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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 9-18, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-3431

RESUMO

Objetivos. Analizar qué características clínicas y del ECG de la primera valoración de pacientes con dolor torácico no traumático (DNT) se asocian con una clasificación inicial de sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) y con el diagnóstico final de SCA, e identificar cuáles resultan sobre o infravaloradas durante la clasificación inicial. Método. Se incluyeron las consultas consecutivas por DTNT en una unidad de dolor torácico durante 10 años (2008-2017) en las que se disponía de los diagnósticos inicial de sospecha (SCA/no SCA) y final de alta de urgencias (SCA/no SCA). Se incluyeron 33 variables independientes (2 demográficas, 5 comorbilidad cardiovascular, 22 dolor torácico, 4 datos ECG). Se calcularon las odds ratio (OR) para la clasificación (inicial y final) como SCA para cada variable independiente, crudas y ajustadas en modelos globales que incluían todas ellas. En estos modelos ajustados se comparó si las OR para la clasificación inicial y final como SCA eran significativamente diferentes. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34.552 visitas. Las 33 variables analizadas mostraron asociación significativa para la clasificación inicial y final del DTNT como SCA, y en muchos casos esta asociación se mantuvo en el modelo ajustado. Diecinueve variables mostraron OR significativamente diferentes para la sospecha inicial de SCA que para el diagnóstico final de SCA: 10 sobrestimaban la asociación final y 9 la subestimaban. Conclusión. Los datos clínicos iniciales clásicamente utilizados para sospechar SCA pacientes con DTNT en urgencias identifican todos ellos individualmente a pacientes con riesgo incrementado de ser clasificado inicial y finalmente como SCA; sin embargo, algunos de ellos sobreestiman y otros subestiman inicialmente el riesgo final. Los urgenciólogos debieran sensibilizarse más con estos datos subestimados


Objectives. To analyze clinical data and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings obtained during the initial evaluation of patients with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP). To explore associations between these findings and the initial and final diagnoses of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To assess which variables initially over- or underestimate risk ACS. Methods. Consecutive patients with NTCP attended in a chest pain unit during the 10-year period of 2008–2017 were included if the suspected and discharge diagnoses of interest (ACS or non-ACS) had been recorded. Thirtythree independent variables (demographic, 2; cardiovascular, 5; chest pain, 22; ECG, 4). We included all variables in models to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between each independent variable and the initial and final diagnoses. The adjusted ORs were compared to determine whether the initial and final diagnoses of ACS differed significantly in relation to the variables. Results. A total of 34 552 patient visits were attended. The ORs for the 33 variables were significantly associated with initial and final NTCP classification as ACS or non-ACS, and in many cases the association was confirmed by the adjusted ORs. The adjusted ORs for 19 variables were significantly different in their relation to the initial and final diagnoses of ACS: 10 overpredicted the probability of the diagnosis and 9 underpredicted it. Conclusions. The variables traditionally used to warn of ACS in emergency patients with NTCP identify individuals likely to be initially and finally diagnosed with ACS. However, some of these variables overestimate or underestimate the risk of a final ACS diagnosis. Emergency medicine physicians should be aware of variables associated with underestimation of risk

2.
Emergencias ; 32(1): 9-18, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze clinical data and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings obtained during the initial evaluation of patients with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP). To explore associations between these findings and the initial and final diagnoses of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To assess which variables initially over- or underestimate risk ACS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with NTCP attended in a chest pain unit during the 10-year period of 2008-2017 were included if the suspected and discharge diagnoses of interest (ACS or non-ACS) had been recorded. Thirtythree independent variables (demographic, 2; cardiovascular, 5; chest pain, 22; ECG, 4). We included all variables in models to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between each independent variable and the initial and final diagnoses. The adjusted ORs were compared to determine whether the initial and final diagnoses of ACS differed significantly in relation to the variables. RESULTS: A total of 34 552 patient visits were attended. The ORs for the 33 variables were significantly associated with initial and final NTCP classification as ACS or non-ACS, and in many cases the association was confirmed by the adjusted ORs. The adjusted ORs for 19 variables were significantly different in their relation to the initial and final diagnoses of ACS: 10 overpredicted the probability of the diagnosis and 9 underpredicted it. CONCLUSION: The variables traditionally used to warn of ACS in emergency patients with NTCP identify individuals likely to be initially and finally diagnosed with ACS. However, some of these variables overestimate or underestimate the risk of a final ACS diagnosis. Emergency medicine physicians should be aware of variables associated with underestimation of risk.

