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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(6): 377-384, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185134

RESUMO

Objetivo. Analizar la evolución de las características epidemiológicas de las visitas atendidas de forma consecutiva en una unidad de dolor torácico (UDT) de un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH) durante un periodo de 10 años. Método. Se incluyeron todas las visitas por dolor torácico no traumático (DTNT), analizándose la evolución temporal de las características epidemiológicas, de la clasificación diagnóstica inicial (evaluación clínica inicial y electrocardiograma) y final (al alta de la UDT), y los tiempos necesarios para alcanzar las mismas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34.552 pacientes consecutivos con una edad media 59 (DE: 13) años, el 42% mujeres. Se observó un incrementó en el número anual de visitas a la UDT (p < 0,001), menor afluencia los meses de verano (p < 0,001), y mayor los días laborables (p < 0,001) y de 8-16 horas (p < 0,001). Se comprobó que progresivamente más pacientes eran mujeres (+0,29% anual, p < 0,05), menores de 50 años (+0,92%, p < 0,001), con más factores de riesgo cardiovascular, menos antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica y con DTNT menos sugestivo de síndrome coronario agudo (SCA). La clasificación diagnóstica inicial y final descartó SCA en un 52,2% y un 80,4% de pacientes, respectivamente, hecho que aumentó progresivamente durante el periodo evaluado (+1,86%, p < 0,001; y +0,56%, p = 0,04; respectivamente). El tiempo de clasificación inicial no se modificó, pero se incrementó el necesario para la clasificación final (p < 0,001), que resultó superior en pacientes con diagnostico final de SCA (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Se observa un mayor uso de la UDT tras su creación, causado por un incremento de pacientes con DTNT de características no típicamente coronarias, disminuyendo el porcentaje de clasificados inicial y finalmente como debidos a SCA


Objective. To analyze changes in the characteristics of consecutively treated patients attended in the chest pain unit of a hospital emergency department over a 10-year period. Methods. All patients presenting with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP) were included. We analyzed changes over time in epidemiologic characteristics, initial diagnostic classification (on clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation), final diagnosis (on discharge), and time until these diagnoses. Results. A total of 34 552 consecutive patients with a mean (SD) age of 59 (13) years were included; 42% were women. The annual number of visits rose over time. Visits were fewer in summer and more numerous on workdays and between the hours of 8 AM and 4 PM (P<.001, both comparisons). The number of women increased over time (up 0.29% annually, P<.05) as did the number of patients under the age of 50 years (up 0.92% annually, P<.001). With time, patients had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and less often had a history of ischemic heart disease. Fewer cases of NTCP had signs suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS was ruled out at the time of initial and final diagnoses in 52.2% and 80.4%, respectively, and these percentages which rose over the 10-year period by 1.86% (P<.001) and 0.56% (P=.04). Time to initial diagnosis did not change. However, time to final diagnosis did increase (P<.001), and the delay was longer in patients diagnosed with ACS (P<.001). Conclusions. The chest pain unit was more active at the end of the period, in keeping with the increase in patients with NTCP whose characteristics were not typical of coronary disease. The percentages of patients initially and finally diagnosed with ACS decreased with time


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Variância
2.
Emergencias ; 31(6): 377-384, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze changes in the characteristics of consecutively treated patients attended in the chest pain unit of a hospital emergency department over a 10-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients presenting with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP) were included. We analyzed changes over time in epidemiologic characteristics, initial diagnostic classification (on clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation), final diagnosis (on discharge), and time until these diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 34 552 consecutive patients with a mean (SD) age of 59 (13) years were included; 42% were women. The annual number of visits rose over time. Visits were fewer in summer and more numerous on workdays and between the hours of 8 AM and 4 PM (P<.001, both comparisons). The number of women increased over time (up 0.29% annually, P<.05) as did the number of patients under the age of 50 years (up 0.92% annually, P<.001). With time, patients had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and less often had a history of ischemic heart disease. Fewer cases of NTCP had signs suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS was ruled out at the time of initial and final diagnoses in 52.2% and 80.4%, respectively, and these percentages which rose over the 10-year period by 1.86% (P<.001) and 0.56% (P=.04). Time to initial diagnosis did not change. However, time to final diagnosis did increase (P<.001), and the delay was longer in patients diagnosed with ACS (P<.001). CONCLUSION: The chest pain unit was more active at the end of the period, in keeping with the increase in patients with NTCP whose characteristics were not typical of coronary disease. The percentages of patients initially and finally diagnosed with ACS decreased with time.

