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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033865

RESUMO

Chronic-diabetes-related complications simultaneously compromise both the micro- and macrovascular trees, with target organs considered as the paradigm of large vessel injury also entailing microangiopathic changes. However, complications independent or partially independent from vascular damage are often overlooked. This includes neuronal dysfunction (e.g., retinal neurodegeneration), interstitial injury (e.g., tubulointerstitial disease), metabolic damage (e.g., in the heart and liver), and nonclassical conditions such as cognitive decline, impaired pulmonary function, or increased risk of cancer. In this scenario, researchers, endocrinologists and primary care physicians should have a holistic view of the disease and pay further attention to all organs and all potential clinical repercussions, which would certainly contribute to a more rational and integrated patient health care.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906543

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the potential association between dietary patterns (i.e., the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) and healthy eating) and patient-reported quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction (TS) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A food frequency questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL-19), and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire-status version (DTSQ-s) were administered via personal interviews to 258 participants with T1D. Multivariable analysis showed that a moderate or high adherence to the MedDiet was associated with greater diabetes-specific QoL (ß = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.61; p = 0.029). None of the dietary quality indexes (i.e., the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) and the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI)) were associated with the overall TS. However, the aHEI was positively associated with the specific items of TS "convenience" and "flexibility" (ß = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.00; 0.06; p = 0.042 and ß = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.01; 0.06; p = 0.011, respectively). On the other hand, the aHEI was negatively associated with the dimension "recommend to others" (ß = -0.5, 95% CI = -0.99; -0.02; p = 0.042). In conclusion, a moderate and high adherence to the MedDiet was associated with greater QoL. Although neither aMED nor aHEI were associated with the overall TS, some specific items were positively (i.e., "convenience", "flexibility") or negatively ("recommend to others") related to the aHEI. Further research is needed to assess how to improve medical nutrition therapy and its impact on patient-reported outcomes in people with T1D.

3.
Spinal Cord ; 58(1): 95-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431675

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Mixed-methods study. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the knowledge that family caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injuries acquired through the use of a high-fidelity simulation-based learning (SBL) program. SETTING: The study was comprised of three phases: a previous qualitative research study detecting training needs, one in which clinical simulation scenarios were designed, and a final quasi-experimental phase in which ten caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injuries were trained in their care using simulations at the Toledo National Hospital for Paraplegics (Spain). METHODS: The competences acquired by the family were evaluated before and after the simulation training. A researcher-validated tool for each scenario was utilized for this evaluation. RESULTS: Four learning scenarios were designed based on the needs identified through the caregiver interviews. Following the training of the caregivers with SBL, an increase in their knowledge and skills was identified. For all the scenarios, the caregivers obtained a higher average score on the post test than on the pre test, and these differences were significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Simulation training is a useful and efficient learning tool for caregivers of individuals with a spinal cord injury.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842389

RESUMO

Sphingolipids are key signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell physiology. These species are found in tissues and in circulation. Although they only constitute a small fraction in lipid composition of circulating lipoproteins, their concentration in plasma and distribution among plasma lipoproteins appears distorted under adverse cardiometabolic conditions such as diabetes mellitus. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), one of their main representatives, is involved in regulating cardiomyocyte homeostasis in different models of experimental cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and represents a main risk factor for heart failure. Notably, plasma concentration of S1P, particularly high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound S1P, may be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus, and hence, inversely related to cardiac alterations. Despite this, little attention has been given to the circulating levels of either total S1P or HDL-bound S1P as potential biomarkers of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thus, this review will focus on the potential role of HDL-bound S1P as a circulating biomarker in the diagnosis of main cardiometabolic complications frequently associated with systemic metabolic syndromes with impaired insulin signaling. Given the bioactive nature of these molecules, we also evaluated its potential of HDL-bound S1P-raising strategies for the treatment of cardiometabolic disease.

