para realizar aportes a la ciencia y se cuestiona que no sea utilizado con sistematicidad en el ámbito de la Medicina Natural y Tradicional. Se argumenta acerca de la experimentación como conquista intelectual y se fundamenta que los ensayos clínicos aleatorizados bien diseñados aportan la manera más penetrante y reveladora de hacer juicios sobre causalidad en los procesos biomédicos. Se exponen elementos esenciales relacionados con el papel del efecto placebo en la investigación. Se concluye que la mayor expresión de respeto a la ciencia en general, y a la Medicina Natural y Tradicional en particular, reside en señalar sus ocasionales errores, de los cuales se ofrecen numerosos ejemplos(AU)


The present paper is the first of the two parts showing a set of observations derived from Dr. Jorge Garcia Salman's reply to the article entitled The debate on Natural and Traditional Medicine and its implications for the public health published by this journal. The points of convergence with the opinions of Garcia Salman were stated and then an analysis was made on the criteria about the methodological aspects that deserve to be answered. Some criteria to defend the scientific method as a universally accepted process to make contributions to science were offered, and at the same time, the non-systematic use of this process by the Natural and Traditional Medicine was questioned. Some arguments were provided about the clinical experimentation as an intellectual conquest as well as the role of the randomized clinicals trials which provides the deepest and most revealing way of developing criteria about causality in the biomedical processes. Likewise, essential elements on the role of placebo in research were presented. It was concluded that the highest expression of respect to science in general and to Natural and Traditional Medicine in particular, lies in pointing out their occasional errors of which a number of examples was offered(AU)


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Ciência/ética , Saúde Pública/ética
15.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 39(3)jul.-sep. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-55639

RESUMO

La presente contribución complementa el trabajo Medicina Convencional y Medicina Natural y Tradicional: razones y sinrazones metodológicas, publicado por nosotros en este mismo número de la Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. La Medicina Natural y Tradicional, tal y como se desarrolla en nuestro país, exige un salto cualitativo que la ponga a tono con las demandas de ejercer la autocrítica, inherente a todo esfuerzo científico verdadero. Se reflexiona en torno a que dicha disciplina tiene un recorrido que transitar para alcanzar un desarrollo adecuado. Se fundamenta la necesidad de superar la precariedad teórico conceptual, con el fin de separarla de esoterismos y expresiones pseudocientíficas que actualmente lastran su posición en los medios académicos. Se reivindica e ilustra la importancia tanto metodológica como ética de manejar la información con el debido rigor y superar las endebleces metodológicas que suelen exhibir sus publicaciones. Fundamentamos la idea de que no existen paradigmas contradictorios que pugnen por una hegemonía conceptual y operativa. Se sostiene y justifica la convicción de que ha de prevalecer un cuerpo teórico-práctico coherente con las conquistas científicas ya conseguidas, independientemente de su origen(AU)


This is the second part of the article Conventional Medicine, and Natural and Traditional Medicine: reasons and unreasons published in this same issue of Revista Cubana de Salud Pública. This discipline, as it is developed in our country, requires a qualitative leap to be in tune with the demands for self-criticism inherent to every true scientific effort. Reflections were also made about the road that the Natural and Traditional Medicine must go in order to reach an adequate level of development. It is necessary to overcome the existing conceptual and theoretical scarcities to separate this discipline from esoteric elements and pseudoscientific expressions which affect its position in the academic circles. The ethical and methodological importance of handling information with due rigor and of overcoming methodological weaknesses in their publication were illustrated and underlined. The idea of non-existence of contradictory paradigms striving for conceptual hegemony was substantiated. This paper finally justified and supported the conviction that a coherent body of theories and practices in line with the already known accomplishments must prevail, regardless of their origin(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Ciência/ética , Saúde Pública/ética
16.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 39(1): 107-123, ene.-mar. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-686821

RESUMO

Se reflexiona en torno a la importancia del debate y de la aplicación rigurosa del método científico para fortalecer la Medicina Natural y Tradicional como recurso de la salud pública. Se esclarecen e ilustran los conceptos de ciencia errónea, ciencia espuria y pseudociencia, todos relevantemente peligrosos para la salud de la población. A la vez que se señala que bajo la sombrilla de la Medicina Natural y Tradicional, se ubican legítimos recursos terapéuticos, se advierte sobre la existencia de otros que no cuentan con el aval del método científico o cuya validez ha sido directamente refutada por él. Se reivindica la importancia medular de considerar el mejor conocimiento disponible en cada momento histórico para el diseño de acciones de salud adecuadas y se concluye que solo la honradez intelectual, el debate constructivo y la experimentación son capaces de garantizar este propósito