3.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 3018-3026, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546288

RESUMO

The effects of visual cues on familiarity, expected heat intensity, liking of appearance, emotional and wellness responses, and purchase intent (PI) before and after disclosing information associated with red chili powders were determined using a 3-point scale, a 15-cm line scale, a 9-point hedonic scale, a 15-cm line scale, and a binomial scale, respectively. In this study, consumers only visually evaluated red chili powder samples without sniffing nor tasting. Eight chili powders were prepared according to a 23 factorial design: roasted (Ro) compared with unroasted (Un); whole pod with seeds (Wh) compared with seedless (Sl); coarsely (Cr) compared with finely ground (Gr). Thai consumers (N = 230) were generally more familiar with samples having coarse particles and more reddish color (lower hue angle and higher a* values) than samples having finely ground particles and less reddish/more yellowish color (higher hue angle and lower a* values). The expected heat intensity and liking scores for appearance were lower for samples with higher hue values, particularly RoWhGr and RoSIGr samples. All scores for emotion/wellness terms, except curious, were generally higher for samples with lower hue angle and higher a* values (redness). The consumer familiarity to the appearance of the samples influenced expected heat intensity, liking of appearance, and emotion/wellness responses. PI increased by >10% after presenting "organic," "aflatoxin free," and "organic and aflatoxin free" product statements to consumers. Results showed that familiarity, overall liking of appearance, color liking, fine particles liking, and healthy as well as wild terms were significant predictors for PI (odds ratio = 1.282, 1.519, 1.314, 1.158, 1.056, and 0.939, respectively) of red chili powders. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study showed that consumer familiarity to the appearance (visual cues) of red chili powder affected expected heat intensity, liking of appearance, and emotion/wellness responses, which, in turn, affected purchase intent (PI). Samples with more reddish color and coarse particles were perceived to be more familiar than those with more yellowish color and finer particles. Familiarity, overall liking of appearance, color liking, fine particles liking, and healthy and wild terms were significant predictors for PI of chili power. The results demonstrated the importance of visual cues on the consumers' expectation and PI of red chili powder, thus offering valuable information for manufacturers.


Assuntos
Capsicum/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Adulto , Capsicum/química , Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pós/análise , Paladar
4.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 13(9): 1702-1711, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272136

RESUMO

Cell therapy has been proven to be a promising treatment for fighting neurodegenerative diseases. As neuronal replacement presents undeniable complications, the neuroprotection of live neurons arises as the most suitable therapeutic approach. Accordingly, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, these diseases are commonly diagnosed when symptoms have already progressed towards an irreversible degenerative stage. This problem is especially dramatic when neurodegeneration is aggressive and rapidly progresses. One of the most interesting approaches for neuroprotection is the fusion between healthy bone marrow-derived cells and neurons, as the former can provide the latter with regular/protective genes without harming brain parenchyma. So far, this phenomenon has only been identified in Purkinje cells, whose death is the cause of different diseases like cerebellar ataxias. Here we have employed a model of aggressive cerebellar neurodegeneration, the Purkinje Cell Degeneration mouse, to optimize a cell therapy based on bone marrow-derived cell and cell fusion. Our findings show that the substitution of bone marrow in diseased animals by healthy bone marrow, even prior to the onset of neurodegeneration, is not fast enough to stop neuronal loss in time. Conversely, avoiding bone marrow replacement and ensuring a regular supply of healthy cells through continuous, daily transplants, the neurodegenerative milieu of PCD is enough to attract those transplanted elements. Furthermore, in the most affected cerebellar regions, more than a half of surviving neurons undergo a process of cell fusion. Therefore, this method deserves consideration as a means to impede neuronal cell death.

