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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe condition with poor short-term prognosis. Specific treatment with corticosteroids slightly improves short-term survival but is associated with infection and is not used in many centers. A reliable method to identify patients who will recover spontaneously will minimise the numbers of patients who experience side effects of available treatments. METHODS: We analysed the trajectory of serum bilirubin concentration over the course of hospital admissions in patients with AH to predict spontaneous survival and the need for treatment. RESULTS: data from 426 patients were analysed. Based on bilirubin trajectory, patients were categorized into three groups: 'fast fallers' (bilirubin <0.8 x admission value at day 7), 'static' (bilirubin of >0.9 - <1.2 x admission value) and 'rapid risers' (bilirubin of ≥1.2 x admission bilirubin). Fast fallers had significantly better 90-day survival compared to other groups (log rank p<0.001), and showed no benefit of corticosteroid therapy (OR for survival at 28 days of treatment, 0.94, 95% CI 0.06 - 8.41). These findings remained even amongst patients with severe disease based on initial DF, GAHS or MELD scores. CONCLUSIONS: We present an intuitive method of classifying patients with AH based on the trajectory of bilirubin over the first week of admission. It is complimentary to existing scores that identify candidates for corticosteroid treatment or assess response to treatment. This method identifies a group of patients with AH who recover spontaneously and can avoid corticosteroid therapy.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We recently showed that alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is characterized by dedifferentiation of hepatocytes and loss of mature functions. Glucose metabolism is tightly regulated in healthy hepatocytes. We hypothesize that AH may lead to metabolic reprogramming of the liver, including dysregulation of glucose metabolism. METHODS: We performed integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of liver tissue from patients with AH or alcoholic cirrhosis or normal liver tissue from hepatic resection. Focused analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to DNA sequencing was performed. Functional in vitro studies were performed in primary rat and human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. RESULTS: Patients with AH exhibited specific changes in the levels of intermediates of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and monosaccharide and disaccharide metabolism. Integrated analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome showed the used of alternate energetic pathways, metabolite sinks and bottlenecks, and dysregulated glucose storage in patients with AH. Among genes involved in glucose metabolism, hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) was identified as the most up-regulated kinase in patients with AH. Histone active promoter and enhancer markers were increased in the HKDC1 genomic region. High HKDC1 levels were associated with the development of acute kidney injury and decreased survival. Increased HKDC1 activity contributed to the accumulation of glucose-6-P and glycogen in primary rat hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Altered metabolite levels and messenger RNA expression of metabolic enzymes suggest the existence of extensive reprogramming of glucose metabolism in AH. Increased HKDC1 expression may contribute to dysregulated glucose metabolism and represents a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for AH.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15558, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968110

RESUMO

Advanced fibrosis and portal hypertension influence short-term mortality. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) regulates infection response and increases in liver injury. We explored the role of intrahepatic LCN2 in human alcoholic hepatitis (AH) with advanced fibrosis and portal hypertension and in experimental mouse fibrosis. We found hepatic LCN2 expression and serum LCN2 level markedly increased and correlated with disease severity and portal hypertension in patients with AH. In control human livers, LCN2 expressed exclusively in mononuclear cells, while its expression was markedly induced in AH livers, not only in mononuclear cells but also notably in hepatocytes. Lcn2-/- mice were protected from liver fibrosis caused by either ethanol or CCl4 exposure. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of matrisome, cell cycle and immune related gene sets in Lcn2-/- mice exposed to CCl4, along with decrease in Timp1 and Edn1 expression. Hepatic expression of COL1A1, TIMP1 and key EDN1 system components were elevated in AH patients and correlated with hepatic LCN2 expression. In vitro, recombinant LCN2 induced COL1A1 expression. Overexpression of LCN2 increased HIF1A that in turn mediated EDN1 upregulation. LCN2 contributes to liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in AH and could represent a new therapeutic target.

