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1.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 67(7): 400-403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616357

RESUMO

Complete obstructive atelectasis occurs when mucous or a foreign body obstruct one of the main bronchi. Several lung ultrasound signs have been associated with this entity. We describe the case of a patient admitted to the surgical critical care unit in whom lung ultrasound led to a diagnosis of complete obstructive atelectasis, and the presence of pleural effusion provided direct visualization of lung pulse, a sign that has only previously been described by interpreting ultrasound artifacts.

2.
Opt Express ; 28(12): 17672-17682, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679972

RESUMO

The most common approach to optically generate and manipulate bubbles in liquids involves temperature gradients induced by CW lasers. In this work, we present a method to accomplish both the generation of microbubbles and their 3D manipulation in ethanol through optothermal forces. These forces are triggered by light absorption from a nanosecond pulsed laser (λ = 532 nm) at silver nanoparticles photodeposited at the distal end of a multimode optical fiber. Light absorbed from each laser pulse quickly heats up the silver-ethanol interface beyond the ethanol critical-point (∼ 243 °C) before the heat diffuses through the liquid. Therefore, the liquid achieves a metastable state and owing to spontaneous nucleation converted to a vapor bubble attached to the optical fiber. The bubble grows with semi-spherical shape producing a counterjet in the final stage of the collapse. This jet reaches the hot nanoparticles vaporizing almost immediately and ejecting a microbubble. This microbubble-generation mechanism takes place with every laser pulse (10 kHz repetition rate) leading to the generation of a microbubbles stream. The microbubbles' velocities decrease as they move away from the optical fiber and eventually coalesce forming a larger bubble. The larger bubble is attracted to the optical fiber by the Marangoni force once it reaches a critical size while being continuously fed with each bubble of the microbubbles stream. The balance of the optothermal forces owing to the laser-pulse drives the 3D manipulation of the main bubble. A complete characterization of the trapping conditions is provided in this paper.

3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e138, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638683

RESUMO

AIMS: Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterised by impulsive anger attacks that vary greatly across individuals in severity and consequence. Understanding IED subtypes has been limited by lack of large, general population datasets including assessment of IED. Using the 17-country World Mental Health surveys dataset, this study examined whether behavioural subtypes of IED are associated with differing patterns of comorbidity, suicidality and functional impairment. METHODS: IED was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in the World Mental Health surveys (n = 45 266). Five behavioural subtypes were created based on type of anger attack. Logistic regression assessed association of these subtypes with lifetime comorbidity, lifetime suicidality and 12-month functional impairment. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of IED in all countries was 0.8% (s.e.: 0.0). The two subtypes involving anger attacks that harmed people ('hurt people only' and 'destroy property and hurt people'), collectively comprising 73% of those with IED, were characterised by high rates of externalising comorbid disorders. The remaining three subtypes involving anger attacks that destroyed property only, destroyed property and threatened people, and threatened people only, were characterised by higher rates of internalising than externalising comorbid disorders. Suicidal behaviour did not vary across the five behavioural subtypes but was higher among those with (v. those without) comorbid disorders, and among those who perpetrated more violent assaults. CONCLUSIONS: The most common IED behavioural subtypes in these general population samples are associated with high rates of externalising disorders. This contrasts with the findings from clinical studies of IED, which observe a preponderance of internalising disorder comorbidity. This disparity in findings across population and clinical studies, together with the marked heterogeneity that characterises the diagnostic entity of IED, suggests that it is a disorder that requires much greater research.

4.
Opt Lett ; 45(14): 3961-3964, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667328

RESUMO

The inclusion of thermal effects in optical manipulation has been explored in diverse experiments, increasing the possibilities for applications in diverse areas. In this Letter, the results of combined optical and thermal manipulation in the vicinity of a highly absorbent hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer, which induces both the generation of convective currents and thermophoresis, are presented. In combination with the optical forces, thermal forces help reduce the optical power required to trap and manipulate micrometric polystyrene beads. Moreover, the inclusion of these effects allows the stacking and manipulation of multiple particles with a single optical trap along with the beam propagation, providing an extra tool for micromanipulation of a variety of samples.

