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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9020, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227763

RESUMO

The cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in NTHL1 may not be a solely colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis syndrome but rather a multi-tumor recessive disease. The presence of ≤10 adenomas in several mutation carriers suggests a possible causal role of NTHL1 in hereditary or early-onset nonpolyposis CRC. The involvement of NTHL1 in serrated/hyperplastic polyposis remains unexplored. The aim of our study is to elucidate the role of NTHL1 in the predisposition to personal or familial history of multiple tumor types, familial/early-onset nonpolyposis CRC, and serrated polyposis. NTHL1 mutational screening was performed in 312 cancer patients with personal or family history of multiple tumor types, 488 with hereditary nonpolyposis CRC, and 96 with serrated/hyperplastic polyposis. While no biallelic mutation carriers were identified in patients with personal and/or family history of multiple tumor types or with serrated polyposis, one was identified among the 488 nonpolyposis CRC patients. The carrier of c.268C>T (p.Q90*) and 550-1G>A was diagnosed with CRC and meningioma at ages 37 and 45 respectively, being reclassified as attenuated adenomatous polyposis after the cumulative detection of 26 adenomas. Our findings suggest that biallelic mutations in NTHL1 rarely cause CRC, a personal/familial multi-tumor history, or serrated polyposis, in absence of adenomas.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 119(8): 971-977, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies on colorectal cancer have identified more than 60 susceptibility loci, but for most of them there is no clear knowledge of functionality or the underlying gene responsible for the risk modification. Expression quantitative trail loci (eQTL) may provide functional information for such single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). METHODS: We have performed detailed eQTL analysis specific for colon tissue on a series of 97 colon tumours, their paired adjacent normal mucosa and 47 colon mucosa samples donated by healthy individuals. R package MatrixEQTL was used to search for genome-wide cis-eQTL and trans-eQTL fitting linear models adjusted for age, gender and tissue type to rank transformed expression data. RESULTS: The cis-eQTL analyses has revealed 29,073 SNP-gene associations with permutation-adjusted P-values < 0.01. These correspond to 363 unique genes. The trans-eQTL analysis identified 10,665 significant SNP-gene associations, most of them in the same chromosome, further than 1 Mb of the gene. We provide a web tool to search for specific SNPs or genes. The tool calculates Pearson or Spearman correlation, and allows to select tissue type for analysis. Data and plots can be exported. CONCLUSIONS: This resource should be useful to prioritise SNPs for further functional studies and to identify relevant genes behind identified loci.

4.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 428-434, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association of colorectal cancer with environmental solar radiation and sun exposure behavior, considering phenotypic variables (eye color, hair color and skin phenotype), dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and socio-demographic factors. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter population-based frequency matched case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain), with 2140 CRC cases and 3950 controls. METHODS: Data were obtained through personal interviews using a structured epidemiological questionnaire that included socio-demographic data, residential history, environmental exposures, behavior, phenotypic and dietary information. An environmental-lifetime sun exposure score was constructed combining residential history and average daily solar radiation, direct and diffuse. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between different variables. A structural equation model was used to verify the associations of the conceptual model. RESULTS: We found a lower risk of CRC in subjects frequently exposed to sunlight during the previous summer and skin burning due to sun exposure. No association was observed in relation to the residential solar radiation scores. Subjects with light eye or light hair colors had a lower risk of CRC that those with darker colors. Dietary calcium and vitamin D were also protective factors, but not in the multivariate model. The structural equation model analysis suggested that higher sun exposure was associated with a decreased risk of CRC, as well as dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, and these factors are correlated among themselves and with environmental solar radiation and skin phenotypes. CONCLUSION: The results agree with previous observations that sun exposure, dietary vitamin D and calcium intake, and serum 25(OH)D concentration reduce the risk of CRC and indicate that these factors may be relevant for cancer prevention.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1864(9 Pt B): 2992-3000, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908233

