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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140007, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534319

RESUMO

Clonal integration, i.e., resource sharing within clones, enables clonal plants to maintain biomass production when ramets (asexual individuals) under stress are connected to those not under stress. Oil pollution can strongly reduce biomass production, and connected ramets within clones may experience different levels of oil pollution. Therefore, clonal integration may help plants maintain biomass production despite oil pollution. Because biomass production is often negatively correlated with greenhouse gas emissions, we hypothesized that oil pollution would increase greenhouse gas emissions and that clonal integration would reduce such an effect. We tested these hypotheses in a coastal wetland dominated by the rhizomatous grass Phragmites australis near a major site of oil production in the Yellow River Delta in China. We applied 0, 5, or 10 mm crude oil per year for two years in plots within stands of P. australis and tested effects of severing rhizomes connecting ramets inside and outside a plot (i.e. preventing clonal integration) on biomass production, soil chemistry and greenhouse gas emissions. When severed, ramets inside plots with no added oil produced about 220 g aboveground biomass m--2 over the second growing season, and plots absorbed about 500 g total CO2 equivalents m-2. Adding 10 mm oil per year reduced aboveground biomass by about 30%, and caused plots to emit about 800 g CO2 equivalents m-2. Leaving ramets connected to those outside plots eliminated the negative effects of oil pollution on biomass production, and caused plots given 10 mm oil per year to emit about 50% fewer total CO2 equivalents. We conclude that oil pollution can increase greenhouse gas emissions and clonal integration can reduce the effect of oil pollution on biomass production and greenhouse gas emissions. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that clonal integration in plants can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

2.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(4): 895-907, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188960

RESUMO

Fresh soot particles are generally hydrophobic, however, particle hydrophilicity can be increased through atmospheric aging processes. At present little is known on how particle chemical composition and hydrophilicity change upon atmospheric aging and associated uncertainties governing the ice cloud formation potential of soot. Here we sampled two propane flame soots referred to as brown and black soot, characterized as organic carbon rich and poor, respectively. We investigated how the ice nucleation activity of these particles changed through aging in water and aqueous acidic solutions, using a continuous flow diffusion chamber operated at cirrus cloud temperatures (T ≤ 233 K). Single aggregates of both unaged and aged soot were chemically characterized by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (STXM/NEXAFS) measurements. Particle wettability was determined through water sorption measurements. Unaged black and brown soot particles exhibited significantly different ice nucleation activities. Our experiments revealed significantly enhanced ice nucleation activity of the aged soot particles compared to the fresh samples, lowering the required relative humidities at which ice formation can take place at T = 218 K by up to 15% with respect to water (ΔRHi ≈ 25%). We observed an enhanced water uptake capacity for the aged compared to the unaged samples, which was more pronounced for the black soot. From these measurements we concluded that there is a change in ice nucleation mechanism when aging brown soot. Comparison of the NEXAFS spectra of unaged soot samples revealed a unique spectral feature around 287.5 eV in the case of black soot that was absent for the brown soot, indicative of carbon with hydroxyl functionalities. Comparison of the NEXAFS spectra of unaged and aged soot particles indicates changes in organic functional groups, and the aged spectra were found to be largely similar across soot types, with the exception of the water aged brown soot. Overall, we conclude that atmospheric aging is important to representatively assess the ice cloud formation activity of soot particles.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 134941, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796271

RESUMO

Spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients and earthworm activity can each increase the performance of plant species, but their interactive effects have been little studied. The ability of plants to forage for nutrients by concentrating roots where nutrients are concentrated can partly explain the positive effects of nutrient heterogeneity, but whether root foraging can help explain the positive effects of earthworm activity is untested. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we grew eight species of Poaceae in homogeneous and heterogeneous soils with or without the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Metaphire guillelmi and measured net accumulation of plant mass and tillers. Effects of heterogeneity and earthworms on plant performance were positive in most species. The presence of earthworms reduced the directly measured effect of heterogeneity on total mass in some grass species. Most species showed root foraging ability. Ability showed no relationship to effects of heterogeneity or earthworms on final total dry mass. However, earthworms reduced foraging in some species, possibly by lessening heterogeneity. Earthworm activity in heterogeneous soil may thus reduce the benefits of root foraging for nutrients in plants.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , Poaceae , Solo , Poluentes do Solo
4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(37): 20613-20627, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528972

