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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770198

RESUMO

Citizens are increasingly turning to social media to open up debates on issues of utmost importance, such as health or education. When analyzing citizens' social media interactions on COVID-19, research has underlined the importance of sharing and spreading information based on scientific evidence rather than on fake news. However, whether and how citizens' interactions in the field of education, particularly in mathematics, are based on scientific evidence remains underexplored. To contribute to filling this gap, this article presents an analysis of citizen debates in social networks about didactic resources for mathematics. Through social media analytics, 136,964 posts were extracted from Reddit, Instagram, Twitter and Facebook, of which 1755 were analyzed. Results show that out of the 213 posts of citizen debates on didactic resources for mathematics, only two contained scientific evidence and eight claimed to contain scientific evidence. These findings highlight the importance of promoting actions to encourage citizen debates around didactic resources for mathematics based on scientific evidence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Matemática , SARS-CoV-2 , Rede Social
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770401

RESUMO

In recent years, many proposals of context-aware systems applied to IoT-based smart environments have been presented in the literature. Most previous works provide a generic high-level structure of how a context-aware system can be operationalized, but do not offer clues on how to implement it. On the other hand, there are many implementations of context-aware systems applied to specific IoT-based smart environments that are context-specific: it is not clear how they can be extended to other use cases. In this article, we aim to provide an open-source reference implementation for providing context-aware data analytics capabilities to IoT-based smart environments. We rely on the building blocks of the FIWARE ecosystem and the NGSI data standard, providing an agnostic end-to-end solution that considers the complete data lifecycle, covering from data acquisition and modeling, to data reasoning and dissemination. In other words, our reference implementation can be readily operationalized in any IoT-based smart environment regardless of its field of application, providing a context-aware solution that is not context-specific. Furthermore, we provide two example use cases that showcase how our reference implementation can be used in a variety of fields.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados , Ecossistema
3.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791123

RESUMO

AIMS : The national incidence, risk factors, and associated mortality of atrial fibrillation (AF) in breast cancer patients are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS : Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked database, we identified females, ≥66 years old, with a new primary diagnosis of breast cancer from 2007 through 2014. These patients were individually matched 1:1 to Medicare enrolees without cancer, and each pair was followed for 1 year to identify a primary outcome of AF. Cumulative incidence was calculated using competing risk survival statistics. Following this, identifying risk factors of AF among breast cancer patients was conducted using the adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Finally, Kaplan-Meier methods and adjusted Cox proportional hazards modelling were performed to estimate mortality in breast cancer patients with incident and prevalent AF. This study included 85 423 breast cancer patients. Among these 9425 (11.0%) had AF diagnosis prior to the breast cancer diagnosis. New-onset AF was diagnosed in 2993 (3.9%) patients in a 1-year period after the breast cancer diagnosis [incidence 3.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-3.5%, at 1 year; higher rate in the first 60 days (0.6%/month)]. Comparatively, the incidence of new-onset AF in matched non-cancer controls was 1.8% (95% CI 1.6-2.0%). Apart from traditional demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, breast cancer stage was strongly associated with the development of AF [American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage II/III/IV vs. I: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.51/2.63/4.21, respectively]. New-onset AF after breast cancer diagnosis (aHR 3.00) is associated with increased 1-year cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSION : AF incidence is significantly higher in women after a breast cancer diagnosis. Higher breast cancer stages at diagnos are significantly associated with a higher risk of AF. New-onset AF in the new breast cancer diagnosis setting increases 1-year cardiovascular mortality but not breast cancer-related mortality. KEY QUESTION: What are the incidence, prevalence, risk factors and mortality outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a multi-ethnic representative United States cohort of breast cancer patients? KEY FINDING: Annual incidence for AF is 3.9% with highest rate in the first 60 days after cancer diagnosis. Cancer stage and grade are the strongest risk factors for AF. New onset AF after breast cancer increases all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: AF incidence is higher in breast cancer patients and is associated with later stage and grade at diagnosis of breast cancer. Involving cardio-oncology in those who develop AF after cancer diagnosis should be encouraged to improve their cardiovascular and overall prognosis.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 161: 42-50, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794617

