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1.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding how dementia risk is impacted by timing of smoking cessation has public health implications for prevention efforts. We investigated the relationship of cigarette smoking and cessation with dementia risk and cognitive decline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. DESIGN: Ongoing prospective cohort study. SETTING: Begun in 1987-1989, ARIC was conducted in four US communities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 002 men and women (25% African American) aged 52 to 75 years. MEASUREMENTS: All-cause dementia was defined using standardized algorithms incorporating longitudinal cognitive data, proxy report, and hospital and death certificate dementia codes. Cognitive decline was measured using a composite cognitive score created from three tests measured at two time points (1996-1998 and 2011-2013). Smoking and cessation status were defined by self-report using data from 1987-1989 (visit 1) and 1996-1998 (visit 4). Incident dementia risk and differences in cognitive change by smoking status were estimated with Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models, respectively. To address smoking-related attrition, cognitive scores were imputed for living participants with incomplete cognitive testing. RESULTS: The proportion of never, former, and current smokers was 44%, 41%, and 14%; 79% of former smokers quit 9 years or more before baseline. A total of 1347 participants developed dementia. After adjustment, compared with never smoking, the hazard ratio for all-cause dementia for current smoking was 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.59) and for recent quitting (<9 y before baseline) was 1.24 (95% CI = 1.01-1.52). Quitting 9 years or more before baseline was not associated with dementia. We found no differences in rates of cognitive decline by smoking status. CONCLUSION: Although quitting at any time suggested benefit, dementia risk depended on time since smoking cessation. Our study highlights the importance of early midlife cessation to decrease dementia risk.

2.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575421

RESUMO

Evidence suggests an association between autonomical nervous system (ANS) function and atrial fibrillation (AF) development. We sought to examine the association of baseline resting heart rate (RHR) and short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as surrogates of (ANS) with incident AF in individuals without previous cardiovascular disease. A total of 6,261 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were free of AF and diagnosed cardiovascular disease were enrolled. Three standard 10-second, 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) were used to measure RHR, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD). Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, atrioventricular nodal agents, and known cardiovascular risk factors were used to examine the association of baseline RHR, and log transformed SDNN and RMSDD with incident AF. Over a mean follow-up of 11.3 ± 3.7 years, 754 (12%) participants developed AF. Spline curve analysis revealed a nonlinear association between RHR, HRV, and incident AF. In fully adjusted models higher (but not lower) baseline RHR (RHR >76 beats/min) was associated with incident AF (hazard ratio 1.48 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.86). Additionally, lower values of RMSDD and SDNN and higher values of RMSDD were independently associated with incident AF. In conclusion, cardiac ANS dysregulation indicated as higher RHR and lower HRV is associated with incident AF independent of known cardiovascular risk factors.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 244, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activated Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory properties and adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations may be important for neurocognitive function and protection against neurologic injury. We examined whether mid-life 25(OH) D concentrations were associated with later-life performance on neuropsychological testing, functional ability, depressive symptoms, and incident dementia. METHODS: We studied 13,039 white and black ARIC participants who had serum 25(OH) D measured mid-life at visit 2 (1990-1992). Over the next ~ 20 years through visit 5 (2011-2013), participants underwent 3 additional in-person visits, annual telephone calls, and hospitalization surveillance. An extensive battery of neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at visit 5 using standardized protocols. Incident dementia was ascertained through a formal algorithm that included data from in-person cognitive testing, telephone interviews, hospital discharge codes, and death certificate codes. Diagnoses of dementia were adjudicated by expert clinician committee. For the primary cognitive analyses, we imputed for missing covariates and outcomes and used linear regression to evaluate non-concurrent cross-sectional associations of mid-life 25(OH) D (visit 2) with late-life neuropsychological outcomes (visit 5). We also used Cox regression models to examine associations of mid-life 25(OH) D and incident dementia. RESULTS: In mid-life, the mean (SD) age of participants was 57 (6) years, 57% were women, and 24% black. Mean (SD) 25(OH) D was 24.3 (8.6) ng/mL; 33% had deficient (< 20 ng/mL), 44% intermediate (20- < 30 ng/mL), and 23% sufficient (≥30 ng/mL) 25(OH) D concentrations. Association between mid-life 25(OH) D and late-life performance on neuropsychological testing were mostly null. There was no significant association with functional ability or depressive symptoms. Results were similar in a sensitivity analysis using complete-case data (no imputation). However, after a median follow-up of 20 years, low 25(OH) D concentrations were associated with increased risk for incident dementia (p = 0.01 for trend across categories), with HR of 1.26 (95% CI 1.06, 1.49) for participants with deficient 25(OH) D, compared to sufficient concentrations. CONCLUSION: In this community cohort, mid-life serum 25(OH) D concentrations were associated with incident dementia but not with performance on neuropsychological testing, functional ability, or depressive symptoms, 20 years later. Whether serum 25(OH) D concentrations are causally related to dementia or confounded by poorer health status remains uncertain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on clinicaltrials.gov NCT00005131 .