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol particles with a high viscosity may become inhomogeneously mixed during chemical processing. Models have predicted gradients in condensed phase reactant concentration throughout particles as the result of diffusion and chemical reaction limitations, termed chemical gradients. However, these have never been directly observed for atmospherically relevant particle diameters. We investigated the reaction between ozone and aerosol particles composed of xanthan gum and FeCl2 and observed the in situ chemical reaction that oxidized Fe2+ to Fe3+ using X-ray spectromicroscopy. Iron oxidation state of particles as small as 0.2 µm in diameter were imaged over time with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. We found that the loss off Fe2+ accelerated with increasing ozone concentration and relative humidity, RH. Concentric 2-D column integrated profiles of the Fe2+ fraction, α, out of the total iron were derived and demonstrated that particle surfaces became oxidized while particle cores remained unreacted at RH = 0-20%. At higher RH, chemical gradients evolved over time, extended deeper from the particle surface, and Fe2+ became more homogeneously distributed. We used the kinetic multi-layer model for aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB) to simulate ozone reaction constrained with our observations and inferred key parameters as a function of RH including Henry's Law constant for ozone, HO3, and diffusion coefficients for ozone and iron, DO3 and DFe, respectively. We found that HO3 is higher in our xanthan gum/FeCl2 particles than for water and increases when RH decreased from about 80% to dry conditions. This coincided with a decrease in both DO3 and DFe. In order to reproduce observed chemical gradients, our model predicted that ozone could not be present further than a few nanometers from a particle surface indicating near surface reactions were driving changes in iron oxidation state. However, the observed chemical gradients in α observed over hundreds of nanometers must have been the result of iron transport from the particle interior to the surface where ozone oxidation occurred. In the context of our results, we examine the applicability of the reacto-diffusive framework and discuss diffusion limitations for other reactive gas-aerosol systems of atmospheric importance.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(15): 4484-4489, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295402

RESUMO

The diffusivity of molecules relevant to condensed-phase chemistry within viscous secondary organic aerosol (SOA) remains highly uncertain. Whereas there has been an effort to characterize water diffusivity as well as the diffusivity of larger compounds, data are lacking almost entirely for small molecules, such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Here we use photochemically generated CO2 in single particles of aqueous citric acid as a SOA proxy, levitated in an electrodynamic balance, to deduce CO2 diffusivity in the particle with unprecedented accuracy. For medium viscosities at intermediate relative humidities (∼25-40% RH), we find CO2 diffusivities DCO2 ≈ 10-14 m2 s-1, agreeing with the Stokes-Einstein relationship based on current viscosity data but 10 times lower than that for water. Conversely, under dry high-viscosity conditions, we find that DCO2 ≈ 10-16 m2 s-1, which is 10 times higher than for water. We infer that the chemical degradation of atmospheric SOA particles will likely not be limited by CO2 diffusivity.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(14): 7680-7688, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898357

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol particles may contain light absorbing (brown carbon, BrC), triplet forming organic compounds that can sustain catalytic radical reactions and thus contribute to oxidative aerosol aging. We quantify UVA induced radical production initiated by imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC), benzophenone (BPh). and 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (BBA) in the presence of the nonabsorbing organics citric acid (CA), shikimic acid (SA), and syringol (Syr) at varying mixing ratios. We observed a maximum HO2 release of 1013 molecules min-1 cm-2 at a mole ratio XBPh < 0.02 for BPh in CA. Mixtures of either IC or BBA with CA resulted in 1011-1012 molecules min-1 cm-2 of HO2 at mole ratios ( XIC and XBBA) between 0.01 and 0.15. HO2 release was affected by relative humidity ( RH) and film thickness suggesting coupled photochemical reaction and diffusion processes. Quantum yields of HO2 formed per absorbed photon for IC, BBA and BPh were between 10-7 and 5 × 10-5. The nonphotoactive organics, Syr and SA, increased HO2 production due to the reaction with the triplet excited species ensuing ketyl radical production. Rate coefficients of the triplet of IC with Syr and SA measured by laser flash photolysis experiments were kSyr = (9.4 ± 0.3) × 108 M-1 s-1 and kSA = (2.7 ± 0.5) × 107 M-1 s-1. A simple kinetic model was used to assess total HO2 and organic radical production in the condensed phase and to upscale to ambient aerosol, indicating that BrC induced radical production may amount to an upper limit of 20 and 200 M day-1 of HO2 and organic radical respectively, which is greater or in the same order of magnitude as the internal radical production from other processes, previously estimated to be around 15 M per day.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Aerossóis , Difusão , Cinética , Oxirredução
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 262-268, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128776