5.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(6): 251-260, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185150

RESUMO

Introduction: High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) are dysfunctional in hypercholesterolemia patients. The hypothesis was tested that nicotinamide (NAM) administration will influence HDL metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages to the liver and feces in vivo (m-RCT) in a murine model of hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (KOE) mice were challenged with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The effect of different doses of NAM on cholesterol metabolism, and the ability of HDL to promote m-RCT was assessed. Results: The administration of NAM to KOE mice produced an increase (∼1.5-fold; P < 0.05) in the plasma levels of cholesterol, which was mainly accounted for by the non-HDL fraction. NAM produced a [3H]-cholesterol plasma accumulation (∼1.5-fold) in the m-RCT setting. As revealed by kinetic analysis, the latter was mainly explained by an impaired clearance of circulating non-HDL (∼0.8-fold). The relative content of [3H]-tracer was lowered in the livers (∼0.6-fold) and feces (> 0.5-fold) of NAM-treated mice. This finding was accompanied by a significant (or trend close to significance) up-regulation of the relative gene expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 in the liver (Abcg5: 2.9-fold; P < 0.05; Abcg8: 2.4-fold; P = 0.06) and small intestine (Abcg5: 2.1-fold; P = 0.15; Abcg8: 1.9-fold; P < 0.05) of high-dose, NAM-treated mice. Conclusion: The data from this study show that the administration of NAM to KOE mice impaired m-RCT in vivo. This finding was partly due to a defective hepatic clearance of plasma non-HDL


No dispnible


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/análise , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Apolipoproteínas E/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta , Expressão Gênica , HDL-Colesterol
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540138

RESUMO

Down syndrome causes a reduction in cognitive abilities, with visual-motor skills being particularly affected. In this work, we have focused on this skill in order to stimulate better learning. The proposal relies on stimulating the cognitive visual-motor skills of individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) using exercises with a gestural interaction platform based on the KINECT sensor named TANGO:H, the goal being to improve them. To validate the proposal, an experimental single-case study method was designed using two groups: a control group and an experimental one, with similar cognitive ages. Didactic exercises were provided to the experimental group using visual cognitive stimulation. These exercises were created on the TANGO:H Designer, a platform that was designed for gestural interaction using the KINECT sensor. As a result, TANGO:H allows for visual-motor cognitive stimulation through the movement of hands, arms, feet and head. The "Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA)" was applied to both groups as a pre-test and post-test in its four reference sections: visual comprehension, visual-motor sequential memory, visual association, and visual integration. Two checks were made, one using the longitudinal comparison of the pre-test/post-test of the experimental group, and another that relied on comparing the difference of the means of the pre-test/post-test. We also used an observational methodology for the working sessions from the experimental group. Although the statistical results do not show significant differences between the two groups, the results of the observations exhibited an improvement in visual-motor cognitive skills.

7.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500371

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that retinal neurodegeneration may precede visible vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy (DR). In addition, the relationship of choroidal thickness (CT) with DR stage is not well defined. To assess the inner retinal and choroidal structural changes in type 1 diabetic subjects (T1D), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 242 T1D patients and in 69 age-matched, non-diabetic individuals. The nasal retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness was lower in T1D patients without DR (p < 0.001), with mild DR (p < 0.001), and with advanced DR (p < 0.001) compared to control subjects. The ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness was lower in T1D patients with advanced DR compared to those with mild DR (p = 0.003) and without DR (p < 0.001) and compared to the control subjects (p < 0.001). T1D subjects with no DR and mild DR had higher CT than the control subjects, but the CT in T1D patients with advanced DR was lower (p = 0.038) than that in T1D subjects with mild DR and was not significantly different from that of the control subjects. In conclusion, T1D subjects showed a significant thinning of the nasal RNFL in the early stages of the disease, even before any vascular changes in the retina. A decrease in the GCL thickness during advanced DR stages was observed. Choroidal thickness was higher in T1D subjects without DR and in early DR stages but decreased in advanced stages.

