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1.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285329

RESUMO

The nociceptive effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on the expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors found in the thalamus was evaluated. Thirty-six male rats (Wistar) were randomized into six groups: in the Control group without treatment; LEV50 group LEV was administered in a single dose of 50 mg/kg i.g.; in the LEV300 group LEV dose of 300 mg/kg i.g.; in the FORMALIN group the formalin test was performed; in the LEV50/FORMALIN group LEV dose of 50 mg/kg i.g and the formalin test was performed; in the LEV300/FORMALIN group LEV dose of 300 mg/kg i.g and the formalin test was performed, subsequently the thalamus was dissected in all groups. In the formalin tests LEV exhibited an antinociceptive effect in the LEV300/FORMALIN group (p < 0.05) and a pronociceptive effect in the LEV50/FORMALIN group (p < 0.001). The results obtained by Real-time PCR confirmed the expression of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in the thalamus, 5-HT1A receptors increased significantly in the FORMALIN group and the LEV300/FORMALIN group (p < 0.05). 5-HT7 receptors are only over expressed at a dose of 300 mg/Kg of LEV with formalin (p < 0.05). This suggests that LEV modulates the sensation of pain by controlling the expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 in a tonic pain model, and that changes in the expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors are associated with the sensation of pain, furthermore its possibility to be used in clinical treatments for pain.

2.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(4): 856-865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The preservation of functional mitochondria during toxic alcohol insults is essential for cell survival and is maintained by key processes known as mitochondrial dynamics, including fragmentation and fusion, which are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins (MSP). We have shown mitochondrial dynamics to be distorted by alcohol in cellular and animal models, but the effect in humans remains unknown. METHODS: Hepatic gene expression of the main MSP involved in the mitochondrial fusion and fragmentation pathways was evaluated in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) by DNA microarray (n = 15) and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (n = 32). The activation of dynamin-1-like protein (Drp1) was also investigated in mitochondria isolated from liver biopsies of ALD patients (n = 8). The effects of alcohol on mitochondrial dynamics and on MSP protein expression were studied in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed for 24 hours to increasing doses of ethanol (EtOH; 50 to 250 mM). RESULTS: A profound hyperactivation of the fragmentation pathway was observed in AH patients, with a significant increase in the expression of Drp1 and its adapters/receptors. The translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria was also induced in patients with severe ALD and was affected in the PCLS with short-term exposure to EtOH but only mildly. The fusion pathway was not altered in ALD, and this was confirmed in the PCLS model. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the role of mitochondrial dynamics in human ALD, confirming our previous observations in animal and cell culture models of ALD. Taken together, we show that alcohol has a significant impact on the fragmentation pathway, and we confirm Drp1 as a potential therapeutic target in severe ALD.

3.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 522-538, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228214

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption causes increased intestinal permeability and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition, which contribute to the development and progression of alcohol-related liver disease. In this setting, little is known about commensal fungi in the gut. We studied the intestinal mycobiota in a cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, patients with alcohol use disorder, and nonalcoholic controls using fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. We further measured serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a systemic immune response to fungal products or fungi. Candida was the most abundant genus in the fecal mycobiota of the two alcohol groups, whereas genus Penicillium dominated the mycobiome of nonalcoholic controls. We observed a lower diversity in the alcohol groups compared with controls. Antibiotic or steroid treatment was not associated with a lower diversity. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher ASCA levels compared to patients with alcohol use disorder and to nonalcoholic controls. Within the alcoholic hepatitis cohort, patients with levels of at least 34 IU/mL had a significantly lower 90-day survival (59%) compared with those with ASCA levels less than 34 IU/mL (80%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031). Conclusion: Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have a lower fungal diversity with an overgrowth of Candida compared with controls. Higher serum ASCA was associated with increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Intestinal fungi may serve as a therapeutic target to improve survival, and ASCA may be useful to predict the outcome in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

4.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(10): 657-676, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-4633