4.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(1): 30-39, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of multiplexed aptamer-based assays for large-scale proteomic studies. However, the analytic, short- and long-term variation of the measured proteins is largely uncharacterized. METHODS: We quantified 4001 plasma protein analytes from 42 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in split samples and at multiple visits using a multiplexed modified aptamer assay. We calculated the CV, Spearman correlation, and intraclass correlation (ICC) between split samples and evaluated the short-term (4-9 weeks) and long-term (approximately 20 years) variability using paired t-tests with log-transformed protein concentrations and Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. We performed principal component (PC) analysis of protein analyte concentrations and evaluated their associations with age, sex, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: The mean baseline age was 57 years at the first visit, 43% of participants were male and 57% were white. Among 3693 protein analytes that passed quality control, half (n = 1846) had CVs < 5.0%, Spearman correlations > 0.89, and ICCs > 0.96 among the split samples. Over the short term, only 1 analyte had a statistically significant difference between the 2 time points, whereas, over approximately 20 years, 866 analytes (23.4%) had statistically significant differences (P < 1.4 × 10-5, 681 increased, 185 decreased). PC1 had high correlations with age (-0.73) and eGFR (0.60). PC2 had moderate correlation with male sex (0.18) and white race (0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Multiplexed modified aptamer technology can assay thousands of proteins with excellent precision. Our results support the potential for large-scale studies of the plasma proteome over the lifespan.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations have been associated with higher coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. A previous Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study article that evaluated the Mg-CAD association, based on 319 events occurring over 4-7 y, identified a sex-interaction whereby the inverse Mg-CAD association was much stronger among women than men. More than 1700 additional ARIC CAD events have since accrued. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test our hypothesis that serum Mg is inversely and independently associated with long-term CAD risk in ARIC and in a meta-analysis with other prospective studies. METHODS: A total of 14,446 ARIC study participants (baseline mean ± SD age: 54 ± 6 y, 57% women, 27% African American) were followed for incident CAD through 2017. CAD events were defined by myocardial infarction or CAD mortality. Serum Mg was modeled as quintiles based on mean visit 1 (1987-1989) and visit 2 (1990-1992) concentrations. Cox regression models were used. We also conducted a random-effects meta-analysis incorporating these contemporary ARIC findings. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 27 y, 2131 incident CAD cases accrued. Overall, low serum Mg was associated with higher CAD risk after adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and other CAD risk factors than was higher serum Mg (HR Q1 compared with Q5: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.47; P-linear trend <0.001). The association was stronger among women (HR Q1 compared with Q5: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.92) than men (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.34) (P-interaction = 0.05). In the meta-analysis including 5 studies, the pooled RR (95% CI) for CAD in the lowest compared with the highest circulating Mg category was 1.18 (1.06, 1.31) (I2 = 22%, P-heterogeneity = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: In this large community-based cohort and updated meta-analysis, low circulating Mg was associated with higher CAD risk than was higher Mg. Whether increasing Mg concentrations within healthy limits is a useful strategy for CAD prevention remains to be seen.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e013294, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564186

