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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) is the most frequent cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Spain. The multicomponent vaccine against MenB (4CMenB) was approved in Spain in January 2014. METHODS: We present 4 cases of children who developed MenB-associated IMD despite previous vaccination with 4CMenB. Extensive immunologic diagnostic work-up was performed in order to rule out any immunodeficiency. Also, molecular characterization of the MenB strain was conducted to determine whether bacterial antigens matched vaccine antigens. RESULTS: Among the 4 patients (2 girls), 2 had previous risk factors for IMD (recurrent bacterial meningitis of unknown origin and treatment with eculizumab). All patients developed meningitis, but only 2 developed septic shock; they were all cured without sequelae. No other primary or secondary immunodeficiencies were detected. MenB sequence type 213 was identified in 3 cases. With the exception of neisserial heparin-binding antigen peptide 465 present in 1 isolate, the rest of the isolated strains harbored vaccine antigen variants that did not match antigen variants included in the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: We present 4 children who developed MenB-associated IMD despite previous vaccination with 4CMenB. In 2 cases, the antibodies induced by 4CMenB likely were not effective against the isolated strains. A high level of suspicion for IMD seems advisable regardless of the patient's vaccination history.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postzygotic de novo mutations lead to the phenomenon of gene mosaicism. The 3 main types are called somatic, gonadal, and gonosomal mosaicism, which differ in terms of the body distribution of postzygotic mutations. Mosaicism has been reported occasionally in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) since the early 1990s, but its real involvement has not been systematically addressed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the incidence of gene mosaicism in patients with PIDs. METHODS: The amplicon-based deep sequencing method was used in the 3 parts of the study that establish (1) the allele frequency of germline variants (n = 100), (2) the incidence of parental gonosomal mosaicism in families with PIDs with de novo mutations (n = 92), and (3) the incidence of mosaicism in families with PIDs with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism (n = 36). Additional investigations evaluated body distribution of postzygotic mutations, their stability over time, and their characteristics. RESULTS: The range of allele frequency (44.1% to 55.6%) was established for germline variants. Those with minor allele frequencies of less than 44.1% were assumed to be postzygotic. Mosaicism was detected in 30 (23.4%) of 128 families with PIDs, with a variable minor allele frequency (0.8% to 40.5%). Parental gonosomal mosaicism was detected in 6 (6.5%) of 92 families with de novo mutations, and a high incidence of mosaicism (63.9%) was detected among families with moderate-to-high suspicion of gene mosaicism. In most analyzed cases mosaicism was found to be both uniformly distributed and stable over time. CONCLUSION: This study represents the largest performed to date to investigate mosaicism in patients with PIDs, revealing that it affects approximately 25% of enrolled families. Our results might have serious consequences regarding treatment and genetic counseling and reinforce the use of next-generation sequencing-based methods in the routine analyses of PIDs.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1752-1763, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176098

RESUMO

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is the unifying term for infantile systemic hyalinosis and juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. HFS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the connective tissue caused by mutations in the gene for anthrax toxin receptor-2 (ANTXR2). It is characterized by abnormal growth of hyalinized fibrous tissue with cutaneous, mucosal, osteoarticular, and systemic involvement. We reviewed the 84 published cases and their molecular findings, aiming to gain insight into the clinical features, prognostic factors, and phenotype-genotype correlations. Extreme pain at minimal handling in a newborn is the presentation pattern most frequently seen in grade 4 patients (life-limiting disease). Gingival hypertrophy and subcutaneous nodules are some of the disease hallmarks. Though painful joint stiffness and contractures are almost universal, weakness and hypotonia may also be present. Causes of death are intractable diarrhea, recurrent infections, and organ failure. Median age of death of grade 4 cases is 15.0 months (p25-p75: 9.5-24.0). This review provides evidence to reinforce the previous hypothesis that missense mutations in exons 1-12 and mutations leading to a premature stop codon lead to the severe form of the disease, while missense pathogenic variants in exons 13-17 lead to the mild form of the disease. Multidisciplinary team approach is recommended.