5.
Int J Med Inform ; 113: 49-55, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct clinical management of circulatory shock in emergency departments (ER) and intensive care units (ICU) is critical. In this context, the transmission of professional skills by means of the practical supervision of real cases at the point of care entails important issues that can be widely overcome with the use of computer knowledge-based e-learning tools. OBJECTIVE: Shock-Instructor is a web-based e-learning tool implementing the already tested training program model (TPM) that uses a knowledge base about the evidence found in the clinical practice guidelines about seven types of shock. This tool is expected to reduce the learning times and to improve the skills of hospital residents with regard to both the correct application of the guidelines and patient recovery, suppressing the risks of direct interventions. METHODS: Shock-Instructor has been used to train residents in the Emergency Department of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona (Spain) in order to reduce the learning cycle without affecting quality. A case-base with the description of 51 cases with shock and a knowledge-base with 137 clinical rules about the treatment of shock were incorporated to the Shock-Instructor system. A group of 33 residents was involved in a randomized controlled trial to check whether the use of Shock-Instructor can significantly improve the skills of clinicians after one week of problem-based training. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the skill levels of the intervention (IG) and control (CG) groups prior to learning. However, we observed an improvement of the IG clinicians capacity to stabilize patients with shock in better clinical conditions (5% improvement, p = 0.004), and to reduce the risk of death in 19.52% (p = 0.004), after training. First-year residents in IG enhanced 14.3% their sensitivity in the correct application of guidelines (p = 0.01), and 14.9% the mean survival rate of their patients (p = 0.01), after being trained with Shock-Instructor for a week. Residents with specialties different from ER and ICU enhanced 16.1% their application of guidelines (p = 0.04), and 14.5% the survival rate of the cases attended (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Web-oriented knowledge-based e-learning computer tools such as Shock-Instructor can significantly reduce the learning time of ER and ICU residents, while enhancing their assimilation of evidence-based medicine and both the survival rate and health condition of patients with shock.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Internato e Residência , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Bases de Conhecimento , Estudantes/psicologia
6.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 12(4): e1950-e1961, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222849

RESUMO

Ataxias are locomotor disorders that can have an origin both neural and muscular, although both impairments are related. Unfortunately, ataxia has no cure, and the current therapies are aimed at motor re-education or muscular reinforcement. Nevertheless, cell therapy is becoming a promising approach to deal with incurable neural diseases, including neuromuscular ataxias. Here, we have used a model of ataxia, the Purkinje Cell Degeneration (PCD) mutant mouse, to study the effect of healthy (wild-type) bone marrow transplantation on the restoration of defective mobility. Bone marrow transplants (from both mutant and healthy donors) were performed in wild-type and PCD mice. Then, a wide battery of behavioural tests was employed to determine possible motor amelioration in mutants. Finally, cerebellum, spinal cord, and muscle were analysed to study the integration of the transplant-derived cells and the origin of the behavioural changes. Our results demonstrated that the transplant of wild-type bone marrow restores the mobility of PCD mice, increasing their capabilities of movement (52-100% of recovery), exploration (20-71% of recovery), speed (35% of recovery), and motor coordination (25% of recovery). Surprisingly, our results showed that bone marrow transplant notably improves the skeletal muscle structure, which is severely damaged in the mutants, rather than ameliorating the central nervous system. Although a multimodal effect of the transplant is not discarded, muscular improvements appear to be the basis of this motor recovery. Furthermore, the results from our study indicate that bone marrow stem cell therapy can be a safe and effective alternative for dealing with movement disorders such as ataxias.


Assuntos
Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Ataxia/terapia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Atividade Motora , Aloenxertos , Animais , Ataxia/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes
7.
Rev. int. androl. (Internet) ; 14(4): 123-130, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-157587