RESUMO

Background Circulating NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels, a well-known indicator of atrial wall stress and remodeling, inversely correlate with body mass index. Both are strongly predictive of atrial fibrillation (AF). Their potential interaction in relation to incident AF, however, has not been explored. Methods and Results In total, 9556 participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study who had 2 measurements of NT-proBNP and no baseline AF or heart failure were followed from 1996 to 1998 through 2016 for the occurrence of incident AF. Participants were categorized as obese (body mass index ≥30) and nonobese (body mass index <30) and by NT-proBNP levels (using the median of 68.2 pg/mL as the cutoff). Over a median follow-up of 18.3 years, we identified 1806 incident cases of AF. Analysis using multivariable Cox regression models showed that obese participants with high NT-proBNP levels at visit 4 had a higher adjusted risk of incident AF (hazard ratio: 3.64; 95% CI, 3.15-4.22) compared with nonobese individuals with low NT-proBNP levels. The association of obesity with AF risk was not modified by NT-proBNP levels (P=0.46 for interaction). Increasing BNP among participants from 1990-1992 to 1996-1998 was associated with increased AF risk. After further adjustment for clinical risk factors and medications, results were similar. Conclusions Individuals who had both elevated body mass index and NT-proBNP and were free of clinically recognized heart failure were at higher risk of AF development. Those who experienced an increase in NT-proBNP levels between visits 2 and 4 were at higher risk of AF.

7.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(10): e007390, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly general population is unclear. We sought to define the prevalence of subclinical AF in a community-based elderly population and to characterize subclinical AF and the incremental diagnostic yield of 4 versus 2 weeks of continuous ECG monitoring. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis within the community-based multicenter observational ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) using visit 6 (2016-2017) data. The 2616 ARIC study participants who wore a leadless, ambulatory ECG monitor (Zio XT Patch) for up to 2 weeks were aged 79±5 years, 42% men, and 26% black. In a subset, 386 participants without clinically recognized AF wore the monitor twice, each time for up to 2 weeks. We characterized the prevalence of subclinical AF (ie, AF detected on the Zio XT Patch without clinically recognized AF) over 2 weeks of monitoring and the diagnostic yield of 4 versus 2 weeks of monitoring. RESULTS: The prevalence of subclinical AF was 2.5%; the prevalence of subclinical AF was 3.3% among white men, 2.5% among white women, 2.1% among black men, and 1.6% among black women. Subclinical AF was mostly intermittent (75%). Among those with intermittent subclinical AF, 91% had AF burden ≤10% during the monitoring period. In a subset of 386 participants without clinical AF, 78% more subclinical AF was detected by 4 weeks versus 2 weeks of ECG monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the prevalence of subclinical AF was lower than previously reported and monitoring beyond 2 weeks provided substantial incremental diagnostic yield. Future studies should focus on individuals with higher risk to increase diagnostic yield and consider continuous monitoring duration longer than 2 weeks.

8.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3045-3050, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623543