8.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 93, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes have remarkably high rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the incremental cardiovascular risk in diabetes is heterogeneous and has often been related to renal involvement. The purpose of this study was to analyse the prognostic value of subclinical atherosclerosis in determining the incidence of first cardiovascular events (CVEs) in individuals with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to CKD individuals without diabetes. METHODS: We included data from individuals with CKD with and without diabetes, free from pre-existing cardiovascular disease, from the NEFRONA cohort. Participants underwent baseline carotid and femoral ultrasound and were followed up for 4 years. All CVEs during follow-up were registered. Bivariate analysis and Fine-Gray competing risk models were used to perform the statistical analysis. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up time of 48 months, a total of 203 CVE was registered. 107 CVE occurred among participants without diabetes (19.58 per 1000 person-years) and 96 CVE occurred among participants with diabetes (44.44 per 1000 person-years). Following the competing risk analysis, the variables predicting CVEs in CKD individuals without diabetes were the number of territories with plaque at baseline (HR 1.862, 95% CI [1.432;2.240]), age (HR 1.026, 95% CI [1.003;1.049]) and serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D (HR 0.963, 95% CI [0.933;0.094]). The only variable predicting CVEs among CKD participants with diabetes was the number of territories with plaque at baseline (HR 1.782, 95% CI [1.393, 2.278]). For both models, concordance (C) index yielded was over 0.7. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis is the strongest predictor of future CVEs in diabetic individuals with CKD. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerotic burden by multiterritorial vascular ultrasound could improve CVE prediction in this population.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(10): 1259-1266, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359563

RESUMO

AIMS: Better management of heart failure (HF) over the past two decades has improved survival, mainly by reducing the incidence of death due to cardiovascular (CV) causes. Deaths due to non-CV causes, particularly cancer, may be increasing. This study explored the modes of death of consecutive patients who attended a HF clinic over 17 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 935 deaths were ascertained from 2002 to 2018 among 1876 patients (mean age 65.8 ± 12.5 years, 75% men, left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%) admitted to our HF clinic. Median follow-up was 4.2 years [1.9-7.8]. Mode of death was curated from patient health records and verified by the Catalan and Spanish health system databases. Trends for every mode of death were assessed by polynomial regression. Two trends were observed: a significant reduction in sudden death (P = 0.03) without changes in HF progression as mode of death (P = 0.26), and a significant increase in non-CV modes of death (P < 0.001). Non-CV deaths accounted for 17.4% of deaths in 2002 and 65.8% of deaths in 2018. A total 138 deaths were due to cancer (37% of non-CV deaths). A significant trend was observed towards a progressive increase in cancer deaths over time (P = 0.002). The main mode of cancer mortality was lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The modes of death in HF have shifted over the last two decades. Patients with HF die less due to sudden death and more due to non-CV causes, mainly cancer. Whether HF triggers cancer, or cancer develops in HF survivors, deserves further insight.

10.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 10(3): 589-596, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183213

RESUMO

Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) is a rare entity. Indeed, the pathogenesis of fistula-associated perianal MA is still controversial. Due to the lack of informed evidence regarding this malignancy, no guidelines have been established concerning diagnostic and treatment strategies. The aim of this article is to report our experience and outcomes after three cases of large perianal MA treated in our center. From our retrospective chart review, we identified three male patients with chronic perianal fistula-in-ano who progressively developed perianal MA, confirmed by pelvic magnetic resonance (MRI) and histopathological examination performed on biopsy. We hereby, in accordance with the Surgical CAse REport (SCARE) guidelines, describe the management and further follow-up of each patient. The three patients underwent preoperative chemoradiation therapy, followed by ischioanal abdominoperineal resection (APR). Perineal reconstruction was needed in every case, using a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap and, punctually, a left fasciocutaneous flap was used too. Also, two of three patients completed the treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy. Neither recurrences nor distant metastases have been observed during the follow-up in both cases that finished the multimodal treatment. MA arising from chronic perianal fistula has an indolent growth with locoregional aggressiveness and a high risk of local recurrence. Therefore, although an ischioanal APR remains the surgical treatment of choice, an aggressive multimodal approach combining preoperative chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy may achieve favorable effectiveness and promising response rates.