5.
Vet Parasitol ; 283: 109141, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502919

RESUMO

The endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia plays an important role in the pathogenesis and inflammatory immune response to heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in dogs. Doxycycline is used to reduce Wolbachia from all life stages of heartworm to avoid large releases of the bacteria during the death of the worms. However, the dose and duration currently recommended have been extrapolated from the treatment of other rickettsial infections. Therefore, the aim was to study the dynamics of Wolbachia IgG antibodies in heartworm-infected dogs under adulticide treatment using different dosages of doxycycline. Forty-nine heartworm-infected dogs were recruited. On day 0 (diagnosis), monthly ivermectin (6 µg/kg) was prescribed, as well as daily doxycycline for 30 days, at 10 mg/kg/12 h (n = 13), 5 mg/kg/12 h (n = 19), and 10 mg/kg/24 h (n = 17). Dogs underwent adulticide treatment and blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 90, and 120. All dogs had antibodies against recombinant Wolbachia surface protein (rWSP), confirming the important role of the bacteria in heartworm. No significant differences were found in anti-rWSP response by presence/absence of microfilariae, or by parasite burden on day 0. In all treated groups, the anti-rWSP antibody response was not significantly different between days 0 and 30 but was significantly lower between days 0 and 120 (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that the administration of a lower dose than currently recommended is sufficient to achieve a significant reduction of Wolbachia in dogs infected by D. immitis.

6.
Vet Parasitol ; 283: 109144, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512422

RESUMO

Glomerulonephropathy associated with Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is relatively frequent in infected dogs. Given the importance and the scarcity of studies focused on its prevalence and diagnosis, the objective was to determine the prevalence of proteinuria and functional indicators of glomerular filtration rate in dogs with heartworm disease and discuss its utility in the detection of renal impairment. Sera and urine from 47 infected dogs were analyzed in a reference laboratory. Urea, creatinine, plasma proteins and serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were analyzed in sera, while the UPC ratio was performed in urine. Dogs were further evaluated for the presence/absence of microfilariae, pulmonary and systemic hypertension, and the parasite burden was assessed. The results showed that 19.1 % of dogs showed proteinuria (UPC > 0.5) and 17 % showed borderline proteinuria (UPC 0.2-0.5). Creatinine and SDMA were high (>1.8 mg/dl and ≥18 µg/dl, respectively) in 4.2 % of dogs. UPC ratio was significantly increased in dogs with high parasite burden and in dogs with microfilariemia (p < 0.05). Dogs with pulmonary hypertension showed higher increases in proteinuria as well, which was probably due to the chronicity of the infection. No significant differences were found in serum and urine values regarding systemic blood pressure. Despite the limitations of this study, proteinuria/borderline proteinuria was present in 36.2 % of dogs with heartworm disease, and this may be due to glomerular disease. Therefore, the detection of proteinuria, along with other renal biomarkers in the diagnostic protocols, could help identify kidney alterations or risk of renal damage in heartworm disease.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(25): 13867-13871, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368774

RESUMO

Herein, we present the first rotational study of the AlaAla dipeptide, brought into the gas phase by laser ablation. Two different structures have been unveiled in the isolated environment of a supersonic expansion by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. These structures have been identified through their rotational and 14N quadrupole coupling constants. The flexibility of the -NH2 and -COOH ends allows the formation of strong intramolecular interactions giving rise to five- and seven-membered ring configurations.

8.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126576, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443267

RESUMO

Phytoremediation using high production crops could be an alternative for the recovery of metals polluted soils. In this sense, the Arundo donax L. energy crop has shown tolerance to moderate concentrations of heavy metals. The objective of this work was to test the tolerance of micropropagated plants of Arundo donax to increasing concentrations of cadmium, chromium, cooper, nickel and lead, in an in vitro culture medium. Biomass production and concentration of heavy metal in shoots and roots were analyzed. Results showed that heavy metals were accumulated mostly in subterranean organs. The increase in heavy metal concentration was dose dependent and not always follows a linear relationship. Arundo donax showed a broad tolerance to cadmium (0.5 mM), chromium (0.2 mM), cooper (2 mM), nickel (0.5 mM) and lead (1 mM). In relation to cooper, Arundo donax showed a hyperaccumulative potential. These results suggest the potential use of Arundo donax in the phytomanagement of polluted soils although further studies should be carried out using polluted soils.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Metais Pesados , Níquel , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(11): 110604, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242716

RESUMO

We use a near quantum limited detector to experimentally track individual quantum state trajectories of a driven qubit formed by the hybridization of a waveguide cavity and a transmon circuit. For each measured quantum coherent trajectory, we separately identify energy changes of the qubit as heat and work, and verify the first law of thermodynamics for an open quantum system. We further establish the consistency of these results by comparison with the master equation approach and the two-projective-measurement scheme, both for open and closed dynamics, with the help of a quantum feedback loop that compensates for the exchanged heat and effectively isolates the qubit.