6.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 89(2): 124.e1-124.e8, ago. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177023

RESUMO

El síndrome hemofagocítico (SHF) o linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una entidad con elevada mortalidad, típicamente reconocida en la edad pediátrica. Sin un correcto tratamiento, el SHF puede ser fatal: el riesgo de una rápida progresión a fallo multiorgánico y de afectación del sistema nervioso central con secuelas a largo plazo, son las consecuencias más graves de un retraso diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, el SHF es una urgencia médica que los pediatras deben saber identificar en un paciente con fiebre y afectación progresiva del estado general. La aplicación de los criterios diagnósticos de SHF, que consideran datos clínicos y analíticos (incluyendo un aspirado de médula ósea), y la búsqueda del factor desencadenante (infeccioso, oncológico, reumatológico, metabólico), son claves para poder instaurar un tratamiento dirigido, que neutralice el desencadenante y frene la hiperinflamación. En la presente revisión se exponen los datos más relevantes sobre la fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta grave enfermedad para pediatras generales


Haemophagocytic syndrome, or haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a disorder with high mortality, typically recognised at paediatric age. Without proper treatment, HLH can be fatal. The risk of a rapid progression to multi-organ failure and central nervous system involvement leading to long-term sequelae, are the most feared consequences of a diagnostic delay. Therefore, HLH is a medical emergency that paediatricians should be able to identify in a patient with fever and progressive worsening of general condition. The application of the HLH diagnostic criteria, which include clinical and analytical data (as well as a bone marrow aspirate), and the search for a trigger (infectious, oncological, rheumatological, or metabolic). These are decisive for the establishment of a targeted treatment, which aims at neutralising the trigger and reducing the hyper-inflammation. The most relevant data for general paediatricians are presented in this review, including the physiopathology, diagnosis, and treatment of this serious disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Sepse , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/fisiopatologia
7.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(9): 760-772, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis that leads to neurological worsening. We aimed to assess the frequency, symptoms, risk factors, and outcomes of this complication. METHODS: We did a prospective observational study and retrospective analysis. In the prospective observational part of this study, we included patients with herpes simplex encephalitis diagnosed by neurologists, paediatricians, or infectious disease specialists in 19 secondary and tertiary Spanish centres (Cohort A). Outpatient follow-up was at 2, 6, and 12 months from onset of herpes simplex encephalitis. We studied another group of patients retrospectively, when they developed autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis (Cohort B). We compared demographics and clinical features of patients who developed autoimmune encephalitis with those who did not, and in patients who developed autoimmune encephalitis we compared these features by age group (patients ≤4 years compared with patients >4 years). We also used multivariable binary logistic regression models to assess risk factors for autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2014, and Oct 31, 2017, 54 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis were recruited to Cohort A, and 51 were included in the analysis (median age 50 years [IQR 5-68]). At onset of herpes simplex encephalitis, none of the 51 patients had antibodies to neuronal antigens; during follow-up, 14 (27%) patients developed autoimmune encephalitis and all 14 (100%) had neuronal antibodies (nine [64%] had NMDA receptor [NMDAR] antibodies and five [36%] had other antibodies) at or before onset of symptoms. The other 37 patients did not develop autoimmune encephalitis, although 11 (30%) developed antibodies (n=3 to NMDAR, n=8 to unknown antigens; p<0·001). Antibody detection within 3 weeks of herpes simplex encephalitis was a risk factor for autoimmune encephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 11·5, 95% CI 2·7-48·8; p<0·001). Between Oct 7, 2011, and Oct 31, 2017, there were 48 patients in Cohort B with new-onset or worsening neurological symptoms not caused by herpes simplex virus reactivation (median age 8·8 years [IQR 1·1-44·2]; n=27 male); 44 (92%) patients had antibody-confirmed autoimmune encephalitis (34 had NMDAR antibodies and ten had other antibodies). In both cohorts (n=58 patients with antibody-confirmed autoimmune encephalitis), patients older than 4 years frequently presented with psychosis (18 [58%] of 31; younger children not assessable). Compared with patients older than 4 years, patients aged 4 years or younger (n=27) were more likely to have shorter intervals between onset of herpes simplex encephalitis and onset of autoimmune encephalitis (median 26 days [IQR 24-32] vs 43 days [25-54]; p=0·0073), choreoathetosis (27 [100%] of 27 vs 0 of 31; p<0·001), decreased level of consciousness (26 [96%] of 27 vs seven [23%] of 31; p<0·001), NMDAR antibodies (24 [89%] of 27 vs 19 [61%] of 31; p=0·033), and worse outcome at 1 year (median modified Rankin Scale 4 [IQR 4-4] vs 2 [2-3]; p<0·0010; seizures 12 [63%] of 19 vs three [13%] of 23; p=0·001). INTERPRETATION: The results of our prospective study show that autoimmune encephalitis occurred in 27% of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. It was associated with development of neuronal antibodies and usually presented within 2 months after treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis; the symptoms were age-dependent, and the neurological outcome was worse in young children. Prompt diagnosis is important because patients, primarily those older than 4 years, can respond to immunotherapy. FUNDING: Mutua Madrileña Foundation, Fondation de l'Université de Lausanne et Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Instituto Carlos III, CIBERER, National Institutes of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Fundació CELLEX.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 712-716, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mendelian suceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency predisposing to severe disease caused by mycobacteria and other intracellular pathogens. Delay in diagnosis can have an impact on the patient's prognosis. METHODS: We evaluated the IFN-γ circuit by studying IFN-γ production after mycobacterial challenge as well as IL-12Rß1 expression and STAT4 phosphorylation in response to IL-12p70 stimulation in whole blood of a 6-year-old Peruvian girl with disseminated recurrent mycobacterial infection diagnosed as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Genetic studies with Sanger sequencing were used to identify the causative mutation. Microbiological studies based on PCR reactions were used to diagnose the specific mycobacterial species. RESULTS: We identified a homozygous mutation in the IL12RB1 gene (p. Arg211*) causing abolished expression of IL-12Rß1 and IL-12 response. MSMD diagnosis led to a microbiological reevaluation of the patient, revealing a BCG vaccine-related infection instead of tuberculosis. Treatment was then adjusted, with good response. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first Peruvian patient with IL-12Rß1 deficiency. Specific mycobacterial species diagnosis within Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is still challenging in countries with limited access to PCR-based microbiological diagnostic techniques. Awareness of MSMD warning signs and accurate microbiological diagnosis of mycobacterial infections are of the utmost importance for optimal diagnosis and management of affected patients.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029515