RESUMO

Plasma proteomic profiling may aid in the discovery of novel biomarkers upstream of the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study to examine the relation between large-scale proteomics and incident AF in a cohort of older-aged adults in the United States. We quantified 4,877 plasma proteins in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities participants at visit 5 (2011-2013) using an aptamer-based proteomic profiling platform. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between protein levels and incident AF, and explored relation of selected protein biomarkers using annotated pathway analysis. Our study included 4,668 AF-free participants (mean age 75 ± 5 years; 59% female; 20% Black race) with proteomic measures. A total of 585 participants developed AF over a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 1.7 years. After adjustment for clinical factors associated with AF, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was associated with the risk of incident AF (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.68 to 1.98; p, 2.91 × 10-45 per doubling of NT-proBNP). In addition, 36 other proteins were also significantly associated with incident AF after Bonferroni correction. We further adjusted for medication use and estimated glomerular filtration rate and found 17 proteins, including angiopoietin-2 and transgelin, that remained significantly associated with incident AF. Pathway analyses implicated the inhibition of matrix metalloproteases as the top canonical pathway in AF pathogenesis. In conclusion, using a large-scale proteomic platform, we identified both novel and established proteins associated with incident AF and explored mechanistic pathways of AF development.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Proteômica/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Precursores de Proteínas , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e020428, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622678

RESUMO

Background Acute outpatient management of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is perceived to be as safe as inpatient management in some settings. How widely this strategy is used is not well documented. Methods and Results Using MarketScan administrative claims databases for years 2011 through 2018, we identified patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes indicating incident VTE and trends in the use of acute outpatient management. We also evaluated healthcare utilization and hospitalized bleeding events in the 6 months following the incident VTE event. A total of 200 346 patients with VTE were included, of whom 50% had evidence of PE. Acute outpatient management was used for 18% of those with PE and 57% of those with DVT only, and for both DVT and PE its use increased from 2011 to 2018. Outpatient management was less prevalent among patients with cancer, higher Charlson comorbidity index scores, and whose primary treatment was warfarin as compared with a direct oral anticoagulant. Healthcare utilization in the 6 months following the incident VTE event was generally lower among patients managed acutely as outpatients, regardless of initial presentation. Acute outpatient management was associated with lower hazard ratios of incident bleeding risk for both patients who initially presented with PE (0.71 [95% CI, 0.61, 0.82]) and DVT only (0.59 [95% CI, 0.54, 0.64]). Conclusions Outpatient management of VTE is increasing. In the present analysis, it was associated with lower subsequent healthcare utilization and fewer bleeding events. However, this may be because healthier patients were managed on an outpatient basis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are needed on the use of oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in rural versus urban areas, including the initiation of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). OBJECTIVE: We used Medicare data to examine rural/urban differences in anticoagulation use in patients with AF. METHODS: We identified incident AF in a 20% sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries (aged ≥ 65 years) from 2011 to 2016 and collected ZIP code and covariates at the time of AF. We identified the first anticoagulant prescription filled, if any, following AF diagnosis. We categorized beneficiaries into four rural/urban areas using rural-urban commuting area codes and used Poisson regression models to compare anticoagulant use. RESULTS: We included 447,252 patients with AF (mean age 79 ± 8 years), of which 82% were urban, 9% large rural, 5% small rural, and 4% isolated. The percentage who initiated an anticoagulant rose from 34% in 2011 to 53% in 2016, paralleling the uptake of DOACs. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, those in rural areas (vs. urban) were more likely to initiate an anticoagulant. However, rural beneficiaries (vs. urban) were less likely to initiate a DOAC; those in isolated areas were 17% less likely (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-20), those in small rural areas were 12% less likely (95% CI 9-15), and those in large rural areas were 10% less likely (95% CI 8-12). CONCLUSION: Among Medicare beneficiaries with AF, anticoagulation use was low but increased over time with the introduction of DOACs. Rural beneficiaries were less likely to receive a DOAC.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(21): e021723, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713724