11.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109109

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma concentrations of sCD36 (soluble CD36) are associated with the presence of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of sCD36 were analysed in 1023 subjects (225 type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, 276 type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, and 522 non-diabetic control subjects) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multinomial and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations with sCD36 and its association with diabetes types. There were no significant differences in sCD36 (p = 0.144) among study groups, neither in head-to-head comparisons: non-diabetic versus T1D subjects (p = 0.180), non-diabetic versus T2D subjects (p = 0.583), and T1D versus T2D patients (p = 0.151). In the multinomial model, lower sCD36 concentrations were associated with older age (p < 0.001), tobacco exposure (p = 0.006), T2D (p = 0.020), and a higher-platelets count (p = 0.004). However, in logistic regression models of diabetes, sCD36 showed only a weak association with T2D. The current findings show a weak association of circulating sCD36 with type 2 diabetes and no association with T1D.

12.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 23(7): 619-630, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100024

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. We hypothesized that CKD promotes a proatherogenic lipid profile modifying lipoprotein composition and particle number. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 395 non-diabetic individuals (209 CKD patients and 186 controls) without statin therapy. Conventional lipid determinations were combined with advanced lipoprotein profiling by nuclear magnetic resonance, and their discrimination ability was assessed by machine learning. Results: CKD patients showed an increase of very-low-density (VLDL) particles and a reduction of LDL particle size. Cholesterol and triglyceride content of VLDLs and intermediate-density (IDL) particles increased. However, low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins gained triglycerides and lost cholesterol. Total-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, non-HDL-Cholesterol and Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type (PCSK9) were negatively associated with CKD stages, whereas triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), remnant cholesterol, and the PCSK9/LDL-Cholesterol ratio were positively associated. PCSK9 was positively associated with total-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, LDL-triglycerides, LDL particle number, IDL-Cholesterol, and remnant cholesterol. Machine learning analysis by random forest revealed that new parameters have a higher discrimination ability to classify patients into the CKD group, compared to traditional parameters alone: area under the ROC curve (95% CI), .789 (.711, .853) vs .687 (.611, .755). Conclusions: non-diabetic CKD patients have a hidden proatherogenic lipoprotein profile.

13.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 31(6): 251-260, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) are dysfunctional in hypercholesterolemia patients. The hypothesis was tested that nicotinamide (NAM) administration will influence HDL metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages to the liver and feces in vivo (m-RCT) in a murine model of hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (KOE) mice were challenged with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The effect of different doses of NAM on cholesterol metabolism, and the ability of HDL to promote m-RCT was assessed. RESULTS: The administration of NAM to KOE mice produced an increase (∼1.5-fold; P<0.05) in the plasma levels of cholesterol, which was mainly accounted for by the non-HDL fraction. NAM produced a [3H]-cholesterol plasma accumulation (∼1.5-fold) in the m-RCT setting. As revealed by kinetic analysis, the latter was mainly explained by an impaired clearance of circulating non-HDL (∼0.8-fold). The relative content of [3H]-tracer was lowered in the livers (∼0.6-fold) and feces (>0.5-fold) of NAM-treated mice. This finding was accompanied by a significant (or trend close to significance) up-regulation of the relative gene expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 in the liver (Abcg5: 2.9-fold; P<0.05; Abcg8: 2.4-fold; P=0.06) and small intestine (Abcg5: 2.1-fold; P=0.15; Abcg8: 1.9-fold; P<0.05) of high-dose, NAM-treated mice. CONCLUSION: The data from this study show that the administration of NAM to KOE mice impaired m-RCT in vivo. This finding was partly due to a defective hepatic clearance of plasma non-HDL.

14.
J Clin Med ; 8(3)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889868

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) may potentially cause vision loss and affect the patient's quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction (TS). Using specific tools, we aimed to assess the impact of DR and clinical factors on the QoL and TS in patients with type 1 diabetes. This was a cross-sectional, two-centre study. A sample of 102 patients with DR and 140 non-DR patients were compared. The Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL-19) and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ-s) were administered. Data analysis included bivariate and multivariable analysis. Patients with DR showed a poorer perception of present QoL (p = 0.039), work life (p = 0.037), dependence (p = 0.010), and had a lower average weighted impact (AWI) score (p = 0.045). The multivariable analysis showed that DR was associated with a lower present QoL (p = 0.040), work life (p = 0.036) and dependence (p = 0.016). With regards to TS, DR was associated with a higher perceived frequency of hypoglycaemia (p = 0.019). In patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of DR is associated with a poorer perception of their QoL. With regard to TS, these subjects also show a higher perceived frequency of hypoglycaemia.