4.
Curr Med Chem ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is widely employed for cosmetic purposes and in the treatment of certain diseases such as strabismus, hemifacial spasm and focal dystonia among others. BoNT-A effect mainly acts at the muscular level by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at presynaptic levels consequently blocking the action potential in the neuromuscular junction. Despite the great progress in approval and pharmaceutical usage, improvement in displacing BoNT-A to other pathologies has remained short. Patients under diagnosis of several types of cancer experience pain in a myriad of ways; it can be experienced as hyperalgesia or allodynia, and the severity of the pain depends, in some degree, on the place that the tumor is located. Pain relief in patients diagnosed with cancer is not always optimal, and as the disease progresses, transition to more aggressive drugs, like opioids is sometimes unavoidable. In recent years BoNT-A employment in cancer has been explored, as well as an antinociceptive drug; experiments in neuropathic, inflammatory and acute pain have been carried out in animal models and humans. Although its mechanism has not been fully cleared evidence has shown that BoNT-A inhibits the secretion of pain mediators (substance P, Glutamate, and calcitonin gene related protein) from the nerve endings and dorsal root ganglion, impacting directly on the nociceptive transmission through the anterolateral and trigeminothalamic systems. AIM: Collect available literature regarding molecular, physiological and neurobiological evidence of the BoNT-A in cancer patients suffering from acute, neuropathic and inflammatory pain in order to identify possible mechanisms of action in which the BoNT-A could impact positively in pain treatment. CONCLUSION: BoNT-A could be an important neo-adjuvant and coadjuvant in the treatment of several types of cancer, diminish pro-tumor activity and secondary pain.

5.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe manifestation of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) with high mortality. Although gut bacteria and fungi modulate disease severity, little is known about the effects of the viral microbiome (virome) in patients with ALD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We extracted virus-like particles from 89 patients with AH who were enrolled in a multicenter observational study, 36 with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 17 persons without AUD (controls). Virus-like particles from fecal samples were fractionated using differential filtration techniques, and metagenomic sequencing was performed to characterize intestinal viromes. We observed an increased viral diversity in fecal samples from patients with ALD, with the most significant changes in samples from patients with AH. Escherichia-, Enterobacteria-, and Enterococcus phages were over-represented in fecal samples from patients with AH, along with significant increases in mammalian viruses such as Parvoviridae and Herpesviridae. Antibiotic treatment was associated with higher viral diversity. Specific viral taxa, such as Staphylococcus phages and Herpesviridae, were associated with increased disease severity, indicated by a higher median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and associated with increased 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, intestinal viral taxa are altered in fecal samples from patients with AH and associated with disease severity and mortality. Our study describes an intestinal virome signature associated with AH.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258535

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are becoming the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, significantly impacting public health and healthcare cost. The development of fibrosis is the main factor leading to early mortality and morbidity in NAFLD and ALD. Thus, it is important to timely and reliably evaluate these diseases at early stages, when fibrosis is not advanced or when steatosis predominates. Liver biopsy has been the standard of reference for fibrosis and steatosis, however, its invasiveness precludes its widespread use. There is growing research on non-invasive methods for diagnosing and stratifying fibrosis and steatosis in NAFLD and ALD. This review presents clinical evidence on the use of non-invasive assessment of liver disease (blood-based and imaging-based) in patients with NALFD and ALD, and proposes algorithms incorporating these tests into their management.

7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(5): 3389-3396, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285329

RESUMO

The nociceptive effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on the expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors found in the thalamus was evaluated. Thirty-six male rats (Wistar) were randomized into six groups: in the Control group without treatment; LEV50 group LEV was administered in a single dose of 50 mg/kg i.g.; in the LEV300 group LEV dose of 300 mg/kg i.g.; in the FORMALIN group the formalin test was performed; in the LEV50/FORMALIN group LEV dose of 50 mg/kg i.g and the formalin test was performed; in the LEV300/FORMALIN group LEV dose of 300 mg/kg i.g and the formalin test was performed, subsequently the thalamus was dissected in all groups. In the formalin tests LEV exhibited an antinociceptive effect in the LEV300/FORMALIN group (p < 0.05) and a pronociceptive effect in the LEV50/FORMALIN group (p < 0.001). The results obtained by Real-time PCR confirmed the expression of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in the thalamus, 5-HT1A receptors increased significantly in the FORMALIN group and the LEV300/FORMALIN group (p < 0.05). 5-HT7 receptors are only over expressed at a dose of 300 mg/Kg of LEV with formalin (p < 0.05). This suggests that LEV modulates the sensation of pain by controlling the expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 in a tonic pain model, and that changes in the expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors are associated with the sensation of pain, furthermore its possibility to be used in clinical treatments for pain.

