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1.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(4): 1445-1448, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799320

RESUMO

Many pharmacological activities have been reported from plants polyphenols. The aim of this study was to investigate anti inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of polyphenols from Feijoa sellowiana fruit and leaves. For the anti-inflammatory activity evaluation, inhibition of carrageenan induced edema was used. While for the evaluation of antinociceptive activity of the extract, writhing and hot plate tests in mice were used. Impairment in mouse coordination was evaluated by rota-rode test. Carrageenan induced edema was significantly inhibited by the extract at 50-400 mg kg-1 doses, when comparison was made with control group. The extract of leaf at the dose of 50 mg kg-1 i.p. the activity was equipotent with diclofenac (p>0.05). Extract reduced the writhing count in 50-400 mg kg-1 of doses. Fruit extract showed higher activity than diclofenac (p<0.001) at 400 mg kg-1 doses. In all tested doses, the extract significantly augmented the pain threshold in hot plate thermal test. No locomotor impairment in mice was induced by the extract at any tested doses. Extract was safe and didnot demonstrate any noxiousness up to 1 g kg-1 .This study indicates the potential therapeutic use of Feijoa as a potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agent.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682961

RESUMO

Pregabalin is a first-line therapy for neuropathic pain and for chronic pain. It has abuse potential. This study was conducted to assess community pharmacists' perceptions towards pregabalin abuse and misuse in the Aseer region, Saudi Arabia, and identify predictors and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire following a self-administrative study was conducted across community pharmacies in the Aseer region (Abha, Khamis Mushait, Mahayel, Sarat Abeeda, Ahad-Rufaida, and Bishah). A total of 206 respondents from community pharmacists participated in the study. Over the last six months, 136 respondents (66.0%) suspected pregabalin abuse in community pharmacies; male dominance in pregabalin abusers was also recorded (n = 165, 80.1%). Additionally, 40 (19.4%) respondents stated that a prescription was not issued for pregabalin demands. Over half (61.7%) of community pharmacists recorded an increased change in pregabalin abuse compared to the previous year. This is the first study to explore pharmacists' perceptions in the community of the Aseer region towards customers' misuse and abuse of pregabalin. Further monitoring and regulations on the prescribing and procurement of pregabalin are needed to avoid abuse.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on Saudi domestic air travellers' understanding regarding COVID-19 and their attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess Saudi domestic air travellers' understanding regarding COVID-19 and attitude towards mandating the COVID-19 vaccination for travellers. METHODS: A survey using a self-administered, structured, and closed-ended questionnaire was conducted among domestic air travellers in Saudi Arabia. Participants' socio-demographic information, travel history, health status, and attitudes and willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccination were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Of the 2236 respondents who participated in the survey, 542 (24.25%) had a history of COVID-19, 803 (35.9%) were exposed to a COVID-19 case, 1425 (63.7%) were concerned about catching COVID-19 during air travel, 796 (35.6%) thought the COVID-19 vaccination should be obligatory for travellers, 1105 (49.4%) thought it should be optional, and 335 (15.0%) thought the vaccination was unnecessary. Being of the male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.14-1.69), being concerned about contracting COVID-19 (aOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-2.10) and frequent travelling (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) were predictors of vaccination uptake. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that although domestic Saudi travellers were concerned about COVID-19 infection, vaccine hesitancy was prevalent among them.