15.
J Clin Med ; 8(4)2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925670

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate ultrasound tissue characterization of carotid plaques in subjects with and without diabetes type 1 (T1D). B-mode carotid ultrasound was performed to assess the presence and type of plaque in a group of 340 subjects with and 304 without T1D, all of them without cardiovascular disease. One hundred and seven patients with T1D (49.5% women; age 54 ± 9.8 years) and 67 control subjects without diabetes who had at least one carotid plaque were included in the study. The proportion of subjects who had only echolucent plaques was reduced in the group of patients with T1D (48.6% vs. 73.1%). In contrast, the proportion with only echogenic (25.2% vs. 7.5%) and calcified plaques (9.4% vs. 1.5%) was increased compared with subjects without diabetes. Moreover, having at least one echogenic plaque was more frequent in T1D patients compared with subjects without diabetes (49.5% vs. 26.9% p = 0.005). In addition to diabetes (OR 2.28; p = 0.026), age (OR 1.06, p = 0.002) was the other variable associated with echogenic plaque existence in multiple regression analysis. Patients with T1D exhibit a differential pattern of carotid plaque type compared with subjects without diabetes, with an increased frequency of echogenic and extensively calcified plaques.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717414

RESUMO

Human apolipoprotein A-I (hApoA-I) overexpression improves high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and the metabolic complications of obesity. We used a mouse model of diabesity, the db/db mouse, to examine the effects of hApoA-I on the two main functional properties of HDL, i.e., macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (m-RCT) in vivo and the antioxidant potential, as well as the phenotypic features of obesity. HApoA-I transgenic (hA-I) mice were bred with nonobese control (db/+) mice to generate hApoA-I-overexpressing db/+ offspring, which were subsequently bred to obtain hA-I-db/db mice. Overexpression of hApoA-I significantly increased weight gain and the incidence of fatty liver in db/db mice. Weight gain was mainly explained by the increased caloric intake of hA-I-db/db mice (>1.2-fold). Overexpression of hApoA-I also produced a mixed type of dyslipidemia in db/db mice. Despite these deleterious effects, the overexpression of hApoA-I partially restored m-RCT in db/db mice to levels similar to nonobese control mice. Moreover, HDL from hA-I-db/db mice also enhanced the protection against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation compared with HDL from db/db mice. In conclusion, overexpression of hApoA-I in db/db mice enhanced two main anti-atherogenic HDL properties while exacerbating weight gain and the fatty liver phenotype. These adverse metabolic side-effects were also observed in obese mice subjected to long-term HDL-based therapies in independent studies and might raise concerns regarding the use of hApoA-I-mediated therapy in obese humans.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos
17.
Clin Nutr ; 38(6): 2740-2746, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is no consensus on the best method for nutritional screening and assessment in patients with heart failure (HF). This study aimed to determine which nutritional assessment method had the highest prognostic significance for patients with HF treated in outpatient clinics. We also aimed to identify a fast, reliable screening method for detecting malnutrition in these patients. METHODS: This prospective study included 151 subjects that attended an outpatient HF clinic at a university hospital. All patients completed three nutritional screening tools: the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and then, two nutritional assessment questionnaires: the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment®(MNA). Patients were followed-up for 2 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Malnutrition or nutritional risk was identified in 15.9% of patients with the SGA and in 25.1% of patients with the MNA. Age, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, and MNA were the only independent all-cause death predictors after adjusting for age, gender, NYHA functional class, body mass index, Barthel index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, and treatment with beta-blockers. The SGA could not independently predict all-cause mortality in a multivariate analysis that included the same covariates. The MNA-SF had the best sensitivity, specificity, and kappa coefficient for screening malnutrition, based on the MNA and the SGA as references, compared to the other screening methods. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, malnutrition assessed by MNA, but not by SGA, was an independent predictor of mortality. MNA-SF showed remarkable sensitivity and specificity; thus, it might be a valuable tool for rapidly identifying malnutrition risk in outpatients with HF.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(6): 2271-2279, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess food intake and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in patients with T1D compared with nondiabetic individuals. METHODS: This was an observational, multicenter study in 262 T1D subjects and 254 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic subjects. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was administered. The alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) and alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) were assessed. The clinical variables were also collected. The analysis of data included comparisons between groups and multivariate models. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, the patients with T1D had a higher intake of dairy products (p < 0.001), processed meat (p = 0.001), fatty fish (p = 0.009), fruits and vegetables (p < 0.001), nuts (p = 0.011), legumes (p < 0.001), potatoes (p = 0.045), and bread (p = 0.045), and a lower intake of seafood (p = 0.011), sweets (p < 0.001), and alcohol drinks (p = 0.025). This intake pattern resulted in a higher consumption of complex carbohydrates (p = 0.049), fiber (p < 0.001), protein (p < 0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (p = 0.007), antioxidants (p < 0.001), vitamins (p < 0.001), and minerals (p < 0.001). The frequency of patients with T1D and low aMED score (23.2%) was lower than that of the controls (35.4%; p = 0.019). The overall multivariate analysis showed that, among other factors, being a T1D subject was associated with improved aMED and aHEI scores (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). In patients with T1D, residing in a nonurban area was associated with improved aMED and aHEI scores (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with T1D showed healthier dietary habits and a higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet than nondiabetic subjects. Residing in a nonurban area is associated with an improved dietary pattern.