RESUMO

Objetivo. Estandarización de la técnica de pretratamiento y tinción para la automatización de la morfología espermática con metodología tipo computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis, con el analizador de sémenes SCA 5.4 (Sperm Class Analyzer, Microptic). Material y métodos. La automatización de la morfología se ha realizado con el analizador de semen SCA 5.4 (Microptic S.L., Barcelona, España). El método de tinción ha sido una modificación del equipo Hemacolor (Merck). Se procesan entre 69 y 125 sémenes, los cuales han sido muestras escogidas aleatoriamente de nuestro laboratorio. Resultados. El pretratamiento de la muestra de semen escogido, debido a los resultados obtenidos, fue una centrifugación suave durante 5 min a 300g, se descarta el plasma seminal y se homogeneiza suavemente el sedimento con 0,2ml del propio plasma seminal. Este pretratamiento ya se comprobó que no artefactaba los espermatozoides. La tinción que se ha escogido es el kit Hemacolor (Merck), pero con modificaciones. Se tampona el fijador con buffer fosfato pH 7,2 al 10%, se reduce los tiempos aconsejados por el fabricante a fijación durante 5seg, tinción con eosina 30 seg y tinción con azur 2 seg. Finalmente se lava 30 seg con tampón fosfato pH 7,2, como indica el fabricante. Tras dicho pretratamiento y tinción estandarizadas se hallan los coeficientes de variación del pretratamiento y valores de referencia para nuestra metodología. Conclusiones. La automatización de la morfología espermática reduce los coeficientes de variación de la determinación, aumentando su fiabilidad técnica y eliminando la subjetividad que conlleva un análisis manual. Esta estandarización constituye el primer paso para el estudio del valor diagnóstico de la morfología avanzada en la infertilidad y en enfermedades urológicas (AU)


Objective. Standardization of pretreatment and staining technique to realize morphological semen evaluation with computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis system, with semen system analyzer SCA 5.4 (Sperm Class Analyzer, Microptic). Material and methods. Morphological analysis was performed with semen system analyzer SCA 5.4 (Microptic SL, Barcelona, Spain). The staining method was a modification of Hemacolor kit (Merck). Between 60 and 125 semen samples were chosen randomly from our laboratory. Results. Pretreatment of semen samples was a centrifugation for 5minutes at 300g, seminal plasma was rejected and the pellet was homogenized with .2mL of the seminal plasma itself. Not change in sperm morphology have been found with this pretreatment. Staining was performed with Hemacolor kit (Merck) but with some modifications. Fixer has been buffered with phosphate buffer pH 7.2 at 10%, time recommended by the manufacturer has been reduced. Fixation for 5 seconds, 30 seconds with Eosin staining and 2 seconds with staining Azur. Finally it was washed for 30 seconds with pH 7.2 phosphate buffer, as indicated by the manufacturer. After the pretreatment and staining we have got reference values for our methodology. Conclusions. An automation methodology to perform sperm morphology reduces coefficient variations of determination thereby we can increase its technical reliability and remove the subjectivity of the manual analysis. This standardization can be the first step to study the diagnostic value of advanced morphology in infertility and urological diseases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Sêmen/fisiologia , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Contagem de Espermatozoides/métodos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo/fisiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Infertilidade/terapia , Infertilidade Masculina/classificação , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia
8.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 25(10): 1683-94, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26235957

RESUMO

Nicotine exerts its addictive influence through the meso-cortico-limbic reward system, where the striatum is essential. Nicotine addiction involves different neurotransmitters, nitric oxide (NO) being especially important, since it triggers the release of the others by positive feedback. In the nervous system, NO is mainly produced by nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). However, other subtypes of synthases can also synthesize NO, and little is known about the specific role of each isoform in the process of addiction. In parallel, NOS activity and nicotine addiction are also affected by stress and sexual dimorphism. To determine the specific role of this enzyme, we analyzed both NOS expression and NO synthesis in the striatum of wild-type and NOS1-knocked out (KO) mice of both sexes in situations of nicotine sensitization and stress. Our results demonstrated differences between the caudate-putamen (CP) and nucleus accumbens (NA). With respect to NOS1 expression, the CP is a dimorphic region (27.5% lower cell density in males), but with a stable production of NO, exclusively due to this isoform. Thus, the nitrergic system of CP may not be involved in stress or nicotine addiction. Conversely, the NA is much more variable and strongly involved in both situations: its NO synthesis displays dimorphic variations at both basal (68.5% reduction in females) and stress levels (65.9% reduction in males), which disappear when nicotine is infused. Thus, the KO animals showed an increase in NO production (21.7%) in the NA, probably by NOS3, in an attempt to compensate the lack of NOS1.