RESUMO

La enfermedad hepática alcohólica (EHA) es la causa más prevalente de enfermedad hepática avanzada y cirrosis hepática en Europa incluyendo a España. De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud la fracción de cirrosis hepática atribuible al uso de alcohol en España es del 73,8% entre varones y del 56,3% entre mujeres. La EHA incluye diversos estadios como la esteatohepatitis, la cirrosis y el cáncer hepatocelular. Además, enfermos con EHA de base e ingesta abundante de alcohol pueden desarrollar hepatitis alcohólica, que cursa con una elevada mortalidad. Hasta la fecha, el único tratamiento efectivo para tratar la EHA es la abstinencia prolongada. No existen tratamientos específicos, y el único tratamiento que aumenta la esperanza de vida en la hepatitis alcohólica es la prednisolona. Para enfermos con hepatitis alcohólica que no responden al tratamiento, algunos centros ofrecen la posibilidad de un trasplante precoz. Estas guías de práctica clínica tienen como objetivo proponer recomendaciones sobre la EHA teniendo en cuenta su relevancia como causa de hepatopatía crónica avanzada y cirrosis hepática en nuestro medio. En el presente trabajo se propone como objetivo responder las preguntas claves para la práctica clínica de Gastroenterología, Hepatología, así como de Medicina Interna y centros de salud primaria, poniendo al servicio del profesional de la salud la información más actualizada respecto al manejo y tratamiento de la EHA. Estas guías proporcionan recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia para el manejo clínico de esta enfermedad


Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease

5.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(10): 657-676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771785

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease.

6.
Nature ; 575(7783): 505-511, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723265

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease due to alcohol-use disorder contributes markedly to the global burden of disease and mortality1-3. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe and life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease. The gut microbiota promotes ethanol-induced liver disease in mice4, but little is known about the microbial factors that are responsible for this process. Here we identify cytolysin-a two-subunit exotoxin that is secreted by Enterococcus faecalis5,6-as a cause of hepatocyte death and liver injury. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals or patients with alcohol-use disorder, patients with alcoholic hepatitis have increased faecal numbers of E. faecalis. The presence of cytolysin-positive (cytolytic) E. faecalis correlated with the severity of liver disease and with mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Using humanized mice that were colonized with bacteria from the faeces of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the therapeutic effects of bacteriophages that target cytolytic E. faecalis. We found that these bacteriophages decrease cytolysin in the liver and abolish ethanol-induced liver disease in humanized mice. Our findings link cytolytic E. faecalis with more severe clinical outcomes and increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We show that bacteriophages can specifically target cytolytic E. faecalis, which provides a method for precisely editing the intestinal microbiota. A clinical trial with a larger cohort is required to validate the relevance of our findings in humans, and to test whether this therapeutic approach is effective for patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

7.
Salud ment ; 42(5): 251-256, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1094456

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) causes brain damage (BD), and triggers a series of morphological and neurochemical changes, which in turn bring about behavioral, cognitive, and motor deficits. Serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) levels are controlled by various brain structures and these levels are related to motor activity; however, the concentration of these neurotransmitters during the postictal process remains unknown. Objective We investigated the concentration of 5-HT, NA and DA in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex on motor deficit during the postictal stage. Method Eighteen male Wistar rats (300 g) assigned to two groups: control (n = 9, saline solution) and experimental (n = 9, PTZ) were used. Myoclonic shakes were counted and motor behavior assessments were recorded during three hours post PTZ injection (90 mg/kg). The cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of each rat were dissected to determine the 5-HT, DA, and NA concentration by high performance liquid chromatography. Results PTZ induced a significant increase in total 5-HT and DA levels in the hippocampus and cortex; in the cerebellum there was a significant increase in the concentration of 5-HT and NA. The presence of myoclonic shakes as well as a marked motor deficit in the experimental group were significantly different in comparison to the control. Discussion and conclusion 5-HT modifies the concentration of other monoamines directly involved in motor aspects such as NA and DA in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex during the postictal process.


Resumen Introducción La administración sistémica de pentilentetrazol (PTZ) causa daño cerebral y desencadena una serie de cambios morfológicos y neuroquímicos que a su vez provocan déficits conductuales, cognitivos y motores. Los niveles de serotonina (5-HT), dopamina (DA) y noradrenalina (NA) son modulados por varias estructuras cerebrales y sus concentraciones se relacionan con la actividad motora; sin embargo, se desconoce la concentración de estos neurotransmisores durante el proceso postictal. Objetivo Evaluar la manera en que la concentración de 5-HT, NA y DA en el hipocampo, el cerebelo y la corteza influye en el déficit motor durante la etapa postictal. Método Se utilizaron 18 ratas macho Wistar (300 g), divididas en dos grupos: control (n = 9, solución salina) y experimental (n = 9, PTZ). Se registraron las sacudidas mioclónicas y se evaluó el comportamiento motor durante tres horas después de la inyección de PTZ (90 mg/kg). Se extrajeron la corteza, el cerebelo y el hipocampo de cada rata para determinar la concentración de 5-HT, DA y NA mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Resultados La administración de PTZ indujo un aumento significativo en los niveles totales de 5-HT y DA en el hipocampo y la corteza; en el cerebelo hubo un aumento significativo en la concentración de 5-HT y NA. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre el grupo experimental y control con respecto a las sacudidas mioclónicas; asimismo, los animales del grupo experimental mostraron un marcado déficit motor. Discusión y conclusión La 5-HT modula la concentración de otras monoaminas involucradas directamente en aspectos motores tal como NA y DA en el hipocampo, el cerebelo y la corteza durante el proceso postictal.