RESUMO

Background Black Americans have more atrial fibrillation risk factors but lower atrial fibrillation risk than White Americans. Left atrial (LA) enlargement and/or dysfunction, frequent atrial tachycardia (AT), and premature atrial contractions (PAC) are associated with increased atrial fibrillation risk. Racial differences in these factors may exist that could explain the difference in atrial fibrillation risk. Methods and Results We included 2133 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants (aged 74±4.5 years[mean±SD], 59% women, 27% Black participants) who had echocardiograms in 2011 to 2013 and wore the Zio XT Patch (a 2-week continuous heart monitor) in 2016 to 2017. Linear regression was used to analyze (1) differences in AT/day or PAC/hour between Black and White participants, (2) differences in LA measures between Black and White participants, and (3) racial differences in the association of LA measures with AT or PAC frequency. Compared with White participants, Black participants had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, lower AT frequency, greater LA size, and lower LA function. After multivariable adjustments, Black participants had 37% (95% CI, 24%-47%) fewer AT runs/day than White participants. No difference in PAC between races was noted. Greater LA size and reduced LA function are associated with more AT and PAC runs; however, no race interaction was present. Conclusions Differences in LA measures are unlikely to explain the difference in atrial fibrillation risk between Black and White individuals. Despite more cardiovascular risk factors and greater atrial remodeling, Black participants have lower AT frequency than White participants. Future research is needed to elucidate the protective mechanisms that confer resilience to atrial arrhythmias in Black individuals.

8.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(11): 1594-1601, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is associated with incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the association of changes in hs-cTnT over time on incident AF has not been explored. HYPOTHESIS: Six-year increase in circulating hs-cTnT will be associated with increased risk of AF and will contribute to improved prediction of incident AF. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of 8431 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. hs-cTnT change was categorized at visit 2 and 4 as undetectable (<5 ng/L), detectable (≥5 ng/L, <14 ng/L), or elevated (≥14 ng/L). We used Cox regression to examine the association between the combination of hs-cTnT categories at two visits and incident AF. We also assessed the impact of adding absolute hs-cTnT change on risk discrimination for AF by C-statistics and net reclassification improvement (NRI). RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 16.5 years, 1629 incident AF cases were diagnosed. Among participants with undetectable hs-cTnT at visit 2, the multivariable HR of AF was 1.28 (95% CI 1.12-1.48) among those with detectable or elevated hs-cTnT at visit 4 compared to those in which hs-cTnT remained undetectable. Among those with detectable hs-cTnT at visit 2, compared to those who remained in the detectable hs-cTnT group, reduction to undetectable at visit 4 was associated with lower risk of AF (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.94), while increment to elevated was associated with higher AF risk (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.01-1.68). Adding hs-cTnT change to our main model with baseline hs-cTnT did not result in significant improvement in the C-statistic or substantial NRI. CONCLUSION: Six-year increase in circulating hs-cTnT was associated with elevated risk of incident AF.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fibrilação Atrial , Troponina T/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550307

RESUMO

Importance: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most observational studies on the association between LDL-C and CVD have focused on LDL-C level at a single time point (usually in middle or older age), and few studies have characterized long-term exposures to LDL-C and their role in CVD risk. Objective: To evaluate the associations of cumulative exposure to LDL-C, time-weighted average (TWA) LDL-C, and the LDL-C slope change during young adulthood and middle age with incident CVD later in life. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed pooled data from 4 prospective cohort studies in the US (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Participants were included if they had 2 or more LDL-C measures that were at least 2 years apart between ages 18 and 60 years, with at least 1 of the LDL-C measures occurring during middle age at 40 to 60 years. Data from 1971 to 2017 were collected and analyzed from September 25, 2020, to January 10, 2021. Exposures: Cumulative exposure to LDL-C, TWA LDL-C, and LDL-C slope from age 18 to 60 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and heart failure (HF). Results: A total of 18 288 participants were included in this study. These participants had a mean (SD) age of 56.4 (3.7) years and consisted of 10 309 women (56.4%). During a median follow-up of 16 years, 1165 CHD, 599 ischemic stroke, and 1145 HF events occurred. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models that adjusted for the most recent LDL-C level measured during middle age and for other CVD risk factors, the hazard ratios for CHD were as follows: 1.57 (95% CI, 1.10-2.23; P for trend = .01) for cumulative LDL-C level, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.23-2.31; P for trend <.001) for TWA LDL-C level, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.69-1.12; P for trend = .28) for LDL-C slope. No association was found between any of the LDL-C variables and ischemic stroke or HF. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study showed that cumulative LDL-C and TWA LDL-C during young adulthood and middle age were associated with the risk of incident CHD, independent of midlife LDL-C level. These findings suggest that past levels of LDL-C may inform strategies for primary prevention of CHD and that maintaining optimal LDL-C levels at an earlier age may reduce the lifetime risk of developing atherosclerotic CVD.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 158: 45-52, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465464