RESUMO

Physiological integration of connected ramets of clonal plants can increase clonal performance when ramets grow in contrasting microenvironments within a habitat. In amphibious clonal species, integration of ramets in different habitats, terrestrial and aquatic, is possible. This may increase performance of amphibious clones, especially under eutrophic conditions. To test this, clonal fragments consisting of two ramets of the amphibious, perennial, climbing herb Ipomoea aquatica connected by a stem were placed such that the proximal ramet was rooted in a simulated riparian community of four other species, while the distal ramet extended into a simulated aquatic habitat with open water and sediment. The connection between ramets was either left intact or severed, and 0, 5, or 25mg N L-1 was added to the aquatic habitat to simulate different degrees of eutrophication. Without added N, fragments in which the original ramets were left connected accumulated two times more total mass than fragments in which the ramets were disconnected from one another. The positive effect of connection increased two-fold with increasing N. These results were consistent with the hypotheses that physiological integration between connected terrestrial and aquatic ramets can increase clonal performance in plants and that this effect can be greater when the aquatic ramet is richer in nutrients. Connection reduced root to shoot ratio in terrestrial ramets, but increased it in aquatic ones, suggesting that physiological integration induced a division of labor in which terrestrial ramets specialized for light acquisition and aquatic ramets specialized for acquisition of nutrients. This provides the first report of increase in clonal performance and induction of division of labor due to physiological integration between ramets in different habitats.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ipomoea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea/fisiologia , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12693, 2017 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978998

RESUMO

Organic interfaces that exist at the sea surface microlayer or as surfactant coatings on cloud droplets are highly concentrated and chemically distinct from the underlying bulk or overlying gas phase. Therefore, they may be potentially unique locations for chemical or photochemical reactions. Recently, photochemical production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was reported at a nonanoic acid interface however, subsequent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particle production was incapable of being observed. We investigated SOA particle formation due to photochemical reactions occurring at an air-water interface in presence of model saturated long chain fatty acid and alcohol surfactants, nonanoic acid and nonanol, respectively. Ozonolysis of the gas phase photochemical products in the dark or under continued UV irradiation both resulted in nucleation and growth of SOA particles. Irradiation of nonanol did not yield detectable VOC or SOA production. Organic carbon functionalities of the SOA were probed using X-ray microspectroscopy and compared with other laboratory generated and field collected particles. Carbon-carbon double bonds were identified in the condensed phase which survived ozonolysis during new particle formation and growth. The implications of photochemical processes occurring at organic coated surfaces are discussed in the context of marine SOA particle atmospheric fluxes.

10.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 165-194, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574555

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

11.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 59-74, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598469

RESUMO

Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O3/OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.


Assuntos
Tensoativos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
12.
Am J Bot ; 103(12): 2079-2086, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965239

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Physiological integration between connected ramets is well known to increase performance of clonal plant species. However, no direct evidence appears to exist that integration can increase the ability of clonal species to compete with other species within mixed communities. We tested this hypothesis using two floating, invasive, aquatic species in which fragmentation-and thus extent of integration-is likely to vary between habitats and times. METHODS: Individual ramets of Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes were grown in monoculture or in mixture, and new stolons bearing new offspring were severed or left intact. After 6 wk, the numbers of offspring and second-generation (2°) offspring produced by each original ramet, or parent, were counted; and the final dry mass of each parent, its stolons, its offspring, and its 2° offspring were measured. KEY RESULTS: Fragmentation decreased the relative competitive ability of Pistia, but not that of Eichhornia. This was mainly because Pistia accumulated ∼30% less dry mass of offspring when fragmented and grown with Eichhornia than in other treatments. Offspring of Pistia were smaller than those of Eichhornia in all treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that clonal integration can increase competitive ability in some clonal species. In this case, integration appeared to enable the small offspring of Pistia to compete more effectively with the large offspring of Eichhornia. Lower rates of fragmentation may select for production of more numerous, smaller vegetative offspring in clonal species.