Assuntos
Núcleo Caudado/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/enzimologia , Putamen/enzimologia , Estresse Psicológico/enzimologia , Tabagismo/enzimologia , Animais , Núcleo Caudado/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/enzimologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Putamen/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1254: 43-54, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25431056

RESUMO

Nuclear architecture is highly concerted including the organization of chromosome territories and distinct nuclear bodies, such as nucleoli, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles of splicing factors, and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, among others. The organization of such nuclear compartments is very dynamic and may represent a sensitive indicator of the functional status of the cell. Here, we describe methodologies that allow isolating discrete cell populations from the brain and the fine observation of nuclear signs that could be insightful predictors of an early neuronal injury in a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders. The tools here described may be of use for the early detection of pre-degenerative processes in neurodegenerative diseases and for validating novel rescue strategies.


Assuntos
Compartimento Celular/genética , Nucléolo Celular/patologia , Corpos Enovelados/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Nucléolo Celular/genética , Nucléolo Celular/ultraestrutura , Corpos Enovelados/genética , Corpos Enovelados/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1254: 317-25, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25431074

RESUMO

Bone marrow stem cells are probably the best known stem cell type and have been employed for more than 50 years, especially in pathologies related to the hematopoietic and immune systems. However, their potential for therapeutic application is much broader (because these cells can differentiate into hepatocytes, myocytes, cardiomyocytes, pneumocytes or neural cells, among others), and they can also presumably be employed to palliate neural diseases. Current research addressing the integration of bone marrow -derived cells in the neural circuits of the central nervous system together with their features and applications are hotspots in current Neurobiology. Nevertheless, as in other leading research lines the efficacy and possibilities of their therapeutic application depend on the technical procedures employed, which are still far from being standardized. In this chapter we shall explain one of these procedures in depth, namely the transplantation of whole bone marrow from harvested bone marrow stem cells for subsequent integration into the encephalon.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central , Neurônios/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Hepatócitos/citologia , Humanos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Neurônios/transplante
11.
Neuroscientist ; 21(6): 637-52, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25171812

RESUMO

Bone marrow stem cells are the best known stem cell type and have been employed for more than 50 years, especially in pathologies of the hematopoietic and immune systems. However, their therapeutic potential is much broader, and they can also be employed to palliate neural diseases. Apart from their plastic properties, these cells lack the legal or ethical constraints of other stem cell populations, that is, embryonic stem cells. Current research addressing the integration of bone marrow-derived cells into the neural circuits of the central nervous system, their features, and applications is a hotspot in neurobiology. Nevertheless, as in other leading research lines the efficacy and possibilities of their application depend on technical procedures, which are still far from being standardized. Accordingly, for efficient research this large range of variants should be taken into account as they could lead to unexpected results. Rather than focusing on clinical aspects, this review offers a compendium of the methodologies aimed at providing a guide for researchers who are working in the field of bone marrow transplantation in the central nervous system. It seeks to be useful for both introductory and trouble-shooting purposes, and in particular for dealing with the large array of bone marrow transplantation protocols available.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Humanos
12.
Rev inf cient ; 86(4)2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-59821

RESUMO

Se realiza un estudio basado en la revisión de documentos normativos metodológicos, libros, revistas y páginas web relacionados con las formas de organización de la enseñanza, motivados por las transformaciones que sufre la Educación Médica en los tiempos actuales. En este contexto la clase encuentro se redimensiona para dar respuesta a las exigencias de la formación del nuevo egresado del MIC, con las cualidades que la sociedad demanda de ellos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo exponer los elementos metodológicos necesarios para organizar y estructurar didácticamente esta modalidad del encuentro docente y enfatizar que esta forma de organización de la enseñanza debe estar en función de elevar la calidad del proceso docente educativo. En los resultados del trabajo se expone la estructura didáctica con sus distintos momentos que constan de 3 partes cada uno, obteniéndose como conclusiones que el perfeccionamiento de la clase encuentro permite lograr resultados cuantitativos y cualitativos superiores(AU)


A study based on review of methodological normative documents, books, magazines and websites is performed related to the organizational forms of teaching, motivated by the transformations in Medical Education in modern times. In this context the class meeting is resized to meet the demands of training new graduate of the MIC, with the qualities that society demand of them. This paper aims to expose the methodological elements necessary for organizing and structuring this type of didactic teaching encounter and emphasize that this form of organization of teaching should be based on improving the quality of the educational process. The results of the work in the didactic structure is exposed with different times consisting of 3 parts each, yielding conclusions as perfecting the class meeting achieves superior quantitative and qualitative results