RESUMO

We evaluated the association of longitudinal changes in circulating levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) with the burden of arrhythmias as captured by 2-week ambulatory ECG monitoring. This study included 1,930 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants who wore a leadless, ambulatory ECG monitor (Zio XT Patch) at visit 6 (2016 to 2017) and had cardiac biomarkers measured at visit 6 and visit 4 (median of 19 years earlier). The mean age of participants at V6 was 79 ± 5 years, 41% were men, and 22% were black. Adjusting for demographics, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, left ventricular mass, cardiac medications, patch wear time, visit 4 levels of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT, and relative change in hs-cTnT, each log-transformed unit relative increase in NT-proBNP was associated with a higher likelihood of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.48), a higher number of daily atrial tachycardia episodes (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.21), and a higher daily ectopic burden (premature ventricular contractions -GMR 1.42, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.62; premature atrial contractions -GMR 1.40, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.57). In fully adjusted analyses, each log-transformed unit relative increase in hs-cTnT was only found to be weakly associated with a higher daily premature ventricular contraction burden (GMR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70). In conclusion, longitudinal change in NT-proBNP was associated with an increased atrial and ventricular arrhythmia burden.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/sangue , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021227, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514806

RESUMO

Background Current scores for bleeding risk assessment in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) undergoing oral anticoagulation have limited predictive capacity. We developed and internally validated a bleeding prediction model using healthcare claims data. Methods and Results We selected patients with incident VTE initiating oral anticoagulation in the 2011 to 2017 MarketScan databases. Hospitalized bleeding events were identified using validated algorithms in the 180 days after VTE diagnosis. We evaluated demographic factors, comorbidities, and medication use before oral anticoagulation initiation as potential predictors of bleeding using stepwise selection of variables in Cox models run on 1000 bootstrap samples of the patient population. Variables included in >60% of all models were selected for the final analysis. We internally validated the model using bootstrapping and correcting for optimism. We included 165 434 patients with VTE and initiating oral anticoagulation, of whom 2294 had a bleeding event. After undergoing the variable selection process, the final model included 20 terms (15 main effects and 5 interactions). The c-statistic for the final model was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.67-0.69). The internally validated c-statistic corrected for optimism was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.67-0.69). For comparison, the c-statistic of the Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile International Normalized Ratio, Elderly (>65 Years), Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly (HAS-BLED) score in this population was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.61-0.63). Conclusions We have developed a novel model for bleeding prediction in VTE using large healthcare claims databases. Performance of the model was moderately good, highlighting the urgent need to identify better predictors of bleeding to inform treatment decisions.

12.
Circulation ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587750

RESUMO

Background: The most prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) is chronological age, however underlying mechanisms are unexplained. Algorithms using epigenetic modifications to the human genome effectively predict chronological age. Chronological and epigenetic predicted ages may diverge, a phenomenon termed epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), which may reflect accelerated biological aging. We sought to evaluate for associations between epigenetic age measures and incident AF. Methods: Measures for 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge) and an epigenetic predictor of PAI-1 levels (DNAm PAI-1) were determined for study participants from 3 population-based cohort studies. Cox models evaluated for associations with incident AF and results were combined via random-effects meta-analysis. Two-sample summary-level Mendelian randomization analyses evaluated for associations between genetic instruments of the EAA measures and AF. Results: Among 5,600 individuals (mean age: 65.5 years; 60.1% female; 50.7% black), there were 905 incident AF cases during a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed all 4 epigenetic clocks and the DNAm PAI-1 predictor were associated with statistically significant higher hazards of incident AF, though the magnitudes of their point estimates were smaller relative to the associations observed for chronological age. The pooled EAA estimates for each epigenetic measure, with the exception of Horvath EAA, were associated with incident AF in models adjusted for chronological age, race, sex, and smoking variables. Following multivariable adjustment for additional known AF risk factors that could also potentially function as mediators, pooled EAA measures for 2 clocks remained statistically significant. Five year increases in EAA measures for DNAm GrimAge and DNAm PhenoAge were associated with 19% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.09-1.31; p<0.01) and 15% (adjusted HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05-1.25; p<0.01) higher hazards of incident AF, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses for the 5 EAA measures did not reveal statistically significant associations with AF. Conclusions: Our study identified adjusted associations between EAA measures and incident AF, suggesting biological aging plays an important role independent of chronological age, though a potential underlying causal relationship remains unclear. These aging processes may be modifiable and not constrained by the immutable factor of time.