4.
Assay Drug Dev Technol ; 19(6): 339-349, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182792

RESUMO

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common type of Leishmaniasis, which annually affects 1.5 million people worldwide. About 90% of cases are reported from countries such as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. The purpose of the present study was to fabricate transdermal patches of Nigella sativa (NS), characterize, and to check its in vitro/in vivo anti-Lieshmanial activity. Hydroalcoholic extract was analyzed for preliminary phytochemicals. Five formulations of transdermal patches (NS1, NS2, NS3, NS4, and NS5) were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The optimized formulation NS5 was characterized for Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), smoothness, brittleness, clarity, thickness, folding endurance, uniformity of weight, percent moisture content, in vitro drug release, release kinetics, ex vivo drug permeation, and in vitro anti-Lieshmanial activity. In vivo anti-Lieshmanial activity was assessed in 30 patients (n = 30) suffering from CL. The FTIR studies showed no incompatibility among the active extract and polymers. In vitro anti-Lieshmanial assay was 194.6% ± 1.88% as compared with standard drug (p > 0.05) and in vivo anti-Lieshmanial activity was 75%. The drug release after 24 h was 87.0% ± 0.94% in NS5, which showed non-Fickian diffusion mechanism while drug permeation across rabbit skin after 24 h was up to 80.0% ± 0.91%. The results concluded that problems related to the parenteral medications used for Lieshmanial treatment can be managed by applying extract of NS seeds in the form of transdermal patch.

5.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2675-2682, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188577

RESUMO

Purpose: During examinations, many students use various over-the-counter (OTC) drugs to improve their concentration or treat exam-related medical symptoms. The purpose of this study was to scrutinize the use of OTC drugs during examinations in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed, consisting of online, self-administered questionnaires comprising 27 items, including the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of students toward OTC drug use during examinations. A logistic regression model was fitted to determine factors that predict OTC drug use. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Results: A total of 463 (92.6%) completed questionnaires were received from 500 recruited participants. Among participants, 58.5% were women, 47.9% were 22 years or older and completing their final year of study, and 44.1% of students preferred not to disclose their monthly income. The most common cause (35.6%) for OTC drug use during the examination period was headache, followed by pain (21%), fever (16.6%), and cough (8.2%). The most commonly used medication were painkillers, antipyretics, cough and cold medications, and vitamins (57.2%, 16.4%, 11%, and 7.3%, respectively). Male students showed a significant lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the safety and reasons for OTC drug use compared with their female counterparts and were less likely to read the medication leaflet before use (p < 0.001, odds ratio [OR]: 0.36, confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.57) and did not know which drugs require prescriptions (p < 0.001, OR: 0.41, CI: 0.27-0.63). Other significant factors that predicted OTC drug use included age, university level, and drug income. Conclusion: The most common reported cause for OTC drug use during examinations among students was headache. Sex, age, university level, and monthly income were significant factors affecting OTC drug use during examinations.

6.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Política Pública , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Latência do Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(3): e13802, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The safety and efficacy of treatment approaches in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after the failure of two oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) was studied. METHODS: A combination of the ambispective study was conducted between June 2013 to June 2014 at the Asir Diabetes Center, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Patients with poorly controlled T2DM who were administered two OHAs for at least 6 months and had HbA1c levels greater than 7.0% were included. Subjects were treated with three OHAs (Group I), biphasic insulin and metformin (Group II), two existing OHAs and basal insulin (Group III), and insulin monotherapy (Group IV). Relevant data were collected at baseline at the interval of 3 months for one year. RESULTS: Amongst 255 patients enrolled, 20.8, 29.8, 32.5, and 16.8% were in Groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The mean (Glycated hemoglobin) HbA1c levels were decreased significantly in the groups where insulin was an add-on therapy with the OHAs. Acceptable level of HbA1C (7 %) was significantly higher amongst patients in groups II and III, whereas hypoglycemic events were higher in Group IV. CONCLUSION: Insulin as add-on therapy with OHAs is an option for the management of T2DM where glycemic control is insufficient with two OHAs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Arábia Saudita
9.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 347-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368165

RESUMO

Purpose: This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of community pharmacists regarding weight reduction products in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study of community pharmacists in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia, was conducted between March and May 2019. Results: The most commonly prescribed weight reduction agent was green tea followed by oatmeal products and ginseng. The results revealed that almost 85% of the respondents did not know which weight reduction agents are approved as over-the-counter products by the US Food and Drug Administration. Community pharmacists had positive attitudes toward the safety and efficacy of weight reduction products, but 64.91% indicated that they would limit weight reduction agents to obese patients who could not reduce their weight through exercise and diet. More than 80% of the participants agreed that it is very important to counsel patients regarding weight reduction products, and more than 80% also agreed that pharmacists should regularly discuss weight reduction products with other healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Community pharmacists showed positive attitudes and efficient practice towards prescribing weight reducing products. However, there was a deficit regarding the knowledge about which products approved by FDA to manage overweight. That requires to consolidate the role of community pharmacists in weight management in Saudi Arabia with more continuous education and regulation.