RESUMO

Telomeres are repetitive sequences (TTAGGG) located at the end of chromosomes. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell replication cycle, ultimately leading to chromosomal instability and loss of cell viability. Telomere length anomaly appears to be one of the earliest and most prevalent genetic alterations in malignant transformation. Here we aim to estimate telomere length from whole-exome sequencing data in colon tumors and normal colonic mucosa, and to analyze the potential association of telomere length with clinical factors and gene expression in colon cancer. Reads containing at least five repetitions of the telomere sequence (TTAGGG) were extracted from the raw sequences of 42 adjacent normal-tumor paired samples. The number of reads from the tumor sample was normalized to build the Tumor Telomere Length Ratio (TTLR), considered an estimation of telomere length change in the tumor compared to the paired normal tissue. We evaluated the associations between TTLR and clinical factors, gene expression and copy number (CN) aberrations measured in the same tumor samples. Colon tumors showed significantly shorter telomeres than their paired normal samples. No significant association was observed between TTLR and gender, age, tumor location, prognosis, stromal infiltration or molecular subtypes. The functional gene set enrichment analysis showed pathways related to immune response significantly associated with TLLR. By extracting a relative measure of telomere length from whole-exome sequencing data, we have assessed that colon tumor cells predominantly shorten telomeres, and this alteration is associated with expression changes in genes related to immune response and inflammation in tumor cells.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 117(3): 421-431, 2017 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) are common acquired changes in cancer cells having an important role in the progression of colon cancer (colorectal cancer, CRC). This study aimed to perform a characterisation of CNA and their impact in gene expression. METHODS: Copy number aberrations were inferred from SNP array data in a series of 99 CRC. Copy number aberration events were calculated and used to assess the association between copy number dosage, clinical and molecular characteristics of the tumours, and gene expression changes. All analyses were adjusted for the quantity of stroma in each sample, which was inferred from gene expression data. RESULTS: High heterogeneity among samples was observed; the proportion of altered genome ranged between 0.04 and 26.6%. Recurrent CNA regions with gains were frequent in chromosomes 7p, 8q, 13q, and 20, whereas 8p, 17p, and 18 cumulated losses. A significant positive correlation was observed between the number of somatic mutations and total CNA (Spearman's r=0.42, P=0.006). Approximately 37% of genes located in CNA regions changed their level of expression and the average partial correlation (adjusted for stromal content) with copy number was 0.54 (interquartile range 0.20 to 0.81). Altered genes showed enrichment in pathways relevant for CRC. Tumours classified as CMS2 and CMS4 by the consensus molecular subtyping showed higher frequency of CNA. Losses of one small region in 1p36.33, with gene CDK11B, were associated with poor prognosis. More than 66% of the recurrent CNA were validated in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data when analysed with the same procedure. Furthermore, 79% of the genes with altered expression in our data were validated in the TCGA. CONCLUSIONS: Although CNA are frequent events in microsatellite stable CRC, few focal recurrent regions were found. These aberrations have strong effects on gene expression and contribute to deregulate relevant cancer pathways. Owing to the diploid nature of stromal cells, it is important to consider the purity of tumour samples to accurately calculate CNA events in CRC.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Repetições de Microssatélites , Idoso , Colo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação
9.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43263, 2017 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28233817