13.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(6): e12575, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430789

RESUMO

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) affects nearly 1 million Americans annually, and many benefit from continued anticoagulation after the initial 3- to 6-month treatment period (secondary prevention). Objectives: To determine whether warfarin, apixaban, or rivaroxaban is associated with reduced recurrent VTE hospitalization in the secondary prevention of VTE. Patients/Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of participants enrolled in the MarketScan Insurance Database between 2013 and 2017 in those with an incident VTE. In those individuals who continued oral anticoagulation (warfarin, apixaban, or rivaroxaban) beyond 6 months, we determined the relative rate of recurrent VTE hospitalization. Results: Among 119 964 individuals with VTE, 25 419 remained on anticoagulation after 6 months and were matched successfully by age, sex, and date. After adjusting for a propensity score, apixaban versus rivaroxaban (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.94) and apixaban versus warfarin (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-1.00) had a reduced risk of recurrent VTE hospitalization, and rivaroxaban versus warfarin (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.94-1.33) had equivalent rates. For the rivaroxaban versus warfarin comparison there was a significant interaction by renal function (P < .01) where rivaroxaban was associated with a lower risk of recurrent VTE hospitalization (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.41-1.03) in those with kidney disease and increased risk in those without kidney disease (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.02-1.50). Conclusions: These data suggest that apixaban has a lower recurrent VTE hospitalization rate than rivaroxaban during the secondary prevention of VTE, and further study of diverse patient populations, especially by kidney function, is warranted.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021566, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351783

RESUMO

There has been sustained focus on the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and heart failure; yet, apart from stroke prevention, the evidence base for the secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence, AF progression, and AF-related complications is modest. Although there are multiple observational studies, there are few large, robust, randomized trials providing definitive effective approaches for the secondary prevention of AF. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of AF nationally and internationally, the AF field needs transformative research and a commitment to evidenced-based secondary prevention strategies. We report on a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute virtual workshop directed at identifying knowledge gaps and research opportunities in the secondary prevention of AF. Once AF has been detected, lifestyle changes and novel models of care delivery may contribute to the prevention of AF recurrence, AF progression, and AF-related complications. Although benefits seen in small subgroups, cohort studies, and selected randomized trials are impressive, the widespread effectiveness of AF secondary prevention strategies remains unknown, calling for development of scalable interventions suitable for diverse populations and for identification of subpopulations who may particularly benefit from intensive management. We identified critical research questions for 6 topics relevant to the secondary prevention of AF: (1) weight loss; (2) alcohol intake, smoking cessation, and diet; (3) cardiac rehabilitation; (4) approaches to sleep disorders; (5) integrated, team-based care; and (6) nonanticoagulant pharmacotherapy. Our goal is to stimulate innovative research that will accelerate the generation of the evidence to effectively pursue the secondary prevention of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Biomédica , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Projetos de Pesquisa , Prevenção Secundária , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Composição Corporal , Reabilitação Cardíaca , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Prioridades em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Perda de Peso
15.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 8(3): e18130, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation programs, consisting of exercise training and disease management interventions, reduce morbidity and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, we aimed to developed and assess the feasibility of delivering a health watch-informed 12-week cardiac telerehabilitation program to acute myocardial infarction survivors who declined to participate in center-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: We enrolled patients hospitalized after acute myocardial infarction at an academic medical center who were eligible for but declined to participate in center-based cardiac rehabilitation. Each participant underwent a baseline exercise stress test. Participants received a health watch, which monitored heart rate and physical activity, and a tablet computer with an app that displayed progress toward accomplishing weekly walking and exercise goals. Results were transmitted to a cardiac rehabilitation nurse via a secure connection. For 12 weeks, participants exercised at home and also participated in weekly phone counseling sessions with the nurse, who provided personalized cardiac rehabilitation solutions and standard cardiac rehabilitation education. We assessed usability of the system, adherence to weekly exercise and walking goals, counseling session attendance, and disease-specific quality of life. RESULTS: Of 18 participants (age: mean 59 years, SD 7) who completed the 12-week telerehabilitation program, 6 (33%) were women, and 6 (33%) had ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Participants wore the health watch for a median of 12.7 hours (IQR 11.1, 13.8) per day and completed a median of 86% of exercise goals. Participants, on average, walked 121 minutes per week (SD 175) and spent 189 minutes per week (SD 210) in their target exercise heart rate zone. Overall, participants found the system to be highly usable (System Usability Scale score: median 83, IQR 65, 100). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study established the feasibility of delivering cardiac telerehabilitation at home to acute myocardial infarction survivors via a health watch-based program and telephone counseling sessions. Usability and adherence to health watch use, exercise recommendations, and counseling sessions were high. Further studies are warranted to compare patient outcomes and health care resource utilization between center-based rehabilitation and telerehabilitation.