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a prothrombotic state, is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc score does not account for the MetS components of prehypertension, prediabetes mellitus, abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL (high-density lipoprotein). Data are limited on the association of MetS with stroke in AF, independent of CHA2DS2-VASc variables. Our aim was to identify MetS components associated with ischemic stroke in participants with AF in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Methods- We included 1172 participants with incident AF within 5 years of measurement of MetS components. MetS was defined by ATP criteria and International Diabetes Federation criteria. Incident ischemic stroke was physician adjudicated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the association of MetS components with stroke. Results- After a median follow-up of 14.8 years, there were 113 ischemic stroke cases. Of the individual MetS components, low HDL was borderline associated with increased stroke risk (hazard ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 0.99-2.21]) after adjustment for CHA2DS2-VASc variables while the remaining MetS variables were not associated with stroke risk. The presence of ≥3 components of MetS was not significantly associated with ischemic stroke after adjustment for CHA2DS2-VASc variables (hazard ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 0.91-2.11]). The risk of stroke increased by 13% for each additional component of MetS; however, this association was borderline significant (hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 0.99-1.28]). Conclusions- The presence of MetS was not significantly associated with ischemic stroke after adjustment for CHA2DS2-VASc variables. Consideration of MetS is unlikely to improve stroke prediction in AF.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(3): 957-968, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The 2020 Strategic Impact Goal introduced by the American Heart Association (AHA) aims at improving cardiovascular health (CVH) of all Americans by 20%. AHA defined ideal CVH across seven established modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Prior studies have indicated that ideal CVH also benefits brain health and cognitive aging, but it is possible that this association is explained by familial factors. METHODS: We examined 272 male monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (total 544 subjects) free of overt cardiovascular disease and dementia from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Memory and learning were measured by Trail Making tests and Wechsler Memory Scale (Immediate and Delayed Memory tests and Visual Reproductive Test). Each of the seven CVH components (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose) was scored per established criterion. RESULTS: The mean age of the twins was 55 years, 96% were whites, and 61% monozygotic. When considering twins as individuals, for every unit increase in CVH score (indicating better cardiovascular health), twins demonstrated faster cognitive processing speed (Trail B: - 5.6 s, 95% CI - 10.3, - 0.9; p = 0.03) and better story recall, both immediate (0.35, 95% CI 0.06, 0.62; p = 0.02) and delayed (0.39, 95% CI 0.08, 0.70; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Better CVH is associated with better cognitive health in several domains. As suggested by within-pair analysis, this association is largely explained by familial factors, implying that early life exposures are shared determinants of both brain health and cardiovascular health.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients may differ according to race/ethnicity and sex due to differences in biology, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, and the use and effectiveness of AF treatments. We aimed to characterize patterns of cardiovascular risk across subgroups of AF patients by sex and race/ethnicity, since doing so may provide opportunities to identify interventions. We also evaluated whether these patterns changed over time. METHODS: We utilized administrative claims data from the Optum Clinformatics® Datamart database from 2009 to 2015. Patients with AF with ≥6 months of enrollment prior to the first non-valvular AF diagnosis were included in the analysis. Final analysis utilized Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cardiovascular outcomes stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. An additional analysis stratified outcomes by calendar year of AF diagnosis to evaluate changes in outcomes over time. RESULTS: In a cohort of 380,636 AF patients, women had a higher risk of ischemic stroke [HR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.19, 1.31)] and lower risk of heart failure and myocardial infarction [HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.88, 0.94) and 0.81 (0.77, 0.86), respectively)] compared to men. Black patients had elevated risk across all endpoints compared to whites, while Hispanics and Asian Americans showed no significant differences in any outcome compared to white patients. These sex and race/ethnic differences did not change over time. CONCLUSIONS: We found sex and race/ethnic differences in risk of cardiovascular outcomes among AF patients, without evidence of improvement over time.

12.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac troponin T, measured using a high-sensitive assay (hs-cTnT), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with increased stroke risk and perhaps with cognitive decline. However, few well-designed prospective studies with extended follow-up have been conducted. We aimed to estimate the association of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP with 15-year cognitive change in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Four US communities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9114 and 9108 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study for analyses of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP, respectively. MEASUREMENTS: We examined association of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP with 15-year change (1996-1998 to 2011-2013) in three cognitive tests of executive function (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), verbal learning memory (Delayed Word Recall Test), and semantic fluency (Word Fluency Test), and an overall score combining the three tests using multivariable linear mixed effect models. We conducted several sensitivity analyses including multiple imputations to address bias due to missing data and attrition, and we compared associations within groups combining hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP into a three-level categorical variable. RESULTS: At baseline (1996-1998), mean age was 63.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 5.7) years; 56.4% were women, and 17.5% were black. The hs-cTnT at baseline was not associated with cognitive change in any measure. Some evidence indicated accelerated decline in verbal learning and memory when comparing those in the highest with the lowest NT-proBNP quintiles; however, this association was not replicated when considering clinically relevant cutoffs or deciles of exposure in survivors. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with our primary analyses. There was little evidence to support effect modification by any considered factors. People with highest levels of both biomarkers had excessive decline in global z scores vs people with lowest levels (-.34; 95% confidence interval = -.63 to -.04). CONCLUSION: Markers of myocardial injury and stretch were not associated with cognitive decline following 15 years among survivors, but when combined together they were suggestive in post hoc analysis. Whether this represents targets of intervention should be examined in the future.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e012241, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266386