19.
Nurse Educ Today ; 71: 48-53, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study is to determine the efficiency in the execution of the START (Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment) triage, comparing Virtual Reality (VR) to Clinical Simulation (CS) in a Mass Casualty Incident (MCI). The secondary objective is to determine the stress produced in the health professionals in the two situations described. MATERIALS: A comparative study on the efficiency and the stress during triage in a MSI was conducted. The basal and post levels of salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity were measured in all the participants before and after the simulation. RESULTS: The percentage of victims that were triaged correctly was 87.65% (SD = 8.3); 88.3% (SD = 9.65) for the Clinical Simulation with Actors (CSA) group and 87.2% (SD = 7.2) for the Virtual Reality Simulation (VRG) group, without any significant differences (p = 0.612) between both groups. The basal sAA was 103.26 (SD = 79.13) U/L with a significant increase (p < 0.001) with respect to the post-simulation levels (182.22, SD = 148.65 U/L). The increase of sAA was 80.70 (SD = 109.67) U/mL, being greater for the CSA group than the VRG group. CONCLUSION: The results show that virtual reality method is as efficient as clinical simulation for training on the execution of basic triage (START model). Also, based on the sAA results, we can attest that clinical simulation creates a more stressful training experience for the student, so that is should not be substituted by the use of virtual reality, although the latter could be used as a complementary activity.


Assuntos
Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/psicologia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento por Simulação/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/normas
20.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158448

RESUMO

Medical nutrition therapy is an important part of the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Proper adherence to a healthy diet may have a favorable impact on diabetes management and its diabetic complications. Our aim was to assess differences in food and nutrient intake of type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). This was a two-center, cross-sectional study in patients with T1DM, with and without DR. Subjects were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the two participating centers. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered. A total of 103 T1DM patients with DR and 140 T1DM patient without DR were recruited. Subjects with DR showed a lower intake of total fat (p = 0.036) than that of their non-DR counterparts. DR was associated with increasing age (p = 0.004), hypertension (p < 0.001), and diabetes duration (p < 0.001), however there was a negative association with high educational level (p = 0.018). The multivariate-adjusted analysis showed that the intake of complex carbohydrates was positively related to the presence of DR (p = 0.031). In contrast, the intakes of total fat (p = 0.009), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) (p = 0.012), oleic acid (p = 0.012), and vitamin E (p = 0.006) were associated with the absence of DR. As conclusions, the intake of total MUFAs, oleic acid, and vitamin E is associated with a lower frequency of DR in patients with T1DM. These results suggest a potential protective effect of these lipid components for DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
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