8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(4): 856-865, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The preservation of functional mitochondria during toxic alcohol insults is essential for cell survival and is maintained by key processes known as mitochondrial dynamics, including fragmentation and fusion, which are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins (MSP). We have shown mitochondrial dynamics to be distorted by alcohol in cellular and animal models, but the effect in humans remains unknown. METHODS: Hepatic gene expression of the main MSP involved in the mitochondrial fusion and fragmentation pathways was evaluated in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) by DNA microarray (n = 15) and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (n = 32). The activation of dynamin-1-like protein (Drp1) was also investigated in mitochondria isolated from liver biopsies of ALD patients (n = 8). The effects of alcohol on mitochondrial dynamics and on MSP protein expression were studied in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed for 24 hours to increasing doses of ethanol (EtOH; 50 to 250 mM). RESULTS: A profound hyperactivation of the fragmentation pathway was observed in AH patients, with a significant increase in the expression of Drp1 and its adapters/receptors. The translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria was also induced in patients with severe ALD and was affected in the PCLS with short-term exposure to EtOH but only mildly. The fusion pathway was not altered in ALD, and this was confirmed in the PCLS model. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the role of mitochondrial dynamics in human ALD, confirming our previous observations in animal and cell culture models of ALD. Taken together, we show that alcohol has a significant impact on the fragmentation pathway, and we confirm Drp1 as a potential therapeutic target in severe ALD.

9.
Curr Med Chem ; 27(36): 6208-6218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex subject due to the autoimmune nature of the pathology. Studies have shown that chemical mediators play a fundamental role in the determination, susceptibility and modulation of pain at different levels of the central and peripheral nervous system, resulting in interesting novel molecular targets to mitigate pain in patients with RA. However, due to the complexity of pain physiology in RA cand the many chemical mediators, the results of several studies are controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the chemical mediators that are able to modulate pain in RA. METHOD: In this review, a search was conducted on PubMed, ProQuest, EBSCO, and the Science Citation index for studies that evaluated the expression of chemical mediators on the modulation of pain in RA. RESULTS: Few studies have highlighted the importance of the expression of some chemical mediators that modulate pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The expression of TRPV1, ASIC-3, and TDV8 encode ionic channels in RA and modulates pain, likewise, the transcription factors in RA, such as TNFα, TGF-ß1, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-1b, mTOR, p21, caspase 3, EDNRB, CGRPCALCB, CGRP-CALCA, and TAC1 are also directly involved in pain perception. CONCLUSION: The expression of all chemical mediators is directly related to RA and the modulation of pain by a complex intra and extracellular signaling pathway, however, transcription factors are involved in modulating acute pain, while the ionic channels are involved in chronic pain in RA.

10.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 522-538, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228214

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption causes increased intestinal permeability and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition, which contribute to the development and progression of alcohol-related liver disease. In this setting, little is known about commensal fungi in the gut. We studied the intestinal mycobiota in a cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, patients with alcohol use disorder, and nonalcoholic controls using fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. We further measured serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a systemic immune response to fungal products or fungi. Candida was the most abundant genus in the fecal mycobiota of the two alcohol groups, whereas genus Penicillium dominated the mycobiome of nonalcoholic controls. We observed a lower diversity in the alcohol groups compared with controls. Antibiotic or steroid treatment was not associated with a lower diversity. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher ASCA levels compared to patients with alcohol use disorder and to nonalcoholic controls. Within the alcoholic hepatitis cohort, patients with levels of at least 34 IU/mL had a significantly lower 90-day survival (59%) compared with those with ASCA levels less than 34 IU/mL (80%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031). Conclusion: Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have a lower fungal diversity with an overgrowth of Candida compared with controls. Higher serum ASCA was associated with increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Intestinal fungi may serve as a therapeutic target to improve survival, and ASCA may be useful to predict the outcome in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatite Alcoólica/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Micobioma , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Candida/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Disbiose/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/imunologia
11.
Adicciones ; 32(4): 243-254, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059586

RESUMO

Alcohol Liver Disease (ALD) is one of the most prevalent conditions leading to liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease. There is lacking evidence of regular urine screening testing (RUST) impact on survival or liver transplantation of ALD patients. The aims of this study were to compare the sensitivity of RUST, to assess its impact on survival and liver transplantation, and to evaluate factors associated with adherence to RUST. We performed a single-centered retrospective study (N = 84) with ALD candidates for liver transplantation. Demographic, biochemical and clinical variables were recorded at baseline. Adherence to RUST was evaluated during follow-up. The sensitivity of both RUST and self-reports were calculated for all drugs. Multivariable logistic and survival regression analyses were performed to explore associated factors and the impact of adherence to RUST, and positive results on survival. RUST had high sensitivity for identifying active drinkers (76.9%), smokers (78.9%) and cannabis users (83.3%). High adherence to RUST was inversely associated with mortality during follow-up. Presence of personality disorders negatively impacted (OR 0.29, CI 95% 0.08-0.97) adherence to RUST. Both RUST and self-reports should be carried out in this setting. Professionals involved in liver transplantation programs must promote adherence to RUST, primarily in patients with personality disorders.