3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 25(8): 865-72, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17920969

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to establish a triage flowchart to rule out acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among patients with chest pain (CP) arriving on an Emergency Department (ED). PATIENTS AND METHOD: This prospective observational study included 1000 consecutive patients with CP arriving on an ED CP unit. Demographic and clinical characteristics along with vital signs were recorded as independent variables. After CP unit protocol completion and 1-month follow-up, patients were classified as (dependent variable) (1) true non-ACS (all noncoronary patients at the first visit that kept this condition when called 1 month later) or (2) true ACS (all the remaining patients). Relationship among variables was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. A triage flowchart was obtained from significant variables and applied to patients with CP who were then grouped in "triage non-ACS" and "triage ACS." Validity indexes to exclude ACS for triage flowchart were measured. RESULTS: Variables significantly associated with non-ACS and included in the triage flowchart were age <40 years (odds ratio 3.61, 95% CI 1.63-7.99), absence of diabetes (2.74, 1.53-4.88), no previously known coronary artery disease (5.46, 3.42-8.71), nonoppressive pain (10.63, 6.04-18.70), and nonretrosternal pain (5.16, 2.82-9.42). For the triage flowchart, both specificity and positive predictive value to rule out ACS were 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The triage flowchart is able to accurately identify patients with CP not having an ACS. It may help triage nurses make quick decisions on who should be immediately seen and who could safely wait when delays in medical attention are unavoidable. Prospective validation is needed.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Algoritmos , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 122(11): 401-6, 2004 Mar 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15066246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many experimental studies in animals have demonstrated that carbon monoxide (CO) has the ability to bind to complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) inhibiting its function. It is unknown, however, if this situation is also present in patients who are admitted to an emergency department because of acute CO poisoning. The objective of this study was to evaluate from different points of view whether or not mitochondrial function is abnormal in patients admitted because of an acute CO poisoning. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Ten patients with an acute CO poisoning admitted in an emergency department were included in the study. Initial carboxyhemoglobin was 20.4 (6)%. Seven of these patients received hyperbaric-oxygen therapy. In all the patients, lymphocytes from 20 mL of blood were obtained at admission (t0), and at days 3-5 (t1), and 10-14 (t2). Mitochondrial content was estimated through citrate synthase activity (nmol/min/mg protein). Enzymatic activity of complexes III and IV (both containing cytochromes) as well as oxidative activities were measured. Lipid peroxidation was ascertained by means of cis-parinaric acid fluorescence. All the values were given as absolute values, and were corrected according to the mitochondrial content (relative values). The results were compared with the control values obtained from 130 historical normal individuals. RESULTS: During acute poisoning (t0), there were no changes in mitochondrial content. On the other hand, there was a significant inhibition of the enzymatic activity of complexes III and IV, and a decrease in all oxidative activities, considering both absolute and relative values. Although all the activities showed a trend to recuperation with time (t1 y t2), statistical significance was only observed for complex IV and for the oxydative activity stimulated with glutamate. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study we confirm that an inhibition of the MRC can be demonstrated ex vivo in patients attended in an emergency department due to acute CO poisoning. The inhibition is still present 14 days after the acute event. This mitochondrial dysfunction may play a pathogenic role in the persisting or delayed sings and symptoms that these patients occasionally refer.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Adulto , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/fisiopatologia , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 121(5): 161-72, 2003 Jul 05.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12867001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has been increasing over the last years. The aims are to define ED overcrowding, and to determine and quantify which factors explain it. PATIENTS AND METHOD: For 3 consecutive weeks throughout 3 years (2000-2002), we recorded every 3-hour period, the arrivals, the occupancy rate (OR) of patients in ED, in first aid area (FAA), and in observation area (OA) according to the reason for their stay. The data was subjected to multiple logistic regression analysis including as a dependent variable non overcrowding/overcrowding for each area (ED, FAA, and OA). Overcrowding was defined as an OR >= 100%. Models from the three areas were calculated according to goodness of fit and were discriminated by ROC methodology. Models were set up after randomizing data in two groups: selection set (88% of data) and validation set (12% of data). RESULTS: Variables associated with overcrowding in the ED model were OR of patients waiting for test results, for a bed going to be left, to find a bed, for test performed out of ED, and for outcome. In the FAA model, they were OR of patients being seen, and waiting for test results. Finally, in the OA model they were OR of patients waiting for a bed going to be left, to find a bed, for test performed out of ED, and for outcome. For all models sensitivity and specificity were greater than 85%, with a ROC area greater than 0.97. We did not find any relationship between number of arrivals and overcrowding for none model. Results were corroborated on the validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: Patients remaining in the ED due to factors related to both hospital (waiting for a bed going to be left, or to find a bed), and ED itself (waiting for outcome) are the main reason for ED overcrowding.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Regressão , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol ; 41(3): 223-8, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12807302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic smoking has been associated with diverse mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) dysfunction in lymphocytes, although inhibition of complex IV activity is the most consistent and relevant finding. These mitochondrial abnormalities have been proposed to contribute to pathogenesis of diseases associated with tobacco consumption. We assessed MRC function in peripheral lymphocytes from heavy smokers after cessation in smoking habit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied MRC function from peripheral lymphocytes of 10 healthy chronic smoker individuals (age 43 +/- 6 years; 50% women) before cessation of tobacco consumption (t0), and 7 (t1) and 28 (t2) days after cessation. Smoking abstinence was ascertained by measuring carboxyhemoglobin levels and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration in exhaled breath. Ten healthy nonsmoker individuals matched by age and gender were used as controls. Lymphocytes were isolated by Ficoll's gradient, and protein content was determined by Bradford's technique. MRC function was studied through double means: 1) individual enzyme activities of complex II, III, and IV were analyzed by means of spectrophotometry; 2) oxygen consumption was measured polarographically using pyruvate, succinate, and glycerol-3-phosphate (complex I, II, and III substrates, respectively) after lymphocyte permeabilization. Enzyme and oxidative activities were corrected by citrate synthase activity. RESULTS: Smokers showed a significant decrease in complex IV activity (p = 0.05) and also in respiration of intact lymphocytes (p = 0.05) compared to controls. Eight chronic smokers remained abstinent during the study. Smoking cessation was associated with a significant recovery of complex IV (p = 0.01) and complex III (p = 0.05) activities. Oxidative activities did not show any change during the study. CONCLUSION: Chronic smoking is associated with a decrease of complex IV and III activities of MRC, which return to normal values after cessation of tobacco smoking.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/sangue , Adulto , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/antagonistas & inibidores , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/sangue , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/antagonistas & inibidores , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/sangue , Doenças Mitocondriais/etiologia , Oxirredução
7.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 121(5): 167-172, mayo 2003.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-23819