The importance of the debate and the rigorous application of the scientific method to strengthen the Natural and Traditional Medicine (NTM) as a public health resource were analyzed. Three concepts were clarified and illustrated: erroneous science, spurious science and pseudoscience, all of them significantly hazardous to the population´s health. While it is noted that legitimate therapeutic resources are located under the umbrella of the natural and traditional medicine, it was also warned against other resources which do not have the endorsement of the scientific method or whose validity has been directly refuted. The crucial importance of taking into account the best available knowledge at every historical period to design appropriate public health actions was highlighted. It was emphasized that only intellectual honesty, constructive debate and experimentation are able to secure this purpose


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Saúde Pública , Ciência
17.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 39(1)ene.-mar. 2013. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-55545

RESUMO

Se reflexiona en torno a la importancia del debate y de la aplicación rigurosa del método científico para fortalecer la Medicina Natural y Tradicional como recurso de la salud pública. Se esclarecen e ilustran los conceptos de ciencia errónea, ciencia espuria y pseudociencia, todos relevantemente peligrosos para la salud de la población. A la vez que se señala que bajo la sombrilla de la Medicina Natural y Tradicional, se ubican legítimos recursos terapéuticos, se advierte sobre la existencia de otros que no cuentan con el aval del método científico o cuya validez ha sido directamente refutada por él. Se reivindica la importancia medular de considerar el mejor conocimiento disponible en cada momento histórico para el diseño de acciones de salud adecuadas y se concluye que solo la honradez intelectual, el debate constructivo y la experimentación son capaces de garantizar este propósito(AU)


The importance of the debate and the rigorous application of the scientific method to strengthen the Natural and Traditional Medicine (NTM) as a public health resource were analyzed. Three concepts were clarified and illustrated: erroneous science, spurious science and pseudoscience, all of them significantly hazardous to the population´s health. While it is noted that legitimate therapeutic resources are located under the umbrella of the natural and traditional medicine, it was also warned against other resources which do not have the endorsement of the scientific method or whose validity has been directly refuted. The crucial importance of taking into account the best available knowledge at every historical period to design appropriate public health actions was highlighted. It was emphasized that only intellectual honesty, constructive debate and experimentation are able to secure this purpose(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Saúde Pública , Ciência
18.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 27(1): 53-57, ene.-feb. 2013. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-108848

RESUMO

Objetivos: Discutir conceptualmente la pertinencia de las demandas prevalecientes acerca de lo que debecomunicarse sobre la determinación del tamano de muestra en estudios publicados, y aquilatar el grado ˜en que tales demandas son satisfechas por autores y exigidas por árbitros y editores.Métodos: Se llevó adelante una búsqueda bibliográfica con el fin de conocer y debatir críticamente losrazonamientos que pudieran haberse expuesto para respaldar la norma según la cual los autores debenjustificar el tamano muestral. A continuación se valoró el cumplimiento de dicha norma en los artículos ˜originales publicados a lo largo de 2009 en las seis revistas de más alto factor de impacto en el campo dela salud.Resultados: Las razones esgrimidas para respaldar la exigencia de explicar el tamano muestral empleado ˜resultan escasas y endebles, a la vez que hay no pocas razones para no suscribirlas. Se constató que dichapauta es mayoritariamente ignorada en la literatura actual de mayor impacto. En el 56% (intervalo deconfianza del 95% [IC95%]: 52-59) de los artículos no se fundamenta el tamano empleado y sólo el 27% ˜(IC95%: 23-30) cumple con todas las exigencias de las guías a las que se adhieren las propias revistasestudiadas.Conclusiones: El estudio permite concluir que no hay argumentos convincentes para exigir que en unartículo publicado se explique cómo se llegó a cierto tamano muestral. Tal exigencia carece de utilidad y ˜no promueve, sino que más bien menoscaba, la transparencia del reporte de las investigaciones (AU)