RESUMO

Pregnancy and early infancy represent two very particular immunological states. During pregnancy, the haploidentical fetus and the pregnant women develop tolerance mechanisms to avoid rejection; then, just after birth, the neonatal immune system must modulate the transition from the virtually sterile but haploidentical uterus to a world full of antigens and the rapid microbial colonization of the mucosa. B regulatory (Breg) cells are a recently discovered B cell subset thought to play a pivotal role in different conditions such as chronic infections, autoimmunity, cancer, and transplantation among others in addition to pregnancy. This review focuses on the role of Breg cells in pregnancy and early infancy, two special stages of life in which recent studies have positioned Breg cells as important players.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/metabolismo , Doença , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
10.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 89(2): 124.e1-124.e8, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871839

RESUMO

Haemophagocytic syndrome, or haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a disorder with high mortality, typically recognised at paediatric age. Without proper treatment, HLH can be fatal. The risk of a rapid progression to multi-organ failure and central nervous system involvement leading to long-term sequelae, are the most feared consequences of a diagnostic delay. Therefore, HLH is a medical emergency that paediatricians should be able to identify in a patient with fever and progressive worsening of general condition. The application of the HLH diagnostic criteria, which include clinical and analytical data (as well as a bone marrow aspirate), and the search for a trigger (infectious, oncological, rheumatological, or metabolic). These are decisive for the establishment of a targeted treatment, which aims at neutralising the trigger and reducing the hyper-inflammation. The most relevant data for general paediatricians are presented in this review, including the physiopathology, diagnosis, and treatment of this serious disease.

11.
Front Immunol ; 9: 636, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867916

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and poor response to vaccines. Its diagnosis is made based on clinical and immunological criteria, after exclusion of other diseases that can cause similar phenotypes. Currently, less than 20% of cases of CVID have a known underlying genetic cause. We have analyzed whole-exome sequencing and copy number variants data of 36 children and adolescents diagnosed with CVID and healthy relatives to estimate the proportion of monogenic cases. We have replicated an association of CVID to p.C104R in TNFRSF13B and reported the second case of homozygous patient to date. Our results also identify five causative genetic variants in LRBA, CTLA4, NFKB1, and PIK3R1, as well as other very likely causative variants in PRKCD, MAPK8, or DOCK8 among others. We experimentally validate the effect of the LRBA stop-gain mutation which abolishes protein production and downregulates the expression of CTLA4, and of the frameshift indel in CTLA4 producing expression downregulation of the protein. Our results indicate a monogenic origin of at least 15-24% of the CVID cases included in the study. The proportion of monogenic patients seems to be lower in CVID than in other PID that have also been analyzed by whole exome or targeted gene panels sequencing. Regardless of the exact proportion of CVID monogenic cases, other genetic models have to be considered for CVID. We propose that because of its prevalence and other features as intermediate penetrancies and phenotypic variation within families, CVID could fit with other more complex genetic scenarios. In particular, in this work, we explore the possibility of CVID being originated by an oligogenic model with the presence of heterozygous mutations in interacting proteins or by the accumulation of detrimental variants in particular immunological pathways, as well as perform association tests to detect association with rare genetic functional variation in the CVID cohort compared to healthy controls.