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of the average risk population is only indicated according to age. We aim to elaborate a model to stratify the risk of CRC by incorporating environmental data and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The MCC-Spain case-control study included 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls. Subjects were interviewed on lifestyle factors, family and medical history. Twenty-one CRC susceptibility SNPs were genotyped. The environmental risk model, which included alcohol consumption, obesity, physical activity, red meat and vegetable consumption, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, contributed to CRC with an average per factor OR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). Family history of CRC contributed an OR of 2.25 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.72), and each additional SNP contributed an OR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.10). The risk of subjects with more than 25 risk alleles (5th quintile) was 82% higher (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.98) than subjects with less than 19 alleles (1st quintile). This risk model, with an AUROC curve of 0.63 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.66), could be useful to stratify individuals. Environmental factors had more weight than the genetic score, which should be considered to encourage patients to achieve a healthier lifestyle.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0159672, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evidence on the relationship between breast cancer and different types of antihypertensive drugs taken for at least 5 years is limited and inconsistent. Furthermore, the debate has recently been fueled again with new data reporting an increased risk of breast cancer among women with a long history of use of antihypertensive drugs compared with nonusers. METHODS: In this case-control study, we report the antihypertensive drugs-breast cancer relationship in 1,736 breast cancer cases and 1,895 healthy controls; results are reported stratifying by the women's characteristics (i.e., menopausal status or body mass index category) tumor characteristics and length of use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: The relationship among breast cancer and use of calcium channel blockers (CCB) for 5 or more years had odds ratio (OR) = 1.77 (95% CI, 0.99 to 3.17). Stratifying by BMI, the OR increased significantly in the group with BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.54, 95% CI, 1.24 to 5.22). CCBs were even more strongly associated with more aggressive tumors, (OR for invasive tumors = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.53; OR for non ductal cancers = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.73 to 9.05; OR for Erbb2+ cancer = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.20 to 7.32). On the other hand, premenopausal women were the only group in which angiotensin II receptor blockers may be associated with breast cancer (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 1.32 to 13.84) but this could not be identified with any type or stage. Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and diuretics were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based study we found that long term use of calcium channel blockers is associated with some subtypes of breast cancer (and with breast cancer in overweight women).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
11.
BMC Cancer ; 16(1): 660, 2016 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27542890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption and breast cancer has been repeatedly studied, although the results remain controversial. Most case-control studies reported that NSAID consumption protected against breast cancer, while most cohort studies did not find this effect. Most studies have dealt with NSAIDs as a whole group or with specific drugs, such aspirin, ibuprofen, or others, but not with NSAID subgroups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System; moreover, scarce attention has been paid to their effect on different tumor categories (i.e.: ductal/non-ductal, stage at diagnosis or presence of hormonal receptors). METHODS: In this case-control study, we report the NSAID - breast cancer relationship in 1736 breast cancer cases and 1895 healthy controls; results are reported stratifying by the women's characteristics (i.e.: menopausal status or body mass index category) and by tumor characteristics. RESULTS: In our study, NSAID use was associated with a 24 % reduction in breast cancer risk (Odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; 95 % Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.64-0.89), and similar results were found for acetic acid derivatives, propionic acid derivatives and COXIBs, but not for aspirin. Similar results were found in postmenopausal and premenopausal women. NSAID consumption also protected against hormone + or HER2+ cancers, but not against triple negative breast cancers. The COX-2 selectivity showed an inverse association with breast cancer (i.e. OR < 1), except in advanced clinical stage and triple negative cancers. CONCLUSION: Most NSAIDs, but not aspirin, showed an inverse association against breast cancer; this effect seems to be restricted to hormone + or HER2+ cancers.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Oncotarget ; 7(14): 17711-25, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26871478

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the mutanome in the prognosis of microsatellite stable stage II CRC tumors. The exome of 42 stage II, microsatellite stable, colon tumors (21 of them relapse) and their paired mucosa were sequenced and analyzed. Although some pathways accumulated more mutations in patients exhibiting good or poor prognosis, no single somatic mutation was associated with prognosis. Exome sequencing data is also valuable to infer tumor neoantigens able to elicit a host immune response. Hence, putative neoantigens were identified by combining information about missense mutations in each tumor and HLAs genotypes of the patients. Under the hypothesis that neoantigens should be correctly presented in order to activate the immune response, expression levels of genes involved in the antigen presentation machinery were also assessed. In addition, CD8A level (as a marker of T-cell infiltration) was measured. We found that tumors with better prognosis showed a tendency to generate a higher number of immunogenic epitopes, and up-regulated genes involved in the antigen processing machinery. Moreover, tumors with higher T-cell infiltration also showed better prognosis. Stratifying by consensus molecular subtype, CMS4 tumors showed the highest association of expression levels of genes involved in the antigen presentation machinery with prognosis. Thus, we hypothesize that a subset of stage II microsatellite stable CRC tumors are able to generate an immune response in the host via MHC class I antigen presentation, directly related with a better prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Ativa/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
13.
Sci Rep ; 5: 14148, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26369380