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Ensino/normas , Ensino/organização & administração , Metodologia
13.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 49(12): 534-47, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24041726
14.
J Neurosci ; 32(26): 9053-8, 2012 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22745504

RESUMO

Bone marrow contains heterogeneous cell types including end-lineage cells, committed tissue progenitors, and multipotent stem/progenitor cells. The immense plasticity of bone marrow cells allows them to populate diverse tissues such as the encephalon, and give rise to a variety of cell types. This unique plasticity makes bone marrow-derived cells good candidates for cell therapy aiming at restoring impaired brain circuits. In the present study, bone marrow cells were transplanted into P20 mice that exhibit selective olfactory degeneration in adulthood between P60 and P150. These animals, the so-called Purkinje Cell Degeneration (PCD) mutant mice, suffer from a progressive and specific loss of a subpopulation of principal neurons of the olfactory bulb, the mitral cells (MCs), sparing the other principal neurons, the tufted cells. As such, PCD mice constitute an interesting model to evaluate the specific role of MCs in olfaction and to test the restorative function of transplanted bone marrow-derived cells. Using precision olfactometry, we revealed that mutant mice lacking MCs exhibited a deficit in odorant detection and discrimination. Remarkably, the transplantation of wild-type bone marrow-derived cells into irradiated PCD mutant mice generated a large population of microglial cells in the olfactory bulb and reduced the degenerative process. The alleviation of MC loss in transplanted mice was accompanied by functional recovery witnessed by significantly improved olfactory detection and enhanced odor discrimination. Together, these data suggest that: (1) bone marrow-derived cells represent an effective neuroprotective tool to restore degenerative brain circuits, and (2) MCs are necessary to encode odor concentration and odor identity in the mouse olfactory bulb.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Degeneração Neural/cirurgia , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína GAP-43/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Odorantes , Proteína de Marcador Olfatório/metabolismo , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia
15.
Rev. lab. clín ; 5(1): 35-43, ene.-mar. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-99801

RESUMO

Objetivo. Evaluar la fiabilidad y la practicabilidad del analizador Delfia Xpress en las técnicas del cribado prenatal del primer y segundo trimestre. Material y métodos. El Delfia Xpress (Perkin-Elmer, Wallac) es un analizador de enzimoinmunoensayo que utiliza el europio como marcador fluorescente específico y que permite la determinación de los parámetros que integran el perfil del cribado prenatal del primer y segundo trimestre; la fracción libre de la β-gonadotrofina coriónica humana libre (fβhCG), la proteína A plasmática asociada al embarazo (PAPP-A), la alfafetoproteína (AFP) y el estriol libre (uE3). Además, el analizador incorpora el software Lifecycle v3.0® para el cálculo del riesgo prenatal de las trisomías 21 y 18, con conexión bidireccional con el sistema informático del laboratorio. Se procesaron 3.020 muestras de cribados del primer trimestre y 678 del segundo. Resultados. En cuanto a fiabilidad, el Delfia Xpress mostró una imprecisión intra-interdía en las determinaciones de fβhCG y PAPP-A inferiores al 6%, comprobándose la linealidad y la correlación de sus determinaciones. El análisis de los resultados de 3.020 gestantes del cribado prenatal combinado del primer trimestre muestra una sensibilidad en la detección del síndrome de Down de 78,57% y un valor predictivo positivo (VPP) de 11,58%, con un 2,79% de falsos positivos. Se diagnosticaron 11 portadoras de síndrome de Down y 2 de síndrome de Edwards. Respecto a la practicabilidad, su sencillo manejo y puesta en marcha, y la estabilidad de las calibraciones, junto con el coste equitativo por cribado, hacen que el analizador presente una buena relación calidad/coste. Conclusiones. El completo estudio realizado muestra que el Delfia Xpress es un analizador de elevada fiabilidad técnica y clínica, y los resultados hallados lo validan para procesar la rutina del cribado prenatal en nuestro hospital de referencia (AU)