10.
Saudi Pharm J ; 28(12): 1842-1850, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424273

RESUMO

The main aim of the topically applied drugs is to provide local drug contact to the skin and minimize general absorption of drugs. Ocimum basilicum (OB) is popular for folk medicines, having official acceptance in many countries. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the efficacy of topical application of OB-based emulgel on wound healing in animal model. The prepared formulations (OB emulgel) were assessed for FTIR analysis, stability studies, physical appearance, rheological behavior, spreadability, patch/sensitivity test and in vitro drug release. The in vivo wound healing effect was evaluated and compared with commercially available Silver Sulfadiazine cream Quench® in wound-induced rabbits by macroscopic and histopathological evidence. The OB extract/drug was compatible with the selected polymer and other excipients and indicated the suitability of the polymers/excipients for preparation of topical emulgel. The formulated OB emulgel exhibited good physical properties. The release profile of emulgel was satisfactory and released 81.71 ± 1.7% of the drug in 250 min. In vivo wound healing studies showed that OB emulgel exhibited the highest percent wound contraction similar to the commercial product (p > 0.05). This activity was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in comparison to control. Histopathological assessment showed marked improvement in the skin histological architecture after 16 days of OB emulgel treatment. In conclusion, the data demonstrated here signify the prospective of 5% OB emulgel as an innovative therapeutic approach in wound healing.

11.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 12: 243-249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814786

RESUMO

Purpose: This study objective was to explore the pattern of self-medications among King Khalid University students, Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over five months among King Khalid University students, Abha, Saudi Arabia. Results: Among all the study participants, nearly 98.7% were practicing self-medication. Headache (75.9%), cough and cold (52.5%), and fever (35.6%) and body pain (24.6%) were the most reported symptoms. Use of painkillers (91.6%) was significantly predominant among the medical students, whereas non-medical students used antibiotics (35.4%).Time saving (64.2%), mild symptom (51.7%) and quick relief (36.9%) were the reasons behind seeking self-medication in this study. Conclusion: Self-medications was common in King Khalid University. Educational programs are highly recommended.

12.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 43(3): 426-433, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing calcium gluconate (CaGlu) and cysteine have elevated particle counts when analyzed using laser light obscuration (LO) as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). There are no compatibility studies for solutions compounded with cysteine and containing calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) using LO. The purpose of this study was to conduct compatibility testing for neonatal PN solutions containing CaCl2 and CaGlu with cysteine. METHODS: Solutions of amino acids (2.5%), containing either CaCl2 or CaGlu plus potassium phosphate, were compounded with 50 and 100 mg/dL cysteine. Solutions were analyzed for particle counts using LO. Maximum concentrations tested were 20 mmol/L calcium and 15 mmol/L phosphate. Three solutions containing CaCl2 (144 total solutions) and 2 containing CaGlu (96 total solutions) and the same concentration of additives were compounded. If the average particle count of replicates exceeded USP guidelines, the solution was incompatible. RESULTS: All solutions containing CaGlu had particle counts that exceeded USP guidelines for particle counts ≥10 µm (range, 86-580 particles/mL). For CaCl2 , 90 of 144 solutions were compatible (range of particle counts for all solutions, 3-121 particles/mL). Maximum compatible concentrations of CaCl2 and potassium phosphate were 15 mmol/L and 12.5 mmol/L, respectively, for solutions containing both 50 and 100 mg/dL cysteine. CONCLUSION: This study found that neonatal PN solutions containing CaGlu with added cysteine have significantly higher particle counts, exceeding USP guidelines for compatibility, than those containing CaCl2 .