Objectives: To discuss the theoretical relevance of current requirements for explanations of the samplesizes employed in published studies, and to assess the extent to which these requirements are currentlymet by authors and demanded by referees and editors.Methods: A literature review was conducted to gain insight into and critically discuss the possible rationale underlying the requirement of justifying sample sizes. A descriptive bibliometric study was thencarried out based on the original studies published in the six journals with the highest impact factor inthe field of health in 2009.Results: All the arguments used to support the requirement of an explanation of sample sizes are feeble,and there are several reasons why they should not be endorsed. These instructions are neglected in mostof the studies published in the current literature with the highest impact factor. In 56% (95%CI: 52-59)of the articles, the sample size used was not substantiated, and only 27% (95%CI: 23-30) met all therequirements contained in the guidelines adhered to by the journals studied.Conclusions: Based on this study, we conclude that there are no convincing arguments justifying therequirement for an explanation of how the sample size was reached in published articles. There is nosound basis for this requirement, which not only does not promote the transparency of research reportsbut rather contributes to undermining it (AU)


Assuntos
Tamanho da Amostra , /métodos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Estatística como Assunto
19.
Gac Sanit ; 27(1): 53-7, 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22483062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To discuss the theoretical relevance of current requirements for explanations of the sample sizes employed in published studies, and to assess the extent to which these requirements are currently met by authors and demanded by referees and editors. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to gain insight into and critically discuss the possible rationale underlying the requirement of justifying sample sizes. A descriptive bibliometric study was then carried out based on the original studies published in the six journals with the highest impact factor in the field of health in 2009. RESULTS: All the arguments used to support the requirement of an explanation of sample sizes are feeble, and there are several reasons why they should not be endorsed. These instructions are neglected in most of the studies published in the current literature with the highest impact factor. In 56% (95%CI: 52-59) of the articles, the sample size used was not substantiated, and only 27% (95%CI: 23-30) met all the requirements contained in the guidelines adhered to by the journals studied. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study, we conclude that there are no convincing arguments justifying the requirement for an explanation of how the sample size was reached in published articles. There is no sound basis for this requirement, which not only does not promote the transparency of research reports but rather contributes to undermining it.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Editoração/normas , Tamanho da Amostra
20.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 37(2)abr.-jun. 2011.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-585117

RESUMO

Introducción Sobre el uso, desuso y abuso de los indicadores mucho se ha escrito, pero el asunto continúa siendo controversial. Objetivo Ofrecer información sustancial sobre el empleo de los indicadores en el ámbito de la salud. Métodos Se realizó una revisión de documentos de organismos internacionales, instituciones nacionales, textos, tesis doctorales y artículos de revistas. Más del 50 por ciento de estos documentos están publicados en los últimos diez años. De la revisión realizada se extrajeron dos definiciones de indicadores, las características que deben poseer, algunos problemas inherentes a su uso y al cálculo en poblaciones pequeñas. Resultados Se asumió la definición de indicador como instrumento de medición, en lugar de conceptualizarlo como la meta a alcanzar, forma en que se hace en los procesos de diseño y evaluación de proyectos. Se resumieron los atributos que debe poseer cualquier indicador. Se ofrecen ejemplos de los problemas que se pueden presentar en el empleo del indicador tasa de mortalidad infantil y otros, en su uso para la evaluación, en su interpretación, en su pertinencia respecto a la dimensión poblacional y en la constante utilizada. Conclusiones Los autores se adscriben a la definición de indicador como instrumento de medición. Los atributos que se desea reúna un indicador son varios y han sido propuestos por diversos autores. Algunos son aplicables a cualquier indicador y otros se configuran a situaciones particulares, pero todos deben ser considerados en el diseño y selección de indicadores. Se hace énfasis en los problemas que se pueden presentar en la construcción y empleo de los indicadores


Introduction A lot of writings have been published about the use, non-use and excessive use of indicators but the topic is still controversial. Objective To provide significant information on the use of indicators in the health care field. Methods A literature review was made including documents from international bodies and national institutions, writings, Ph Dïs theses and journal articles. More than 50 percent of these documents had been published in the last 10 years. Two definitions of indicators, the characteristics that they should have, some problems inherent to their use and the estimation of indicators for small populations were found. Results The definition of indicator as a measuring instrument rather than the conceptualization of indicator as a goal, being the latter the way in which the project design and assessment processeses do it, was accepted. The attributes for any kind of indicator were summarized. Some examples of the problems that may arise in the use of the indicator infant mortality and others, in the use of indicators for evaluation, their interpretation, their adequacy regarding the population size and the used constant were provided. Conclusions The authors supported the definition of indicator as a measuring instrument. There are several attributes for an indicator suggested by a number of authors. Some of them are applicable to any kind of indicator whereas others are more appropriate for particular settings; however all of them should be taken into consideration in the design and selection of indicators. Emphasis was made on the problems that may be present in the construction and the use of indicators


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
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