Objective. To evaluate the Delfia Xpress analyzer reliability and practicability in all the techniques of first and second trimester prenatal screening. Materials and methods. The Delfia Xpress (Perkin-Elmer, Wallac) is a biochemical immunoassay analyzer,that uses the Europium as specific fluorescent labelled marker and allows the determination of the first and second trimester parameters of the prenatal screening profile's: free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (fβhCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), free-estriol (uE3), incorporating the Lifecycle v3.0® software for risk-prenatal calculation on-line with the laboratory compute system. First trimester combined screening test was performed on 3020 pregnant women and 678 on second trimester screening tests. Results. Concerning its reliability, Delfia Xpress analyzer has shown a within and between day imprecision for the fβhCG and PAPP-A determinations below to 6%, proving the linearity and the correlation of its determinations. The analysis of the results of 3020 first trimester combined prenatal screening tests, shows a sensitivity in detecting Down‘s syndrome of 78.57% with a PPV (positive predictive value) of 11.58% with a 2.79% false positive. Eleven patients were diagnosed as carriers of Down‘s syndrome and two with Edwards syndrome. As for the practicability, the start up and operation of the analyzer are simple, and the stability of the calibration along with equitable cost for screening, makes the Delfia Xpress as an analyzer with a good relationships quality/cost. Conclusions. The complete study has shown that Delfia Xpress is an analyzer with a high technical and clinical reliability, validating the instrument for processing the prenatal screening routine of our reference hospital (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Aneuploidia , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Gonadotropina Coriônica , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Trissomia/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Reações Falso-Negativas , Calibragem , Programas de Rastreamento/análise , Amniocentese/instrumentação , Amniocentese/métodos
16.
Rev inf cient ; 74(2)2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-51534

RESUMO

Se realiza una investigación retrospectiva de carácter histórico-lógicasobre la utilización del veneno de escorpión como medicamento engeneral y, en particular, para el cáncer. Se profundiza en las referenciashistóricas de su utilización como tratamiento para el cáncer. Seconfecciona un resumen cronológicamente estructurado de losprincipales hallazgos encontrados en diversos fuetes de información. Seconcluye que existen suficientes referencias históricas documentadasque demuestran la utilización de los venenos de escorpiones comomedicamento desde la antigüedad hasta nuestros días, así como uncreciente interés de la comunidad científica internacional por lasinvestigaciones relacionadas con el uso de este veneno como fuentepara la producción de medicamentos contra el cáncer(AU)


A retrospective study of logic and historical character is done with the use of scorpion venom as medicine in general and in particular for cancer. The historical references of its use as a treatment are studied for cancer. It is made structured and chronological summarizes for main findings in several sources of information. As a conclusion, there are sufficient, documented and historical references that demonstrate the use of scorpion venom as medicine from antiquity to the present day, and a growing interest of the international scientific community for research related to the use of this poison as a source for production of anticancer drugs(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Venenos de Escorpião/história , Venenos de Escorpião/uso terapêutico
17.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 29(8): 1081-5, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19399607

RESUMO

The Pax6 transcription factor is a key element along brain development in both the visual and olfactory systems. The involvement of Pax6 in neural fate is well documented in the visual system, whereas in the olfactory system, and in particular in the olfactory bulb (OB), its expression during adulthood has only begun to be elucidated. In the OB, the modulation of primary sensory information is first performed by periglomerular cells (PG). A considerable body of information has unveiled the neurochemical heterogeneity of these neurons. Thus it is well known that Pax6 coexists with dopaminergic/GABAergic mouse PG. However, the presence of this transcription factor in other mouse PG subpopulations has not been studied. Here, we analyzed whether Pax6 is expressed in PG containing the calcium-binding proteins neurocalcin and parvalbumin, and the neuropeptide cholecystokinin. Our results show that Pax6 is not expressed by these PG subpopulations, suggesting that it is mainly restricted to GABAergic PG populations. These findings provide new data in the chemical characterization of mouse Pax6-positive PG.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/citologia , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurocalcina/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Fator de Transcrição PAX6 , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo
18.
J Comp Neurol ; 501(6): 854-65, 2007 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17311313