11.
Chemphyschem ; 21(6): 525-530, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012435

RESUMO

Four conformers of the non-proteinogenic α-amino acid isovaline, vaporized by laser ablation, are characterized by Fourier-transform microwave techniques in a supersonic expansion. The comparison between the experimental rotational and 14 N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and the ab initio calculated ones provides conclusive evidence for the identification of the conformers. The most stable species is stabilized by an N-H⋅⋅⋅O =C intramolecular hydrogen bond and a cis-COOH interaction, whereas the higher-energy conformers exhibit an N⋅⋅⋅H-O intramolecular hydrogen bond and trans-COOH, as in other aliphatic amino acids. The spectroscopic data herein reported can be used for the astrophysical purpose in a possible detection of isovaline in space.

12.
Chemistry ; 26(20): 4583-4591, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905253

RESUMO

This article presents a new strategy for achieving regiocontrol over the endo versus exo modes of cycloisomerizations of epoxide-containing alcohols, which leads to the formation of five- or six-membered cyclic ethers. Unlike traditional methods relying on achiral reagents or enzymes, this approach utilizes chiral phosphoric acids to catalyze the regiodivergent selective formations of either tetrahydrofuran- or tetrahydropyran-containing products. By using methyl ester of epoxide-containing antibiotic mupirocin as the substrate, it is demonstrated that catalytic chiral phosphoric acids (R)-TCYP and (S)-TIPSY could be used to achieve the selective formation of either the six-membered endo product (95:5 r.r.) or the five-membered exo product (77:23 r.r.), correspondingly. This cyclization was found to be unselective under the standard conditions involving various achiral acids, bases, or buffers. The subsequent mechanistic studies using state-of-the-art quantum chemical solutions provided the description of the potential energy surface, which is fully consistent with the experimental observations. Based on these results, highly detailed reaction paths are obtained and a concerted and highly synchronous mechanism is proposed for the formation of both exo and endo products.

13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112889, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568966

RESUMO

This work presents the development of a methodology for the accurate and precise quantification of the renal biomarker Cystatin C in human urine by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS). The procedure is based on the addition of a known quantity of the proteotypic peptide ALDFAVG*EYNK labelled with 13C2-glycine to the urine sample followed by protein hydrolysis using trypsin. Then, preconcentration and purification of the isotope diluted peptide was carried out by a selective monoclonal antibody bound to magnetic beads and final measurement was done after injection of the sample in a HPLC-MS/MS triple quadrupole instrument. The isotopic distribution of the isotope diluted proteotypic peptide was measured by low resolution selected reaction monitoring. Using this aquisition mode, the bandpass of the first quadrupole was widened (FWHM =13 u) so the whole isotopic clusters for both the natural abundance and the labelled peptides entered the collision cell. The proposed acquisition mode provided similar accuracy and precision than the regular SRM mode (FWHM =0.7 u) but a higher sensitivity was observed. The purification of the sample by antibody based enrichment of the target peptide was shown to remove interfering compounds more efficiently in comparison with a sample purification based on semipreparative liquid chromatography. Using 5 ng of the labelled peptide it was possible to quantify Cystatin C in human urine in patients with normal and impaired renal function. Recoveries from 100 to 104% were obtained in samples containing from 90 to 700 µg L-1 of Cystatin C with relative standard deviations from 0.5 to 6%. The stability of Cystatin C in urine samples was evaluated under different storage conditions showing that only when the urine samples were stored at room temperature during more than 10 days, a significant degradation of Cystatin C was observed.