8.
Reumatol Clin ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common comorbidity present in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Employment of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is very limited and lung ultrasound (LUS) can be an alternative tool for the early evaluation of ILD. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of LUS in the early detection of ILD in patients with SSc. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with SSc ≥18 years without respiratory symptoms were included. A rheumatologist rated the subclinical respiratory condition, another rheumatologist blinded to the clinical assessment performed the LUS. To determine validity HRCT was performed as well. RESULTS: Prevalence of ILD in SSc patients was 41.2% in contrast to the 4.8% healthy controls (P=.0001). Variables associated with LUS and HRCT findings were anti-centromere antibodies (P=.005) and the Rodnan skin score (P=.004). A positive correlation was present between the findings of HRCT and LUS (P=.001). Sensitivity and specificity were 91.2% and 88.6% respectively. Good reliability in the LUS findings was found between observers (k=.72). CONCLUSIONS: By proving to be a valid, trustworthy and feasible alternative tool, we consider that LUS can be implemented for the early detection of ILD in SSc.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3126, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311938

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by profound hepatocellular dysfunction for which targeted treatments are urgently needed. Identification of molecular drivers is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. By performing RNA sequencing in livers from patients with different phenotypes of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), we show that development of AH is characterized by defective activity of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). TGFß1 is a key upstream transcriptome regulator in AH and induces the use of HNF4α P2 promoter in hepatocytes, which results in defective metabolic and synthetic functions. Gene polymorphisms in LETFs including HNF4α are not associated with the development of AH. In contrast, epigenetic studies show that AH livers have profound changes in DNA methylation state and chromatin remodeling, affecting HNF4α-dependent gene expression. We conclude that targeting TGFß1 and epigenetic drivers that modulate HNF4α-dependent gene expression could be beneficial to improve hepatocellular function in patients with AH.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Alcoólica/patologia , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
10.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-7, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291139

RESUMO

Aim: The purpose of this work was to identify and measure catecholamines, their metabolites, and the gene expression of catecholamine receptors in osteosarcoma tissue. Materials and methods: The levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cancer tissue and in adjacent and non-oncological bone tissue were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the gene expression of catecholamine receptors and of dopamine ß-hydroxylase, monoaminoxidase, ki67, and Runx2 in the osteosarcoma tissue, tissue adjacent to the tumour, non-oncological bone, and human brain tissue was analysed by RT-PCR. Results: We found significantly higher levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and norepinephrine in the cancer sample than in adjacent and non-oncological bone. We found that ß-adrenergic receptors and dopaminergic receptors, dopamine ß-hydroxylase, ki67, Runx2, and serotonergic receptor gene expression were significantly higher in tumour tissue than in adjacent and non-oncological bone. Conclusion: Catecholamines and their receptors could be potential molecular markers for osteosarcoma progression.

11.
Ann Hepatol ; 18(1): 144-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113584

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis is the most severe manifestation of alcoholic liver disease. Unfortunately, there are still some unresolved issues in the diagnosis and management of this disease, such as the need of histological diagnosis, an accurate prognostic stratification, and the development of novel targeted therapies. The present study aimed at addressing these issues by means of metabolomics, a novel high-throughput approach useful in other liver diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic hepatitis were included and compared with 26 patients with decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis without superimposed alcoholic hepatitis, which was ruled out by liver biopsy. RESULTS: The comparison of the metabolic profiles of patients with alcoholic hepatitis and decompensated cirrhosis showed marked differences between both groups. Importantly, metabolic differences were found among alcoholic hepatitis patients when subjects were stratified according to 90-day survival. Based on these findings, two non-invasive signatures were developed. The first one allowed an accurate non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis (AUROC 0.932; 95% CI 0.901-0.963). The second signature showed a good performance in the prognostic stratification of patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AUROC 0.963; 95% CI 0.895-1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Signatures based on metabolomics allowed an accurate non-invasive diagnosis and prognostic stratification of alcoholic hepatitis. The differences observed in the metabolic profile of the patients according to the presence and severity of alcoholic hepatitis are related with different mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of alcoholic hepatitis such as peroxisomal activity, synthesis of inflammatory mediators or oxidation. This information could be useful for the development of novel targeted therapies.