12.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 32(4): 243-254, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1333

RESUMO

La enfermedad hepática alcohólica (EHA) es una de las causas más frecuentes de trasplante hepático en enfermedad hepática terminal. No hay evidencia del impacto de la detección regular de sustancias en orina (DRSO) sobre la supervivencia de los pacientes con EHA. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar la sensibilidad de la DRSO, evaluar su impacto en la supervivencia y en el trasplante hepático, y evaluar el impacto de la adherencia a la DRSO. Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo (N = 84) con candidatos para trasplante hepático por EHA. Registramos las variables demográficas, bioquímicas y clínicas al inicio del estudio. Evaluamos la adherencia a la DRSO durante el seguimiento. Calculamos la sensibilidad tanto de la DRSO como de las declaraciones de los pacientes para todas las sustancias. Realizamos análisis multivariables (regresión logística) y de supervivencia para explorar los factores asociados y el impacto de la adherencia a la DRSO, y de los resultados positivos en la DRSO sobre la supervivencia. La DRSO tuvo una alta sensibilidad para identificar bebedores activos (76,9%), fumadores (78,9%) y consumidores de cannabis (83,3%). La alta adherencia a la DRSO tuvo una asociación inversa con la mortalidad durante el seguimiento. La presencia de trastornos de la personalidad tuvo un impacto negativo (RM ,29, IC 95% ,08-,97) sobre la adherencia a la DRSO. Tanto la DRSO como las declaraciones deben llevarse a cabo en este perfil de pacientes. Los profesionales que participan en programas de trasplante hepático deben promover el cumplimiento de la DRSO, principalmente en pacientes con trastornos de la personalidad


Alcohol Liver Disease (ALD) is one of the most prevalent conditions leading to liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease. There is lacking evidence of regular urine screening testing (RUST) impact on survival or liver transplantation of ALD patients. The aims of this study were to compare the sensitivity of RUST, to assess its impact on survival and liver transplantation, and to evaluate factors associated with adherence to RUST. We performed a single-centered retrospective study (N = 84) with ALD candidates for liver transplantation. Demographic, biochemical and clinical variables were recorded at baseline. Adherence to RUST was evaluated during follow-up. The sensitivity of both RUST and self-reports were calculated for all drugs. Multivariable logistic and survival regression analyses were performed to explore associated factors and the impact of adherence to RUST, and positive results on survival. RUST had high sensitivity for identifying active drinkers (76.9%), smokers (78.9%) and cannabis users (83.3%). High adherence to RUST was inversely associated with mortality during follow-up. Presence of personality disorders negatively impacted (OR 0.29, CI 95% 0.08-0.97) adherence to RUST. Both RUST and self-reports should be carried out in this setting. Professionals involved in liver transplantation programs must promote adherence to RUST, primarily in patients with personality disorders

13.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(10): 657-676, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188200

RESUMO

La enfermedad hepática alcohólica (EHA) es la causa más prevalente de enfermedad hepática avanzada y cirrosis hepática en Europa incluyendo a España. De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud la fracción de cirrosis hepática atribuible al uso de alcohol en España es del 73,8% entre varones y del 56,3% entre mujeres. La EHA incluye diversos estadios como la esteatohepatitis, la cirrosis y el cáncer hepatocelular. Además, enfermos con EHA de base e ingesta abundante de alcohol pueden desarrollar hepatitis alcohólica, que cursa con una elevada mortalidad. Hasta la fecha, el único tratamiento efectivo para tratar la EHA es la abstinencia prolongada. No existen tratamientos específicos, y el único tratamiento que aumenta la esperanza de vida en la hepatitis alcohólica es la prednisolona. Para enfermos con hepatitis alcohólica que no responden al tratamiento, algunos centros ofrecen la posibilidad de un trasplante precoz. Estas guías de práctica clínica tienen como objetivo proponer recomendaciones sobre la EHA teniendo en cuenta su relevancia como causa de hepatopatía crónica avanzada y cirrosis hepática en nuestro medio. En el presente trabajo se propone como objetivo responder las preguntas claves para la práctica clínica de Gastroenterología, Hepatología, así como de Medicina Interna y centros de salud primaria, poniendo al servicio del profesional de la salud la información más actualizada respecto al manejo y tratamiento de la EHA. Estas guías proporcionan recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia para el manejo clínico de esta enfermedad


Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatite Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Consenso , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/terapia , Saúde Pública , História Natural , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Fatores de Risco
14.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(10): 657-676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771785

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/terapia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia
15.
Nature ; 575(7783): 505-511, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723265

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease due to alcohol-use disorder contributes markedly to the global burden of disease and mortality1-3. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe and life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease. The gut microbiota promotes ethanol-induced liver disease in mice4, but little is known about the microbial factors that are responsible for this process. Here we identify cytolysin-a two-subunit exotoxin that is secreted by Enterococcus faecalis5,6-as a cause of hepatocyte death and liver injury. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals or patients with alcohol-use disorder, patients with alcoholic hepatitis have increased faecal numbers of E. faecalis. The presence of cytolysin-positive (cytolytic) E. faecalis correlated with the severity of liver disease and with mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Using humanized mice that were colonized with bacteria from the faeces of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the therapeutic effects of bacteriophages that target cytolytic E. faecalis. We found that these bacteriophages decrease cytolysin in the liver and abolish ethanol-induced liver disease in humanized mice. Our findings link cytolytic E. faecalis with more severe clinical outcomes and increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We show that bacteriophages can specifically target cytolytic E. faecalis, which provides a method for precisely editing the intestinal microbiota. A clinical trial with a larger cohort is required to validate the relevance of our findings in humans, and to test whether this therapeutic approach is effective for patients with alcoholic hepatitis.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Enterococcus faecalis/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatite Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Terapia por Fagos , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/microbiologia , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatite Alcoólica/mortalidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Perforina/metabolismo
16.
Salud ment ; 42(5): 251-256, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094456

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) causes brain damage (BD), and triggers a series of morphological and neurochemical changes, which in turn bring about behavioral, cognitive, and motor deficits. Serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) levels are controlled by various brain structures and these levels are related to motor activity; however, the concentration of these neurotransmitters during the postictal process remains unknown. Objective We investigated the concentration of 5-HT, NA and DA in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex on motor deficit during the postictal stage. Method Eighteen male Wistar rats (300 g) assigned to two groups: control (n = 9, saline solution) and experimental (n = 9, PTZ) were used. Myoclonic shakes were counted and motor behavior assessments were recorded during three hours post PTZ injection (90 mg/kg). The cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of each rat were dissected to determine the 5-HT, DA, and NA concentration by high performance liquid chromatography. Results PTZ induced a significant increase in total 5-HT and DA levels in the hippocampus and cortex; in the cerebellum there was a significant increase in the concentration of 5-HT and NA. The presence of myoclonic shakes as well as a marked motor deficit in the experimental group were significantly different in comparison to the control. Discussion and conclusion 5-HT modifies the concentration of other monoamines directly involved in motor aspects such as NA and DA in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex during the postictal process.


Resumen Introducción La administración sistémica de pentilentetrazol (PTZ) causa daño cerebral y desencadena una serie de cambios morfológicos y neuroquímicos que a su vez provocan déficits conductuales, cognitivos y motores. Los niveles de serotonina (5-HT), dopamina (DA) y noradrenalina (NA) son modulados por varias estructuras cerebrales y sus concentraciones se relacionan con la actividad motora; sin embargo, se desconoce la concentración de estos neurotransmisores durante el proceso postictal. Objetivo Evaluar la manera en que la concentración de 5-HT, NA y DA en el hipocampo, el cerebelo y la corteza influye en el déficit motor durante la etapa postictal. Método Se utilizaron 18 ratas macho Wistar (300 g), divididas en dos grupos: control (n = 9, solución salina) y experimental (n = 9, PTZ). Se registraron las sacudidas mioclónicas y se evaluó el comportamiento motor durante tres horas después de la inyección de PTZ (90 mg/kg). Se extrajeron la corteza, el cerebelo y el hipocampo de cada rata para determinar la concentración de 5-HT, DA y NA mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Resultados La administración de PTZ indujo un aumento significativo en los niveles totales de 5-HT y DA en el hipocampo y la corteza; en el cerebelo hubo un aumento significativo en la concentración de 5-HT y NA. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre el grupo experimental y control con respecto a las sacudidas mioclónicas; asimismo, los animales del grupo experimental mostraron un marcado déficit motor. Discusión y conclusión La 5-HT modula la concentración de otras monoaminas involucradas directamente en aspectos motores tal como NA y DA en el hipocampo, el cerebelo y la corteza durante el proceso postictal.