Assuntos
Cistatina C/urina , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/urina , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cistatina C/química , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/urina , Estabilidade Proteica , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124624, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472353

RESUMO

The capacity of two iron-based nanomaterials, namely goethite nanospheres (nGoethite) and zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), to immobilize As in a polluted soil was evaluated and compared. The composition and morphology of the products were studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis and transmission electron microscopy, while zeta potential and average sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering. To assess As immobilization, soil subsamples were treated with nGoethite or nZVI at a range of Fe doses (0.5%, 2%, 5% and 10%) and then studied by the TCLP test and the Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The influence of both nanoparticles on As speciation was determined, as was impact on soil pH, electrical conductivity, Fe availability and phytotoxicity (watercress germination). For nZVI, notable results were achieved at a dose of 2% (89.5% decrease in As, TCLP test), and no negative effects on soil parameters were detected. Indeed, even soil phytotoxicity was reduced and only at the highest dose was a slight increase in As3+ detected. In contrast, excellent results were obtained for nGoethite at the lowest dose (0.2%) (82.5% decrease in As, TCLP test); however, soil phytotoxicity was increased at higher doses, probably due to a marked enhancement of electrical conductivity. For both types of nanoparticle, slight increases in Fe availability were observed. Thus, our results show that both nZVI and nGoethite have the capacity to effectively immobilize As in this brownfield. The use of lower doses of nGoethite emerges as a promising soil remediation strategy for soils affected by As pollution.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Ferro/química , Compostos de Ferro/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Minerais/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e282, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793429

RESUMO

Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonosis, considered an endemic disease of dogs and cats in several countries of Western Europe, including Portugal. This study assesses the levels of D. immitis exposure in humans from Northern Portugal, to which end, 668 inhabitants of several districts belonging to two different climate areas (Csa: Bragança, Vila Real and Csb: Aveiro, Braga, Porto, Viseu) were tested for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) antibodies. The overall prevalence of seropositivity to both anti-D. immitis and WSP antibodies was 6.1%, which demonstrated the risk of infection with D. immitis in humans living in Northern Portugal. This study, carried out in a Western European country, contributes to the characterisation of the risk of infection with D. immitis among human population in this region of the continent. From a One Health point of view, the results of the current work also support the close relationship between dogs and people as a risk factor for human infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Wolbachia/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2041-2048, Nov.-Dec. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055131

RESUMO

A 15-year-old, mixed breed, male horse was attended with a history of multiple abscesses in the cervical region with a three-year evolution. Upon admission, three fistulous tracts with drainage of purulent secretions in the cervical region, low body score, restriction of cervical movements, and painful sensitivity to palpation were observed. The horse was diagnosed with osteomyelitis secondary to Streptococcus equi infection. The initial treatment was antibiotic therapy and local curative. Owing to the lack of response, surgical debridement was performed. An initial favorable response was observed; however, after 4 months, drainage recurred, and the animal was euthanized. A post-mortem computed tomography scan was performed to obtain details of the injury. Cervical osteomyelitis is rare, and its occurrence through hematogenous spread in adult horses and the tomographic findings had not been reported previously. The long period of evolution, difficulty in performing an aggressive debridement, and the presence of multi-drug resistant bacteria contributed to the negative outcome.(AU)


Um equino macho, sem raça definida, de 15 anos de idade, foi atendido com histórico de múltiplos abscessos cervicais com evolução de três anos. Na admissão, foram observados: três trajetos fistulosos com drenagem de material purulento na região cervical; baixo escore corporal; restrição de movimentos cervicais; e sensibilidade dolorosa à palpação da região. Foi diagnosticada osteomielite vertebral cervical secundária à infecção por Streptococcus equi. O tratamento inicial consistiu na administração de antibióticos e curativo local. Na ausência de resposta à terapia, realizou-se o debridamento cirúrgico. Inicialmente, obteve-se uma resposta favorável, entretanto, após quatro meses, houve recidiva da lesão e o animal foi submetido à eutanásia. Realizou-se tomografia computadorizada no post mortem para detalhamento da lesão. A osteomielite vertebral cervical é rara, e sua ocorrência por meio de disseminação hematógena em animais adultos não foi previamente reportada. O longo período de evolução, aliado à dificuldade de realização de um debridamento agressivo, e a característica multirresistente do agente etiológico contribuíram para o desfecho negativo do caso.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Osteomielite/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Streptococcus equi , Cavalos
18.
Helminthologia ; 56(4): 329-333, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708674