12.
Ann Hepatol ; 18(3): 518-535, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053546

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of advanced chronic liver disease in Latin-America, although data on prevalence is limited. Public health policies aimed at reducing the alarming prevalence of alcohol use disorder in Latin-America should be implemented. ALD comprises a clinical-pathological spectrum that ranges from steatosis, steatohepatitis to advanced forms such as alcoholic hepatitis (AH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Besides genetic factors, the amount of alcohol consumption is the most important risk factor for the development of ALD. Continuous consumption of more than 3 standard drinks per day in men and more than 2 drinks per day in women increases the risk of developing liver disease. The pathogenesis of ALD is only partially understood and recent translational studies have identified novel therapeutic targets. Early forms of ALD are often missed and most clinical attention is focused on AH, which is defined as an abrupt onset of jaundice and liver-related complications. In patients with potential confounding factors, a transjugular biopsy is recommended. The standard therapy for AH (i.e. prednisolone) has not evolved in the last decades yet promising new therapies (i.e. G-CSF, N-acetylcysteine) have been recently proposed. In both patients with early and severe ALD, prolonged abstinence is the most efficient therapeutic measure to decrease long-term morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary team including alcohol addiction specialists is recommended to manage patients with ALD. Liver transplantation should be considered in the management of patients with end-stage ALD that do not recover despite abstinence. In selected cases, increasing number of centers are proposing early transplantation for patients with severe AH not responding to medical therapy.

13.
J Psychosom Res ; 116: 75-82, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654998

RESUMO

AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening complication of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Alcohol abstinence is the main predictor of the long-term prognosis of AH. It is unknown whether AUD treatment retention (TR) after an AH episode impacts alcohol relapse and mortality or what baseline factors influence TR. METHODS: Design: case-control study; Study population: hospitalized patients (1999-2012) with an episode of biopsy-proven AH were included (n = 120); Assessment: demographic and clinical data, the High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) scale, mortality and alcohol relapse were assessed through clinical records and telephone or personal interviews; Follow-up period: short-term and long-term TRs were assessed at 12 and 24 months, respectively. RESULTS: The overall short-term and long-term TRs were 37% and 27.8%, respectively. The severity of liver disease at baseline predicted both short-term and long-term TR (OR 3.7 and 3.3, respectively), whereas HRAR >3 and a history of psychiatric disorders predicted long-term TR (OR 2.9 and 2.6, respectively). Moreover, HRAR >3 (OR 3.0) and previous treatment for AUD (OR 2.9) increased the risk of relapse in the short term. Importantly, receiving alcohol therapy in a centre different from the hospital where the patient was admitted was associated with increased risk of alcohol relapse over the long term (OR 5.4). CONCLUSION: Experiencing an alcohol-related life-threatening complication is insufficient motivation to seek treatment for AUD. AUD treatment after an episode of AH is suboptimal, with a low TR rate, high risk of alcohol relapse and poor impact of treatment on alcohol relapse.

14.
Hepatology ; 69(5): 1916-1930, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324707

RESUMO

Risk of alcoholic cirrhosis is determined by genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to investigate if climate has a causal effect on alcohol consumption and its weight on alcoholic cirrhosis. We collected extensive data from 193 sovereign countries as well as 50 states and 3,144 counties in the United States. Data sources included World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, and the Institute on Health Metrics and Evaluation. Climate parameters comprised Koppen-Geiger classification, average annual sunshine hours, and average annual temperature. Alcohol consumption data, pattern of drinking, health indicators, and alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) of cirrhosis were obtained. The global cohort revealed an inverse correlation between mean average temperature and average annual sunshine hours with liters of annual alcohol consumption per capita (Spearman's rho -0.5 and -0.57, respectively). Moreover, the percentage of heavy episodic drinking and total drinkers among population inversely correlated with temperature -0.45 and -0.49 (P < 0.001) and sunshine hours -0.39 and -0.57 (P < 0.001). Importantly, AAF was inversely correlated with temperature -0.45 (P < 0.001) and sunshine hours -0.6 (P < 0.001). At a global level, all included parameters in the univariable and multivariable analysis showed an association with liters of alcohol consumption and drinkers among population once adjusted by potential confounders. In the multivariate analysis, liters of alcohol consumption associated with AAF. In the United States, colder climates showed a positive correlation with the age-standardized prevalence of heavy and binge drinkers. Conclusion: These results suggest that colder climates may play a causal role on AAF mediated by alcohol consumption.