RESUMO

The distribution patterns of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were studied in the olfactory bulb (OB) of three species of macaque. AChE was detected by a histochemical method and ChAT immunoreactivity by immunocytochemistry. Similar results were observed in all species analyzed. With the exception of the olfactory nerve layer, all layers of the macaque monkey OB demonstrated a dense innervation of AChE- and ChAT-positive fibers. The distribution patterns of AChE- and ChAT-labeled fibers were similar for both cholinergic markers, although the number of AChE-labeled fibers was clearly higher than the number of ChAT-immunoreactive fibers. The highest density of AChE and ChAT-stained fibers was observed in the interface between the glomerular layer and the external plexiform layer and in the internal plexiform layer. Dense bundles of labeled fibers were observed in the caudal OB, coursing from the olfactory peduncle. All ChAT-immunopositive elements were identified as centrifugal fibers, derived from neurons caudal to the OB. Neither olfactory fibers nor intrinsic neurons were observed after ChAT immunocytochemistry. However, a few AChE-positive cells were observed in the glomerular layer and in both external and internal plexiform layers. These neurons were presumably identified as periglomerular cells, superficial short-axon cells, and/or external tufted cells and deep short-axon cells. Contrary to other neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances, the distribution patterns of ChAT and AChE activities in the macaque monkey OB closely resembled the patterns described in macrosmatic mammals and showed laminar differences with the distribution pattern observed in humans.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Fibras Colinérgicas/enzimologia , Macaca/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/enzimologia , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macaca/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Bulbo Olfatório/citologia , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Rev inf cient ; 52(4): 11, oct.-dic. 2006.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-32044

RESUMO

La Anatomía es una ciencia muy amplia en la cual los medios de enseñanza son imprescindibles para el aprendizaje pues con su utilización los resultados son superiores, fundamentalmente, los de origen natural . Por su importancia se realiza esta revisión bibliográfica, además, de que hay que considerar el creciente número de estudiantes que ingresan en los centros de Educación MédicaSuperior y, por ende, mayor será la cantidad de cadáveres y vísceras necesarios en los laboratorios de anatomía. Siempre teniendo presente y respetando, antes de utilizar el cadáver con fines de investigación, la decisión en vida de esa persona de donar su cuerpo o no para que sea utilizado como pieza anatómica.(AU


Assuntos
Anatomia , Cadáver , Ensino/métodos , Ensino/tendências , Faculdades de Medicina
20.
An. R. Acad. Farm ; 72(1): 83-103, ene. 2006.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-046612

RESUMO

Nuestra vida actual, nuestro desarrollo económico y la salud de nuestras familias se basan en el avance médico y sanitario posibilitado por la investigación científica. El desarrollo de vacunas y tratamientos preventivos así como el descubrimiento de nuevos fármacos y tratamientos curativos y paliativos ha permitido mejorar nuestra cantidad y calidad de vida: de hecho, la esperanza actual de vida al nacer duplica la de hace cien años. En las familias españolas, la muerte de algún hijo o hermano en la primera infancia ha pasado de ser la norma a convertirse en algo excepcional. Estas mejoras se han basado en una investigación biomédica que usa animales como sujeto de experimentación y la aplicación de estos resultados a nuestro sistema de salud. Ello no obstante, la investigación se encuentra sujeta a fuertes críticas por parte de sectores de la opinión pública y existen grupos activistas que proponen abiertamente eliminar completamente o reducir drásticamente la experimentación con animales. Algunos de estos grupos utilizan actos violentos o terroristas para defender sus postulados. El presente artículo pasa revista a algunos de estos datos y propone a la comunidad científica un papel más activo en defensa del progreso y la salud


Our present life, our socioeconomic development and the healthy life of our families are founded on the medical improvements achieved by scientific research. The discovery of vaccines and preventive treatments, as well as the development of new drugs and therapeutical strategies have doubled the life expectancy in Western countries. Children mortality, that was not so long ago the rule in most Spanish families, is now something exceptional. These clear improvements are supported by biomedical research using animals as experimentation subjects. Nevertheless, animal experimentation is focus to strong criticisms from sectors of the public opinion and there are activists that try to end or to reduce drastically animal research. Some groups use violence or terrorism to support their postulates. The present article provides an overview of our current situation and advocates a more active role for the scientific community in defence of progress and health


Assuntos
Animais , Direitos dos Animais , Experimentação Animal/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Vacinas , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/tendências , Modelos Animais de Doenças
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