RESUMO

Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonotic and an emerging disease, expanding in Europe. In Bulgaria, the presence of the parasite has been described in many regions. However, canine heartworm has hardly been evaluated in the capital of the country and, therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of canine heartworm in Sofia. Eighty stray dogs from the city of Sofia and the metropolitan area were analysed for circulating D. immitis antigens. The prevalence was 31.25 %, being 34.7 % in the metropolitan area and 25.8 % in the city of Sofia. The current results are among the highest reported in the country. This could be due to the lack of prophylactic measures against infection in these dogs, but also to the spread of D. immitis into non-endemic countries. Stray dogs may act as an important reservoir of heartworm being a risk for client-owned animals and for the development of pulmonary dirofilariosis in inhabitants. The results show the need to establish further epidemiological studies and prophylactic campaigns for stray and client-owned animals, as well as to create awareness campaigns about the severity and importance of this disease for both animals and humans.

19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1477-1482, set.-out. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038664

RESUMO

Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) etiology can be acquired, iatrogenic or idiopathic. There are no previous reports of RLN caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve compression by melanomas. This report describes a horse presenting severe dyspnea and progressive weight loss. Physical exam demonstrated tachycardia, tachypnea, inspiratory dyspnea at rest, neck extension and mydriasis. Temporary tracheotomy was performed and videoendoscopic examination diagnosed grade IV laryngeal paralysis. The animal came suddenly to death by suppurative bacterial pneumonia. At necropsy, it was possible to observe multiple melanotic epithelioid melanoma nodules compressing the recurrent laryngeal nerve, alongside with lung and parotid metastasis. This finding emphasizes the importance of establishing a differential diagnosis for tumor mass compression in the etiology of RLN, especially melanomas in gray horses, with or without cutaneous manifestations of masses.(AU)


A neuropatia laríngea recorrente (NLR) pode apresentar etiologia adquirida, iatrogênica ou idiopática. Não há relatos prévios da ocorrência da NLR causada pela compressão do nervo laríngeo recorrente por melanomas. Este relato descreve um equino apresentando dispneia grave e perda de peso progressiva. O exame físico demonstrou taquicardia, taquipneia, dispneia inspiratória em repouso, extensão do pescoço e midríase. Foi realizada traqueotomia temporária e exame videoendoscópico, mediante o qual se diagnosticou paralisia laríngea grau IV. O animal veio a óbito por pneumonia bacteriana supurativa. Na necropsia, foi possível observar múltiplos nódulos de melanoma epitelioide amelanótico comprimindo o nervo laríngeo recorrente, juntamente com metástases pulmonares e parotídeas. Este achado enfatiza a importância de estabelecer um diagnóstico diferencial nos casos de NLR, pensando-se na compressão nervosa por massas tumorais, especialmente melanomas em cavalos tordilhos, com ou sem manifestações cutâneas de massas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cavalos , Laringe/fisiopatologia , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/fisiopatologia , Melanoma/veterinária
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few odour tests have been created for children. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple and quick olfactory test, suitable for the evaluation of odour identification and threshold in a Spanish paediatric population, the paediatric Barcelona Olfactory Test-6 (pBOT-6). METHODS: The pBOT-6 consisted in a set of 6 odorants for a forced-choice identification test (IT), and a 6 dilutions phenyl ethyl alcohol geometric series for the threshold test (TT). The pBOT-6 was compared with the U-sniff test (a validated international paediatric smell test) in 131 Spanish healthy volunteers aged 6-17 years. A Bland-Altman plot was used to determine the agreement between two tests. Reliability was analyzed in fifteenvolunteers using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Normative data was obtained and 8 children diagnosed with subjective smell loss were tested for validation. RESULTS: Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a minimal bias of -1.71% with upper and lower limit of agreement of -31.1% and 27.6%, respectively. The ICC was 0.83 (95% CI 0.6-0.96) for the IT and 0.73 (95% CI 0.36-0.9) for the TT, showing excellent and good consistency between measurements over time. Mean pBOT-6 scores were significantly higher in healthy volunteers compared with patients with smell loss. Discrimination between normosmia and smell loss was achieved with a sensitivity of 96.9% and a specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The pBOT-6 offers an effectiveand fast method useful in clinical routine to distinguish, with high sensitivity and specificity, between paediatric patients with normosmia and those with smell dysfunction.

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