RESUMO

Flavonoids and lignans are polyphenol classes with anticarcinogenic activities against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, very limited epidemiological evidence exists on their effects on CRC prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between flavonoid and lignan intakes with the risk of CRC recurrence and overall survival in CRC patients. The study followed incident histologically confirmed CRC cases in Barcelona (Spain). Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at recruitment. An ad hoc food composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. Adjusted hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox models. After 8.6 years of mean follow-up, 133 of 409 (32.5%) participants died and 77 of 319 (24.1%) had a CRC recurrence. Total flavonoids were associated neither with CRC recurrence (HR comparing extreme tertiles 1.13, 95% CI 0.64-2.02; P-trend 0.67) nor with overall survival (HR(T3vsT1) 1.06, 95% CI 0.69-1.65; P-trend 0.78) in the multivariable models. No associations were also observed with either total lignans or any flavonoid subclass intake. In conclusion, the results of the current study do not support a role of flavonoid and lignan intake in the CRC prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Flavonoides , Lignanas , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 21(20): 4709-18, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26071483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Somatic mutations occur at early stages of adenoma and accumulate throughout colorectal cancer progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the mutational landscape of stage II tumors and to search for novel recurrent mutations likely implicated in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The exomic DNA of 42 stage II, microsatellite-stable colon tumors and their paired mucosae were sequenced. Other molecular data available in the discovery dataset [gene expression, methylation, and copy number variations (CNV)] were used to further characterize these tumors. Additional datasets comprising 553 colorectal cancer samples were used to validate the discovered mutations. RESULTS: As a result, 4,886 somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNV) were found. Almost all SNVs were private changes, with few mutations shared by more than one tumor, thus revealing tumor-specific mutational landscapes. Nevertheless, these diverse mutations converged into common cellular pathways, such as cell cycle or apoptosis. Among this mutational heterogeneity, variants resulting in early stop codons in the AMER1 (also known as FAM123B or WTX) gene emerged as recurrent mutations in colorectal cancer. Losses of AMER1 by other mechanisms apart from mutations such as methylation and copy number aberrations were also found. Tumors lacking this tumor suppressor gene exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype characterized by inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway. CONCLUSIONS: In silico and experimental validation in independent datasets confirmed the existence of functional mutations in AMER1 in approximately 10% of analyzed colorectal cancer tumors. Moreover, these tumors exhibited a characteristic phenotype.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adenoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
15.
Genes Nutr ; 10(1): 447, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25488145

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is an important factor in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, evidence on the effect of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients is scarce. Moreover, there are few studies focusing on diet-gene interactions on inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). This study was designed to investigate the association between the novel dietary inflammatory index (DII) and CRC and its potential interaction with polymorphisms in inflammatory genes. Data from the Bellvitge Colorectal Cancer Study, a case-control study (424 cases with incident colorectal cancer and 401 hospital-based controls), were used. The DII score for each participant was obtained by multiplying intakes of dietary components from a validated dietary history questionnaire by literature-based dietary inflammatory weights that reflected the inflammatory potential of components. Data from four important single nucleotide polymorphisms located in genes thought to be important in inflammation-associated CRC: i.e., interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) were analyzed. A direct association was observed between DII score and CRC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 1.65, 95 % CI 1.05-2.60, and P trend 0.011). A stronger association was found with colon cancer risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 2.24, 95 % CI 1.33-3.77, and P trend 0.002) than rectal cancer risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1 1.12, 95 % CI 0.61-2.06, and P trend 0.37). DII score was inversely correlated with SNP rs2243250 in IL-4 among controls, and an interaction was observed with CRC risk. Neither correlation nor interaction was detected for other inflammatory genes. Overall, high-DII diets are associated with increased risk of CRC, particularly for colon cancer, suggesting that dietary-mediated inflammation plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis.

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