RESUMO

Background People living with HIV ( PLWH ) experience higher risk of myocardial infarction ( MI ) and heart failure ( HF ) compared with uninfected individuals. Risk of other cardiovascular diseases ( CVD s) in PLWH has received less attention. Methods and Results We studied 19 798 PLWH and 59 302 age- and sex-matched uninfected individuals identified from the MarketScan Commercial and Medicare databases in the period 2009 to 2015. Incidence of CVD s, including MI , HF , atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, stroke and any CVD -related hospitalization, were identified using validated algorithms. We used adjusted Cox models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CI s of CVD end points and performed probabilistic bias analysis to control for unmeasured confounding by race. After a mean follow-up of 20 months, patients experienced 154 MI s, 223 HF , 93 stroke, 397 atrial fibrillation, 98 peripheral artery disease, and 935 CVD hospitalizations (rates per 1000 person-years: 1.2, 1.7, 0.7, 3.0, 0.8, and 7.1, respectively). Hazard ratios (95% CI ) comparing PLWH with uninfected controls were 1.3 (0.9-1.9) for MI , 3.2 (2.4-4.2) for HF , 2.7 (1.7-4.0) for stroke, 1.2 (1.0-1.5) for atrial fibrillation, 1.1 (0.7-1.7) for peripheral artery disease, and 1.7 (1.5-2.0) for any CVD hospitalization. Adjustment for unmeasured confounding led to similar associations (1.2 [0.8-1.8] for MI , 2.8 [2.0-3.8] for HF , 2.3 [1.5-3.6] for stroke, 1.3 [1.0-1.7] for atrial fibrillation, 0.9 [0.5-1.4] for peripheral artery disease, and 1.6 [1.3-1.9] for CVD hospitalization). Conclusions In a large health insurance database, PLWH have an elevated risk of CVD , particularly HF and stroke. With the aging of the HIV population, developing interventions for cardiovascular health promotion and CVD prevention is imperative.

14.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(7): E205-E210, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous revascularization followed by transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been increasingly utilized as an alternative to surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease (CAD). In many of these patients, the coronary arteries are severely calcified and may best be treated with atherectomy; however, atherectomy is not routinely performed in severe AS patients due to safety concerns. There is a paucity of data on the safety of orbital atherectomy (OA) in patients with severe AS and concurrent calcific CAD. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all patients with severe AS who underwent OA-facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our center between September 1, 2015 and November 1, 2018. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (mean age, 82.5 ± 7.6 years) were identified. Mean aortic valve area was 0.68 ± 0.26 cm and mean aortic valve gradient was 43 ± 17.7 mm Hg. All PCIs were successful (mean diameter stenosis, 80.8 ± 11%; mean number of passes, 5.3 ± 3.3). Two patients had planned hemodynamic support, with left ventricular assist device and intra-aortic balloon pump; none of the patients required vasopressors during PCI. There was a slight reduction in heart rate during OA (71.6 bpm vs 63.3 bpm; P=.02), with no major procedure-related clinical events. Only 1 patient (4.2%) with pre-existing conduction system disease required transient pacing from his permanent pacemaker during OA. All procedures were completed successfully and there were no periprocedural deaths or clinical myocardial infarctions. CONCLUSION: OA-facilitated PCI can be safely performed in patients with severe AS and severely calcified CAD with low risk of complications. There was no significant change in blood pressure and heart rate during OA, with minimal need for temporary pacing.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(3): 330-341, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol are major modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but effects of exposures during young adulthood on later life CVD risk have not been well quantified. OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to evaluate the independent associations between young adult exposures to risk factors and later life CVD risk, accounting for later life exposures. METHODS: The authors pooled data from 6 U.S. cohorts with observations spanning the life course from young adulthood to later life, and imputed risk factor trajectories for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols, systolic and diastolic BP starting from age 18 years for every participant. Time-weighted average exposures to each risk factor during young (age 18 to 39 years) and later adulthood (age ≥40 years) were calculated and linked to subsequent risks of coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), or stroke. RESULTS: A total of 36,030 participants were included. During a median follow-up of 17 years, there were 4,570 CHD, 5,119 HF, and 2,862 stroke events. When young and later adult risk factors were considered jointly in the model, young adult LDL ≥100 mg/dl (compared with <100 mg/dl) was associated with a 64% increased risk for CHD, independent of later adult exposures. Similarly, young adult SBP ≥130 mm Hg (compared with <120 mm Hg) was associated with a 37% increased risk for HF, and young adult DBP ≥80 mm Hg (compared with <80 mm Hg) was associated with a 21% increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative young adult exposures to elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP and LDL were associated with increased CVD risks in later life, independent of later adult exposures.