15.
Liver Transpl ; 24(12): 1655-1664, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153377

RESUMO

Identifying patients at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization among patients admitted with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an unmet clinical need. We performed a multicentric prospective cohort study using data from 4 different cohorts on well-characterized patients hospitalized with severe AH. Data collected on 773 AH patients from 4 cohorts across the globe were randomly split into test (n = 390) and validation (n = 383) cohorts. We found that 32% of the patients developed inpatient AKI in the test cohort. Approximately 60% of patients met criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at admission. Hepatic encephalopathy, SIRS, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score at admission predicted inpatient AKI with odds ratios of 3.86, 2.24, and 1.14, respectively. The AKI risk score developed using these predictors stratified risk of inpatient AKI to low (score <3), moderate (3-4), and high (>4). These findings were replicated in the validation cohort. In the whole study cohort, patients with AKI had a lower 90-day survival (53% versus 77%; P < 0.001). Those with AKI risk score of >4 had significantly lower 90-day survival as compared with those with risk scores between 3 and 4 and <3 (47% versus 68% versus 88%; P < 0.001). In conclusion, AKI occurs frequently in AH patients and negatively impacts short-term mortality. The AKI risk score is useful in identifying patients at high risk for inpatient AKI and may be useful for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent AKI in patients with AH.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/mortalidade , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatite Alcoólica/mortalidade , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade
16.
Adicciones ; 0(0): 1121, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059586

RESUMO

Alcohol Liver Disease (ALD) is one of the most prevalent conditions leading to liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease. There is lacking evidence of regular urine screening testing (RUST) impact on survival or liver transplantation of ALD patients. The aims of this study were to compare the sensitivity of RUST, to assess its impact on survival and liver transplantation, and to evaluate factors associated with adherence to RUST. We performed a single-centered retrospective study (N = 84) with ALD candidates for liver transplantation. Demographic, biochemical and clinical variables were recorded at baseline. Adherence to RUST was evaluated during follow-up. The sensitivity of both RUST and self-reports were calculated for all drugs. Multivariable logistic and survival regression analyses were performed to explore associated factors and the impact of adherence to RUST, and positive results on survival. RUST had high sensitivity for identifying active drinkers (76.9%), smokers (78.9%) and cannabis users (83.3%). High adherence to RUST was inversely associated with mortality during follow-up. Presence of personality disorders negatively impacted (OR 0.29, CI 95% 0.08-0.97) adherence to RUST. Both RUST and self-reports should be carried out in this setting. Professionals involved in liver transplantation programs must promote adherence to RUST, primarily in patients with personality disorders.