17.
Reumatol Clin ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common comorbidity present in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Employment of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is very limited and lung ultrasound (LUS) can be an alternative tool for the early evaluation of ILD. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of LUS in the early detection of ILD in patients with SSc. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with SSc ≥18 years without respiratory symptoms were included. A rheumatologist rated the subclinical respiratory condition, another rheumatologist blinded to the clinical assessment performed the LUS. To determine validity HRCT was performed as well. RESULTS: Prevalence of ILD in SSc patients was 41.2% in contrast to the 4.8% healthy controls (P=.0001). Variables associated with LUS and HRCT findings were anti-centromere antibodies (P=.005) and the Rodnan skin score (P=.004). A positive correlation was present between the findings of HRCT and LUS (P=.001). Sensitivity and specificity were 91.2% and 88.6% respectively. Good reliability in the LUS findings was found between observers (k=.72). CONCLUSIONS: By proving to be a valid, trustworthy and feasible alternative tool, we consider that LUS can be implemented for the early detection of ILD in SSc.

18.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-7, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291139

RESUMO

Aim: The purpose of this work was to identify and measure catecholamines, their metabolites, and the gene expression of catecholamine receptors in osteosarcoma tissue. Materials and methods: The levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cancer tissue and in adjacent and non-oncological bone tissue were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the gene expression of catecholamine receptors and of dopamine ß-hydroxylase, monoaminoxidase, ki67, and Runx2 in the osteosarcoma tissue, tissue adjacent to the tumour, non-oncological bone, and human brain tissue was analysed by RT-PCR. Results: We found significantly higher levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and norepinephrine in the cancer sample than in adjacent and non-oncological bone. We found that ß-adrenergic receptors and dopaminergic receptors, dopamine ß-hydroxylase, ki67, Runx2, and serotonergic receptor gene expression were significantly higher in tumour tissue than in adjacent and non-oncological bone. Conclusion: Catecholamines and their receptors could be potential molecular markers for osteosarcoma progression.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3126, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311938

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by profound hepatocellular dysfunction for which targeted treatments are urgently needed. Identification of molecular drivers is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. By performing RNA sequencing in livers from patients with different phenotypes of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), we show that development of AH is characterized by defective activity of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). TGFß1 is a key upstream transcriptome regulator in AH and induces the use of HNF4α P2 promoter in hepatocytes, which results in defective metabolic and synthetic functions. Gene polymorphisms in LETFs including HNF4α are not associated with the development of AH. In contrast, epigenetic studies show that AH livers have profound changes in DNA methylation state and chromatin remodeling, affecting HNF4α-dependent gene expression. We conclude that targeting TGFß1 and epigenetic drivers that modulate HNF4α-dependent gene expression could be beneficial to improve hepatocellular function in patients with AH.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Alcoólica/patologia , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
20.
Ann Hepatol ; 18(1): 144-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113584

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis is the most severe manifestation of alcoholic liver disease. Unfortunately, there are still some unresolved issues in the diagnosis and management of this disease, such as the need of histological diagnosis, an accurate prognostic stratification, and the development of novel targeted therapies. The present study aimed at addressing these issues by means of metabolomics, a novel high-throughput approach useful in other liver diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic hepatitis were included and compared with 26 patients with decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis without superimposed alcoholic hepatitis, which was ruled out by liver biopsy. RESULTS: The comparison of the metabolic profiles of patients with alcoholic hepatitis and decompensated cirrhosis showed marked differences between both groups. Importantly, metabolic differences were found among alcoholic hepatitis patients when subjects were stratified according to 90-day survival. Based on these findings, two non-invasive signatures were developed. The first one allowed an accurate non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis (AUROC 0.932; 95% CI 0.901-0.963). The second signature showed a good performance in the prognostic stratification of patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AUROC 0.963; 95% CI 0.895-1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Signatures based on metabolomics allowed an accurate non-invasive diagnosis and prognostic stratification of alcoholic hepatitis. The differences observed in the metabolic profile of the patients according to the presence and severity of alcoholic hepatitis are related with different mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of alcoholic hepatitis such as peroxisomal activity, synthesis of inflammatory mediators or oxidation. This information could be useful for the development of novel targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biópsia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatite Alcoólica/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
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