14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 29(4): 425-432, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most frequent non-infectious complications of humoral immunodeficiencies with a CVID-like pattern is a particular form of inflammatory lung disease which is called granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). Its development worsens patient prognosis, with a significant decrease in survival. Currently, there are no unified guidelines regarding its management, and different combinations of immunosuppressants have been used with variable success. METHODS: Clinical and radiological data were collected from patient's medical charts. Flow cytometry was performed to characterize the immunological features with special focus in regulatory T cells (Tregs). RESULTS: A 16-year-old girl with Kabuki syndrome and a 12-year-old boy, both with a CVID-like humoral immunodeficiency on immunoglobulin replacement treatment, developed during follow-up an inflammatory complication radiologically, clinically, and histologically compatible with GLILD. They required treatment, and sirolimus was started, with very good response and no serious side effects. CONCLUSIONS: These 2 cases provide insight into the underlying local and systemic immune anomalies involved in the development of GLILD, including the possible role of Tregs. Combined chemotherapy is commonly used as treatment for GLILD when steroids fail, but there have been some reports of successful monotherapy. As far as we know, these are the first 2 GLILD patients treated successfully with sirolimus, suggesting the advisability of further study of mTOR inhibitors as a more targeted treatment for GLILD, if impairment in Tregs is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/imunologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Masculino , Doenças Vestibulares/complicações , Doenças Vestibulares/imunologia
15.
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; 55(3): 184-204, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502462

RESUMO

The integrity of the interferon (IFN)-γ circuit is necessary to mount an effective immune response to intra-macrophagic pathogens, especially Mycobacteria. Inherited monogenic defects in this circuit that disrupt the production of, or response to, IFN-γ underlie a primary immunodeficiency known as Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Otherwise healthy patients display a selective susceptibility to clinical disease caused by poorly virulent mycobacteria such as BCG (bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, and more rarely by other intra-macrophagic pathogens, particularly Salmonella and M. tuberculosis. There is high genetic and allelic heterogeneity, with 19 genetic etiologies due to mutations in 10 genes that account for only about half of the patients reported. An efficient laboratory diagnostic approach to suspected MSMD patients is important, because it enables the establishment of specific therapeutic measures that will improve the patient's prognosis and quality of life. Moreover, it is essential to offer genetic counseling to affected families. Herein, we review the various genetic and immunological diagnostic approaches that can be used in concert to reach a molecular and cellular diagnosis in patients with MSMD.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971614

RESUMO

Direct comparisons of tolerability and safety of concentrated intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) versus less concentrated products are scarce. In this postauthorization, prospective, observational, multicenter study, a systematic comparison of 10% and 5% concentrations of Flebogamma® DIF IVIG was performed in both adult and pediatric patients treated with the studied IVIG products according to the approved indications under routine conditions. Dose of product administered, adverse events (AEs), physical assessments, laboratory tests, and concomitant therapy were analyzed. Patient recruitment in the 10% and 5% product groups was, respectively, 34 (32 analyzed, 13 of them children, receiving 130 IVIG infusions) and 35 (34 analyzed, receiving 135 IVIG infusions). Twenty-four infusions (18.5%; 95% CI: 11.8, 25.1) with the 10% product and 3 (2.2%; 95% CI: -0.3, 4.7) with the 5% product were associated with potentially treatment-related AEs (P < 0.0001). Nine patients (28.1%) infused with the 10% product and 3 (8.8%) infused with the 5% product presented, respectively, 33 and 8 treatment-related AEs (of which 7 and 6, respectively, were serious AEs, experienced by only three hypersensitive patients). The profile of AEs occurring with the infusion of 10% and 5% products were comparable. The most frequent treatment-related AEs were headache (n = 17, 3 patients; 15 episodes, 1 patient) and pyrexia (n = 6, 4 patients). In conclusion, no unpredictable risk was detected for both Flebogamma DIF 10% and 5% concentrations, which were therefore deemed as safe and well-tolerated IVIG in the studied population. The frequency of infusions associated with treatment-related AEs was lower with the 5% concentration.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1123, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibodies are considered safe during pregnancy, there are no studies on the development of the exposed-infant immune system. The objective was to study for the first time the impact of throughout pregnancy exposure to anti-TNF-α has an impact in the development of the infant's immune system, especially B cells and the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway. METHODS: Prospective study of infants born to mothers with inflammatory bowel disease treated throughout pregnancy with anti-TNF-α (adalimumab/infliximab). Infants were monitored both clinically and immunologically at birth and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS: We included seven patients and eight healthy controls. Exposed infants had detectable levels of anti-TNF-α until 6 months of age; they presented a more immature B- and helper T-phenotype that normalized within 12 months, with normal immunoglobulin production and vaccine responses. A decreased Treg cell frequency at birth that inversely correlated with mother's peripartum anti-TNF-α levels was observed. Also, a decreased response after mycobacterial challenge was noted. Clinically, no serious infections occurred during follow-up. Four of seven had atopia. CONCLUSION: This study reveals changes in the immune system of infants exposed during pregnancy to anti-TNF-α. We hypothesize that a Treg decrease might facilitate hypersensitivity and that defects in IL-12/IFN-γ pathway might place the infant at risk of intracellular infections. Pediatricians should be aware of these changes. Although new studies are needed to confirm these results, our findings are especially relevant in view of a likely increase in the use of these drugs during pregnancy in the coming years.