16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003300, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals are well-known markers for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk. While the genetics of arrhythmia syndromes have been studied, relations between electrocardiographic intervals and rare genetic variation at a population level are poorly understood. METHODS: Using a discovery sample of 29 000 individuals with whole-genome sequencing from Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine and replication in nearly 100 000 with whole-exome sequencing from the UK Biobank and MyCode, we examined associations between low-frequency and rare coding variants with 5 routinely measured electrocardiographic traits (RR, P-wave, PR, and QRS intervals and corrected QT interval). RESULTS: We found that rare variants associated with population-based electrocardiographic intervals identify established monogenic SCD genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A), a controversial monogenic SCD gene (KCNE1), and novel genes (PAM and MFGE8) involved in cardiac conduction. Loss-of-function and pathogenic SCN5A variants, carried by 0.1% of individuals, were associated with a nearly 6-fold increased odds of the first-degree atrioventricular block (P=8.4×10-5). Similar variants in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 (0.2% of individuals) were associated with a 23-fold increased odds of marked corrected QT interval prolongation (P=4×10-25), a marker of SCD risk. Incomplete penetrance of such deleterious variation was common as over 70% of carriers had normal electrocardiographic intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that large-scale high-depth sequence data and electrocardiographic analysis identifies monogenic arrhythmia susceptibility genes and rare variants with large effects. Known pathogenic variation in conventional arrhythmia and SCD genes exhibited incomplete penetrance and accounted for only a small fraction of marked electrocardiographic interval prolongation.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 47-53, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246724