Assuntos
Araceae/fisiologia , Eichhornia/fisiologia , Organismos Aquáticos , Células Clonais , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Reprodução
14.
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
15.
Oecologia ; 179(2): 393-403, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26009243

RESUMO

Physiological integration between connected ramets can increase the performance of clonal plants when ramets experience contrasting levels of resource availabilities in heterogeneous environments. It has generally been shown or assumed that clonal integration has little effect on clonal performance in homogeneous environments. However, a conceptual model suggests that integration could increase performance in a homogeneous environment when connected ramets differ in uptake ability and external resource supply is high. We tested this hypothesis in a greenhouse experiment with the amphibious plant Alternanthera philoxeroides. Ramets in clonal fragments containing three rooted and two unrooted ramets were either left connected or divided into a basal part with two rooted ramets and an apical part with the other ramets. To simulate realistic, homogeneous environments of the species with different levels of resource supply, plants were grown at 0, 20, or 40 cm of water depth. Water depth had a positive effect on most measures of growth, indicating that resource supply increased with depth. Connection had negative to neutral effects on total growth of fragments at a water depth of 0 cm, and neutral to positive effects at 20- and 40-cm depths; effects on the apical part were generally positive and larger at greater depth; effects on the basal part were generally negative and smaller at greater depth. Results largely supported the hypothesis and further suggest that clonal integration of allocation and reproduction may modify benefits of resource sharing in homogeneous environments.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Células Clonais , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução Assexuada/fisiologia , Água
17.
Faraday Discuss ; 165: 513-34, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24601020

RESUMO

Immersion freezing of water and aqueous solutions by particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) is a common process of heterogeneous ice nucleation which occurs in many environments, especially in the atmosphere where it results in the glaciation of clouds. Here we experimentally show, using a variety of IN types suspended in various aqueous solutions, that immersion freezing temperatures and kinetics can be described solely by temperature, T, and solution water activity, a(w), which is the ratio of the vapour pressure of the solution and the saturation water vapour pressure under the same conditions and, in equilibrium, equivalent to relative humidity (RH). This allows the freezing point and corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, J(het), to be uniquely expressed by T and a(w), a result we term the a(w) based immersion freezing model (ABIFM). This method is independent of the nature of the solute and accounts for several varying parameters, including cooling rate and IN surface area, while providing a holistic description of immersion freezing and allowing prediction of freezing temperatures, J(het), frozen fractions, ice particle production rates and numbers. Our findings are based on experimental freezing data collected for various IN surface areas, A, and cooling rates, r, of droplets variously containing marine biogenic material, two soil humic acids, four mineral dusts, and one organic monolayer acting as IN. For all investigated IN types we demonstrate that droplet freezing temperatures increase as A increases. Similarly, droplet freezing temperatures increase as the cooling rate decreases. The log10(J(het)) values for the various IN types derived exclusively by Tand a(w), provide a complete description of the heterogeneous ice nucleation kinetics. Thus, the ABIFM can be applied over the entire range of T, RH, total particulate surface area, and cloud activation timescales typical of atmospheric conditions. Lastly, we demonstrate that ABIFM can be used to derive frozen fractions of droplets and ice particle production for atmospheric models of cirrus and mixed phase cloud conditions.