16.
Am Heart J ; 216: 1-8, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but paradoxically higher burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors, has been observed among African Americans compared to Whites in studies of AF identified by mostly 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and clinically. METHODS: We performed 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (aECG) in a biracial sample of 1,193 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) (mean age = 78 years, 62% African Americans, 64% female). Atrial fibrillation was identified from aECG, study visit ECGs, and discharge codes from cohort hospitalizations. We used covariate-adjusted logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for AF in African Americans versus Whites, with adjustment for sampling and nonresponse. RESULTS: African Americans were more likely than Whites to have hypertension and diabetes but less likely to have coronary heart disease. The prevalence of AF detected by aECG or ARIC study ECG (adjusted for age and coronary heart disease) was lower in African Americans than Whites (2.7% vs 5.0%). White men had a higher (although not significant) AF prevalence of 7.8% compared to the other race and gender groups at 2.3%-2.8%. The adjusted OR for AF was 0.49 (0.24-0.99) comparing African Americans to Whites. Findings were similar when AF was defined to include prior AF hospitalizations (OR = 0.42, 0.25-0.72). There were no significant differences by race for asymptomatic or paroxysmal AF. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation was less prevalent in African American than white older adults, regardless of detection method. Although overall detection of new AF cases with aECG was low, future studies should consider longer-term monitoring to characterize AF by race.

17.
Epidemiology ; 30(6): 885-892, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea are common conditions, but little is known about obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk among atrial fibrillation patients. METHODS: Using the Truven Health MarketScan databases, we constructed a prospective cohort of atrial fibrillation patients from 2007 to 2014. Atrial fibrillation, obstructive sleep apnea, stroke, myocardial infarction, and confounders were defined using the International Classification of Disease-9-CM codes. We matched individuals with an obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis with up to five individuals without a diagnosis by age, sex, and enrollment date. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders and high-dimensional propensity scores. We included migraines as a control outcome. Bias analysis used published sensitivities and specificities to generate rate ratios adjusted for obstructive sleep apnea misclassification. RESULTS: We matched 56,969 individuals with an obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis to 323,246 without. During a mean follow-up of 16 months, 3234 incident strokes and 4639 incident myocardial infarctions occurred. After adjustment, obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis was strongly associated with reduced risk of incident stroke (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval = 0.43, 0.53) and myocardial infarction (0.40, [0.37, 0.44]) and a smaller reduced risk of migraines (0.82, [0.68, 0.99]). Bias analysis produced wide-ranging or inestimable rate ratios adjusted for misclassification of obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSIONS: Obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis in atrial fibrillation patients was strongly associated with reduced risk of incident cardiovascular disease. We discuss misclassification, selection bias, and residual confounding as potential explanations.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(12): e010229, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189396