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO Y OBJETIVO: La utilización de los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) es cada vez mayor, lo que conduce a su masificación. El objetivo del presente trabajo es definir la "saturación" de un SUH y determinar y cuantificar los factores que la condicionan. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Durante tres semanas consecutivas de años distintos (2000-2002) se contabilizaron cada 3 h las entradas, el índice de ocupación (IO) de los pacientes que permanecían en el SUH, en el área de primera asistencia (APA) y en el área de observación (AO) según la causa de dicha permanencia. Los datos se sometieron a análisis de regresión logística múltiple con la variable dependiente "saturación/no saturación" de cada una de las áreas (SUH, APA y AO). Se definió la saturación cuando el IO era igual o superior al 100 por ciento. Los modelos de cada área se calibraron por la prueba de Hosmer-Lemeshow y se discriminaron por metodología ROC. Los modelos explicativos se armaron separando aleatoriamente dos grupos: selección (88 por ciento de datos) y validación (12 por ciento de datos).RESULTADOS: Las variables que se asociaron de forma significativa a la saturación en el modelo del SUH fueron el IO debido a los pacientes que esperaban resultados, ir a una cama, encontrar cama, exploraciones complementarias y en evolución. En el modelo del APA, lo fueron el IO debido a los que estaban visitándose y esperaban resultados. Finalmente, para el modelo del AO lo fueron el IO debido a los que esperaban ir a una cama, encontrar cama, exploraciones complementarias y en evolución. Todos los modelos mostraron sensibilidad y especificidad superiores al 85 por ciento y un área ROC superior a 0,97. En ningún caso el número de pacientes que acuden a urgencias participó del modelo explicativo final. En el grupo de validación se confirmaron estos resultados. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes que permanecen en el servicio de urgencias por factores dependientes tanto del hospital (esperando ir a una cama o encontrar una cama) como del propio servicio de urgencias (esperando evolución) son la principal causa de saturación de los SUH (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Dieta , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos Transversais
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