17.
J Hepatol ; 69(2): 396-405, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The degree of cholestasis is an important disease driver in alcoholic hepatitis, a severe clinical condition that needs new biomarkers and targeted therapies. We aimed to identify the largely unknown mechanisms and biomarkers linked to cholestasis in alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Herein, we analyzed a well characterized cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis and correlated clinical and histological parameters and outcomes with serum bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a major regulator of bile acid synthesis. RESULTS: We found that total and conjugated bile acids were significantly increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis compared with controls. Serum FGF19 levels were strongly increased and gene expression of FGF19 was induced in biliary epithelial cells and ductular cells of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. De novo bile acid synthesis (CYP7A1 gene expression and C4 serum levels) was significantly decreased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Importantly, total and conjugated bile acids correlated positively with FGF19 and with disease severity (model for end-stage liver disease score). FGF19 correlated best with conjugated cholic acid, and model for end-stage liver disease score best with taurine-conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant associations between FGF19 and bilirubin as well as gamma glutamyl transferase, and negative correlations between FGF19 and fibrosis stage as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, in all patients with alcoholic hepatitis. CONCLUSION: Serum FGF19 and bile acids are significantly increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, while de novo bile acid synthesis is suppressed. Modulation of bile acid metabolism or signaling could represent a promising target for treatment of alcoholic hepatitis in humans. LAY SUMMARY: Understanding the underlying mechanisms that drive alcoholic hepatitis is important for the development of new biomarkers and targeted therapies. Herein, we describe a molecule that is increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Modulating the molecular pathway of this molecule might lead to promising targets for the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colestase , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Hepatite Alcoólica , Neutrófilos/patologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/biossíntese , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/metabolismo , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
18.
Pharmacol Rep ; 70(2): 385-389, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel anticonvulsant with proven antinociceptive properties. However, the antinociceptive and pronociceptive effect of this drug has not yet been fully elucidated in a tonic pain model. METHODS: Thirty-six male rats (Wistar) were randomized into six groups and underwent the formalin test as follows: rats in the control group were administered 50µL of 1% formalin in the paw; sham-group rats were administered 50µL of saline in the paw to mimick the application of formalin; the four experimental groups were administered LEV intragastrically (ig) (50, 100, 200 and 300mg/kg), and 40min later 50µL of 1% formalin was injected in the paw. RESULTS: LEV exhibited antinociceptive effect in the 300mg/kg LEV group (p<0.05) and a pronociceptive effect in the 100mg/kg LEV group (p<0.05) and in the 50mg/kg LEV group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The antinociceptive and pronociceptive effect of LEV in a tonic pain model is dose-dependent.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Piracetam/análogos & derivados , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Levetiracetam , Masculino , Medição da Dor/métodos , Piracetam/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 16(2): 210-221, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28901281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to identify the mechanisms by which serotonin receptors involved at the central level are able to modulate the nociceptive response. Pain is a defense mechanism of the body that entails physiological, anatomical, neurochemical, and psychological changes, and is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with potential risk of tissue damage, comprising the leading cause of appointments with Physicians worldwide. Treatment for this symptom has generated several neuropharmacological lines of research, due to the different types of pain and the various drugs employed to treat this condition. Serotonin [5- HydroxyTryptamine (5-HT)] is a neurotransmitter with seven families (5-HT1-5-HT7) and approximately 15 receptor subtypes. Serotonin modulates neuronal activity; however, this neurotransmitter is related with a number of physiological processes, such as cardiovascular function, gastric motility, renal function, etc. On the other hand, several researches reported that serotonin modulates nociceptive response through 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors in the Central Nervous System (CNS). METHOD: In this review, a search was conducted on PubMed, ProQuest, EBSCO, and the Science Citation Index for studies evaluating the effects of 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors in the CNS on the modulation of different types of pain. CONCLUSION: We concluded that 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors in the CNS modulate the pain, but this depends on the distribution of the receptors, dose of agonists or antagonists, administration route, pain type and duration in order to inhibit, excite, or even maintain the nociceptive response.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Dor , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/metabolismo , Dor/patologia , Serotonina/metabolismo
20.
J Hepatol ; 67(5): 1018-1025, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multi-potent cytokine that contributes to the inflammatory response to injury. MIF is expressed by multiple cell types; however, the cellular source and actions of MIF in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are not well known. Here we tested the hypothesis that non-myeloid cells, specifically hepatocytes, are an important cellular source of MIF in ALD. METHODS: MIF expression was measured in HuH7 and differentiated THP-1 cells in response to ethanol. Ethanol-induced liver injury was assessed in C57BL/6 (WT) and Mif-/- bone marrow chimeras. MIF was measured in peripheral and suprahepatic serum, as well as visualized by immunohistochemistry in liver biopsies, from patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). RESULTS: HuH7 hepatocytes, but not THP-1 macrophages, released MIF in response to ethanol challenge in culture. In chimeric mice expressing MIF in non-myeloid cells (Mif-/-→WT), chronic ethanol feeding increased ALT/AST, hepatic steatosis, and expression of cytokine/chemokine mRNA. In contrast, chimeric mice not expressing MIF in non-myeloid cells (WT→Mif-/-) were protected from ethanol-induced liver injury. Immunohistochemical staining of liver biopsies from patients with AH revealed a predominant localization of MIF to hepatocytes. Interestingly, the concentration of MIF in suprahepatic serum, but not peripheral serum, was positively correlated with clinical indicators of disease severity and with an increased risk of mortality in patients with AH. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data provide evidence that hepatocyte-derived MIF is critical in the pathogenesis of ALD in mice and likely contributes to liver injury in patients with AH. Lay summary: Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of preventable mortality worldwide, and lacks specific pharmacological therapies. Recent studies have recognized that macrophage migration inhibitor factor (MIF) has a critical role in the inflammatory response to liver damage. However, the cells that produce this protein are still unknown. Our present findings reveal that hepatocytes, the main cell type in the liver, are primarily responsible for MIF production in response to alcohol, which promotes liver injury. Our study suggests that drugs inhibiting MIF production could be beneficial in treating patients with liver disease due to excessive alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos , Inflamação/imunologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/imunologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
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