RESUMO

Background American Indians ( AIs ) have high stroke morbidity and mortality. We compared stroke incidence and mortality in AI s, blacks, and whites. Methods and Results Pooled data from 2 cardiovascular disease cohort studies included 3182 AI s from the SHS (Strong Heart Study), aged 45 to 74 years at baseline (1988-1990) and 3765 blacks and 10 413 whites from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study, aged 45 to 64 years at baseline (1987-1989). Stroke surveillance was based on self-report, hospital records, and death certificates. We estimated hazard ratios for incident stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic combined) through 2008, stratified by sex and birth-year tertile, and relative risk for poststroke mortality. Incident strokes numbered 282 for AI s, 416 for blacks, and 613 for whites. For women and men, stroke incidence among AI s was similar to or lower than blacks and higher than whites. Covariate adjustment resulted in lower hazard ratios for most comparisons, but results for these models were not always statistically significant. After covariate adjustment, AI women and men had higher 30-day poststroke mortality than blacks (relative risk=2.1 [95% CI=1.0, 3.2] and 2.2 [95% CI=1.3, 3.1], respectively), and whites (relative risk=1.6 [95% CI=0.8, 2.5] and 1.7 [95% CI=1.1, 2.4]), and higher 1-year mortality (relative risk range=1.3-1.5 for all comparisons). Conclusions Stroke incidence in AI s was lower than for blacks and higher than for whites; differences were larger for blacks and smaller for whites after covariate adjustment. Poststroke mortality was higher in AI s than blacks and whites.

19.
Maturitas ; 125: 5-10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous testosterone concentrations are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) development is not well established. We assessed the association between plasma total testosterone concentrations and incident AF in a population-based longitudinal study. STUDY DESIGN: Using data from the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified incident AF among 9282 participants who had plasma total testosterone measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry at Visit 4 (1996-1998). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: AF cases were identified by electrocardiograms performed during study visits, hospital records/discharge codes, and death certificates through 2013. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident AF across quartiles of plasma total testosterone, stratified by sex, with multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: The mean age of the participant sample at ARIC Visit 4 was 63 years (range 52-75); 54.5% were women. Mean (SD) plasma total testosterone levels were 537 ng/dL (213) for men and 27.6 ng/dL (34.7) for women. Over a mean of 13.7 years of follow-up, 1664 incident cases of AF were identified. Comparing those in the highest quartile of plasma total testosterone concentration to those in the lowest quartile and after adjustment for potential confounding variables, there was a positive association between plasma total testosterone and incident AF in men (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07, 1.66), but no such association in women (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.80, 1.22). Conclusion A higher plasma total testosterone concentration was associated with a modestly greater incidence rate of AF in men.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(5): 686-693, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics/Latinos represent the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of AF and its correlates in a representative Hispanic/Latino population-based sample inclusive of all background groups. METHODS: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos participants (n=16,415; 60% women; 59% age >45 years) were enrolled between March 2008 and June 2011, representing individuals of Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American heritage. AF was defined by the 12-lead electrocardiogram and/or participant self-report of a physician diagnosis. Hispanic background-specific AF prevalence rates were determined. Weighted sequential logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic factors (age and sex) and clinical variables (diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, tobacco use, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of AF was 1.0% (n=162), with the highest prevalence in Hispanics of Dominican and Puerto Rican backgrounds (1.9% and 2.5% respectively) and the lowest in those of Mexican background (0.3%). Diabetes, hypertension, renal disease, left ventricular hypertrophy determined by the electrocardiogram, alcohol use, and English language preference (greater acculturation) (P < .01 for all) were significantly associated with higher AF prevalence. Multivariate analysis by Hispanic/Latino background group showed that Hispanics of Dominican and Puerto Rican backgrounds were at a 3- to 6-fold higher risk of AF than their Mexican counterparts. CONCLUSION: In a diverse representative population of Hispanics/Latinos, overall AF prevalence was low and varied significantly across Hispanic/Latino background groups independent of clinical or demographic factors.

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