18.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 39(7): 490-494, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare immune disorder in children, manifested by simultaneous or sequential autoimmune cytopenias (ACs) of unknown cause and having a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Some primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) may present with autoimmune manifestations without infections, masking suspicion of them. The PIDs that can typically manifest as ES are autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of clinical charts and laboratory results of pediatric patients followed-up in the outpatient clinic of PID with a diagnosis of ES and humoral immunodeficiency. RESULTS: Three pediatric patients, a boy and 2 girls, presented with corticosteroid-dependent ES. In the diagnostic approach, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome was ruled out, and during follow-up, patients showed laboratory signs of humoral immune deficiency and were diagnosed with CVID. After initiating the recommended treatment for CVID with AC, patients improved without new exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: These cases highlight the importance of detection of possible PID in the context of ES and the establishment of CVID treatment to control AC.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Síndrome Linfoproliferativa Autoimune , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Front Immunol ; 8: 201, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28326080

RESUMO

The newborn's immune system must transition from a sterile haploidentical uterus to the world full of antigens. Regulatory B-cells (Breg; broadly defined as CD19+CD24hiCD38hi) are tolerance promoters in the adult immune system. They can inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells and are essential in different conditions, including pregnancy. Breg have still not been well characterized in umbilical cord blood, where we hypothesize that they are pivotal in the achievement of tolerance. We studied CD19+CD24hiCD38hi Breg in healthy umbilical cord blood (hUCB) compared to healthy peripheral adult blood (hAPB). Total numbers of Breg were increased in hUCB compared to hAPB (34.39 vs. 9.49%; p = 0.0002), especially in the marginal zone-like B-cell subset, in which the most marked difference could be observed between hUCB and hAPB (60.80 vs. 4.94%; p = 0.1). CD24hiCD38hi subset in hUCB produced IL-10 and inhibited T-cell IFN-γ [1.63 vs. 0.95 stimulation ratio (SR); p = 0.004] and IL-4 (1.63 vs. 1.44 SR; p = 0.39) production. Phenotypically, hUCB Breg cells presented IgMhiIgDhiCD5+CD10+CD27- markers, similar to those described in hAPB Breg cells, but they showed increased IgM concentration and decreased expression of CD22 and CD73 markers. Our work characterized the frequency, phenotype, and function of Breg in hUCB, which may contribute to understanding of immune tolerance during pregnancy, paving the way to a new approach to immune-related diseases in the fetus and the newborn.

20.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(9)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28319651

RESUMO

SCOPE: Sofrito, a key component of the Mediterranean diet, provides nutritional interest due to its high content in bioactive compounds from tomato and olive oil, and especially to the lipid matrix in which these compounds are found. In this study, the potential beneficial effects of dietary intake of sofrito on obesity-related vascular alterations were explored in obese Zucker rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Obese and lean rats were fed a control diet supplemented or not with 2% w/w sofrito for 8 weeks. Vascular function was evaluated in aorta in organ baths. Dihydroethidium staining and immunofluorescence was used to determine aortic superoxide and peroxynitrite production, respectively. Despite food and caloric intake was higher in sofrito-fed obese rats, no differences were appreciated on body weight compared to control rats. Sofrito attenuated phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction. This effect was associated with preservation of nitric oxide on vasoconstriction and normalization of serum nitric oxide metabolites, vascular inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular superoxide and peroxynitrite levels. CONCLUSION: This is the first evidence of tomato-based sofrito protection against vascular alterations that could precede major cardiometabolic complications in obesity. These results contribute to explain the therapeutic properties of the Mediterranean diet in obesity-related disorders. Therefore, sofrito is an attractive dietary approach against vascular alterations in obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Lycopersicon esculentum , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/prevenção & controle , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Vasoconstrição
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