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Gluconato de Cálcio/química , Cisteína/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz/métodos , Soluções de Nutrição Parenteral/análise , Soluções de Nutrição Parenteral/química , Precipitação Química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
13.
Saudi Med J ; 38(8): 846-851, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28762438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in health care professionals who are performing shift work. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 510 health care professionals at Prince Sultan Military Medical City and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Data were collected using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants were divided into 2 groups: shift workers and non-shift workers. Results: We compared both groups regarding the effect of shift work on the total score of PSQI and ESS. We found that the PSQI global score (p less than 0.001) and the total ESS score (p=0.003) were significantly higher in shift work health care professionals.  Conclusion: Shift work among health care professionals is associated with poor sleep quality but not excessive daytime sleepiness. Health care professionals performing shift work have PSQI and ESS scores slightly higher than non-shift work health professionals.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Pessoal de Saúde , Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 3423685, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579308

RESUMO

Increase in the incidence of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) among people from developed and developing countries has created a large global market for insulin. Moreover, exploration of new methods for insulin delivery including oral or inhalation route which require very high doses would further increase the demand of cost-effective recombinant insulin. Various bacterial and yeast strains have been optimized to overproduce important biopharmaceuticals. One of the approaches we have taken is the production of recombinant human insulin along with C-peptide in yeast Pichia pastoris. We procured a cDNA clone of insulin from Origene Inc., USA. Insulin cDNA was PCR amplified and cloned into yeast vector pPICZ-α. Cloned insulin cDNA was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. pPICZ-α-insulin clone was transformed into Pichia pastoris SuperMan 5 strain. Several Zeocin resistant clones were obtained and integration of insulin cDNA in Pichia genome was confirmed by PCR using insulin specific primers. Expression of insulin in Pichia clones was confirmed by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis. In vivo efficacy studies in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice confirmed the activity of recombinant insulin. In conclusion, a biologically active human proinsulin along with C-peptide was expressed at high level using Pichia pastoris expression system.


Assuntos
Peptídeo C/química , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Pichia/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Análise Custo-Benefício , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Insulina/biossíntese , Camundongos , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese
15.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0136894, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26317344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of compatibility of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and phosphates have not included particle counts in the range specified by the United States Pharmacopeia. Micro-flow imaging techniques have been shown to be comparable to light obscuration when determining particle count and size in pharmaceutical solutions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing CaCl2 using dynamic light scattering and micro-flow imaging techniques. METHODS: Solutions containing TrophAmine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA), CaCl2, and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) were compounded with and without cysteine. All solutions contained standard additives to neonatal PN solutions including dextrose, trace metals, and electrolytes. Control solutions contained no calcium or phosphate. Solutions were analyzed for particle size and particle count. Means of Z-average particle size and particle counts of controls were determined. Study solutions were compared to controls and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter 788 guidelines. The maximum amount of Phos that was compatible in solutions that contained at least 10 mmol/L of Ca in 2.5% amino acids (AA) was determined. Compatibility of these solutions was verified by performing analyses of 5 repeats of these solutions. Microscopic analyses of the repeats were also performed. RESULTS: Amounts of CaCl2 and NaPhos that were compatible in solutions containing 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% AA were determined. The maximum amount of NaPhos that could be added to TrophAmine solutions of > = 2.5% AA containing at least 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 was 7.5 mmol/L. Adding 50 mg/dL of cysteine increased the amount of NaPhos that could be added to solutions containing 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 to 10 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: Calcium chloride can be added to neonatal PN solutions containing NaPhos in concentrations that can potentially provide an intravenous intake of adequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/análise , Cisteína/administração & dosagem , Soluções de Nutrição Parenteral/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Precipitação Química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula
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