18.
Ann Bot ; 109(4): 813-8, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22207612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fine-scale, spatial heterogeneity in soil nutrient availability can increase the growth of individual plants, the productivity of plant communities and interspecific competition. If this is due to the ability of plants to concentrate their roots where nutrient levels are high, then nutrient heterogeneity should have little effect on intraspecific competition, especially when there are no genotypic differences between individuals in root plasticity. We tested this hypothesis in a widespread, clonal species in which individual plants are known to respond to nutrient heterogeneity. METHODS: Plants derived from a single clone of Alternanthera philoxeroides were grown in the greenhouse at low or high density (four or 16 plants per 27·5 × 27·5-cm container) with homogeneous or heterogeneous availability of soil nutrients, keeping total nutrient availability per container constant. After 9 weeks, measurements of size, dry mass and morphology were taken. KEY RESULTS: Plants grew more in the heterogeneous than in the homogeneous treatment, showing that heterogeneity promoted performance; they grew less in the high- than in the low-density treatment, showing that plants competed. There was no interactive effect of nutrient heterogeneity and plant density, supporting the hypothesis that heterogeneity does not affect intraspecific competition in the absence of genotypic differences in plasticity. Treatments did not affect morphological characteristics such as specific leaf area or root/shoot ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that fine-scale, spatial heterogeneity in the availability of soil nutrients does not increase competition when plants are genetically identical, consistent with the suggestion that effects of heterogeneity on competition depend upon differences in plasticity between individuals. Heterogeneity is only likely to increase the spread of monoclonal, invasive populations such as that of A. philoxeroides in China.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amaranthaceae/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Solo/química , Amaranthaceae/anatomia & histologia , Amaranthaceae/genética , China , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Espécies Introduzidas , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(44): 19882-94, 2011 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21912788

RESUMO

Biogenic particles have the potential to affect the formation of ice crystals in the atmosphere with subsequent consequences for the hydrological cycle and climate. We present laboratory observations of heterogeneous ice nucleation in immersion and deposition modes under atmospherically relevant conditions initiated by Nannochloris atomus and Emiliania huxleyi, marine phytoplankton with structurally and chemically distinct cell walls. Temperatures at which freezing, melting, and water uptake occur are observed using optical microscopy. The intact and fragmented unarmoured cells of N. atomus in aqueous NaCl droplets enhance ice nucleation by 10-20 K over the homogeneous freezing limit and can be described by a modified water activity based ice nucleation approach. E. huxleyi cells covered by calcite plates do not enhance droplet freezing temperatures. Both species nucleate ice in the deposition mode at an ice saturation ratio, S(ice), as low as ~1.2 and below 240 K, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. These observations show that markedly different biogenic surfaces have both comparable and contrasting effects on ice nucleation behaviour depending on the presence of the aqueous phase and the extent of supercooling and water vapour supersaturation. We derive heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, J(het), and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, K, for quantification and analysis using time-dependent and time-independent approaches, respectively. Contact angles, α, derived from J(het)via immersion freezing depend on T, a(w), and S(ice). For deposition freezing, α can be described as a function of S(ice) only. The different approaches yield different predictions of atmospheric ice crystal numbers primarily due to the time evolution allowed for the time-dependent approach with implications for the evolution of mixed-phase and ice clouds.


Assuntos
Gases/química , Gelo , Água/química , Clorófitas/química , Congelamento , Haptófitas/química , Transição de Fase , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Tempo , Temperatura de Transição
20.
PLoS One ; 5(10): e13631, 2010 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21049029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of small clonal fragments to establish and grow after disturbance is an important ecological advantage of clonal growth in plants and a major factor in the invasiveness of some introduced, clonal species. We hypothesized that orientation in the horizontal position (typical for stoloniferous plants) can increase the survival and growth of dispersed clonal fragments, and that this effect of orientation can be stronger when fragments are smaller and thus have fewer reserves to support initial growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test these hypotheses, we compared performance of single-node pieces of stolon fragments of Alternanthera philoxeroides planted at angles of 0, 45 or 90° away from the horizontal position, with either the distal or the proximal end of the fragment up and with either 1 or 3 cm of stolon left attached both distal and proximal to the ramet. As expected, survival and growth were greatest when fragments were positioned horizontally. Contrary to expectations, some of these effects of orientation were stronger when attached stolons were longer. Orientation had smaller effects than stolon length on the performance of fragments; survival of fragments was about 60% with shorter stolons and 90% with longer stolons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results supported the hypothesis that orientation can affect establishment of small clonal fragments, suggested that effects of orientation can be stronger in larger rather than smaller fragments, and indicated that orientation may have less effect on establishment than amount of stored resources.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia
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