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the prevalence and incidence of AF among HF subtypes in a biracial community-based cohort. METHODS: We studied 6496 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community study (mean age, 75.8 ± 5.3, 59% women, 23% black) who attended the 2011-2013 visit. HF was identified from physician adjudicated diagnosis, hospital discharges, and self-report. HF subtypes were based on echocardiography. A left ventricular ejection fraction <40% represents HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), 40%-49% for HF with midrange ejection fraction (HFmEF), and ≥ 50% for HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). AF was ascertained through 2017 from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharges, and death certificates. Confounder-adjusted logistic regression and Cox models were used to estimate associations of HF subtype with prevalent and incident AF. RESULTS: Among eligible participants, 393 had HF (HFpEF = 232, HFmEF = 41, HFrEF = 35 and unclassified HF = 85) and 735 had AF. Compared to those without HF, all HF subtypes were more likely to have prevalent AF [odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) 7.4 (5.6-9.9) for HFpEF, 8.1 (4.3-15.3) for HFmEF, 10.0 (5.0-20.2) for HFrEF, 8.8 (5.6-14.0) for unclassified HF]. Among participants without AF at baseline (n = 5761), 610 of them developed AF. Prevalent HF was associated with increased risk of AF [hazard ratio (95%CI) 2.3 (1.6-3.2) for HFpEF, 5.0 (2.7-9.3) for HFmEF, 3.5 (1.7-7.6) for HFrEF, 1.9 (0.9-3.7) for unclassified HF]. CONCLUSION: AF and HF frequently co-occur, with small differences by HF subtype, underscoring the importance of understanding the interplay of these two epidemics and evaluating shared preventive and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
18.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(3): 383-391, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent evidence suggests that use of certain antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), in patients using oral anticoagulants (OACs) might be associated with an elevated risk of bleeding. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the risk of bleeding associated with initiation of different types of antidepressants among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on OAC therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 30,336 AF patients (mean age 72.2 years; 54% female) on OAC therapy that started antidepressant treatment were identified from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases for the period 2007-2015. Exposure was defined as filling a prescription for antidepressant, and categorized as SSRI, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), or other antidepressants. The primary outcome was incident hospitalized bleeding. Associations of antidepressant type with bleeding were assessed calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjusted Cox models in pairwise propensity score-matched cohorts. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 21 months, we identified 1612 bleeding episodes. In pairwise comparisons, SSRI use was associated with an increased risk of bleeding when compared to most other antidepressants (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.96-1.54 vs SNRI; HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.90-1.35 vs SRI; HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.82-1.30 vs TCA). SNRI use was associated with the lowest bleeding risk. Results did not differ by OAC type, age, and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Among AF patients on OAC initiating antidepressants, risk of bleeding varied across antidepressant type. This information can inform treatment choices among patients receiving OAC.

19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(6): 633-640, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the relationships of anger, vital exhaustion, anti-depressant use, and poor social ties with incident atrial fibrillation in a biracial cohort of middle and older-aged adults. METHODS: This analysis included 11,445 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants who were free of atrial fibrillation at baseline in 1990-1992. Vital exhaustion was assessed at baseline and defined as a score in the highest quartile on the 21-item Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire. Baseline anti-depressant use was self-reported. The Spielberger Trait Anger Scale to assess anger and both the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and the Lubben Social Network Scale to assess social ties were also administered at baseline. The primary outcome was incident atrial fibrillation throughout 2016, identified by electrocardiogram, hospital discharge coding of atrial fibrillation, and death certificates. RESULTS: A total of 2220 incident atrial fibrillation cases were detected over a median follow-up of 23.4 years. After adjusting for age, race-center, sex, education, and height, participants in the 4th Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire quartile (referent = 1st Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire quartile) and those reporting anti-depressant use were at increased risk for atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.64 for Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire; hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.69 for anti-depressant use). The increased atrial fibrillation risk observed for 4th Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire quartile participants remained significant after additional adjustment for relevant comorbidities (hazard ratio = 1.20; confidence interval 1.06-1.35). No significant associations were observed for anger or poor social ties with development of atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: Vital exhaustion is associated with an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation.

20.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 247, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stiff arteries increase left ventricular (LV) end-systolic workload, leading over time to left atrial and ventricular remodeling, and providing the substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) development. We investigated if carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a measure of central arterial stiffness, is associated with incident AF. METHODS: In 2011-2013, cfPWV was measured in 3882 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cohort Study (ARIC) without prevalent AF. Participants were followed through 2017 for the incidence of AF. Individuals were categorized in cfPWV quartiles based on visit measurements. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association of cfPWV with incident AF. RESULTS: Mean age was 75 years (SD 5), 60% were female and 20% were African American. Over a median follow-up of 5.5 years we identified 331 incident cases of AF. cfPWV demonstrated U-shaped associations with AF risk. In models adjusted for age, race, center, sex, education levels, and hemodynamic and clinical factors, hazard ratios (HR) of AF for participants in the first, third and fourth quartiles were 1.49 (95% CI 1.06, 2.10), 1.59 (1.14, 2.10), and 1.56(1.10, 2.19), respectively, compared to those in the second quartile. CONCLUSION: Among community-dwelling older adults, low and high central arterial stiffness is associated with AF risk.

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