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2.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple factors, such as less complex U.S. adult pneumococcal recommendations that could increase vaccination rates, childhood pneumococcal vaccination indirect effects that decrease adult vaccination impact, and increased vaccine hesitancy (particularly in underserved minorities), could diminish the cost-effectiveness of programs to increase pneumococcal vaccination in older adults. Prior analyses supported the economic favorability of these programs. METHODS: A Markov model compared no vaccination and current recommendations (either 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV20] alone or 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine plus the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PCV15/PPSV23]) without or with programs to increase vaccine uptake in Black and non-Black 65-year-old cohorts. Pre-pandemic population- and serotype-specific pneumococcal disease risk and illness/vaccine costs came from U.S. DATABASES: Program costs were $2.19 per vaccine-eligible person and increased absolute vaccination likelihood by 7.5%. Delphi panel estimates and trial data informed vaccine effectiveness values. Analyses took a healthcare perspective, discounting at 3%/year over a lifetime time horizon. RESULTS: Uptake programs decreased pneumococcal disease overall. In Black cohorts, PCV20 without program cost $216,805 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared with no vaccination; incremental cost-effectiveness was $245,546/QALY for PCV20 with program and $425,264/QALY for PCV15/PPSV23 with program. In non-Black cohorts, all strategies cost >$200,000/QALY gained. When considering the potential indirect effects from childhood vaccination, all strategies became less economically attractive. Increased vaccination with less complex strategies had negligible effects. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, current recommendations with or without programs were unlikely to be favored at thresholds <$200,000/QALY gained. CONCLUSION: Current U.S. pneumococcal vaccination recommendations for older adults were unlikely to be economically reasonable with or without programs to increase vaccine uptake. Alternatives to current pneumococcal vaccines that include pneumococcal serotypes associated with adult disease should be considered.

3.
Vaccine ; 42(12): 3024-3032, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580515

RESUMO

Indirect effects of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have diminished the cost-effectiveness of current adult vaccine recommendations. An in-development adult-formulated 21-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV21) may play a critical role in reducing pneumococcal illness by targeting a larger number of serotypes responsible for adult pneumococcal infections. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of PCV21 in US adults aged 50 years or older compared with currently recommended pneumococcal vaccines, from both the societal and healthcare perspectives. A Markov model evaluated the lifetime cost-effectiveness of PCV21 (given at age 50 years only, at ages 50/65 years, and risk-based at ages < 65 years plus age-based at age 65 years) compared to no vaccination and to currently recommended pneumococcal vaccines given either as currently recommended or routinely at ages 50/65 years. The analysis was conducted in hypothetical Black and non-Black cohorts aged 50 years or older, with and without considering childhood pneumococcal vaccination indirect effects. Model parameters were based on US data. Parameter uncertainty was assessed using 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. From the societal perspective, PCV21 at ages 50/65 years compared to PCV21 at age 50 years cost $7,410 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained in Black cohort analyses and $85,696/QALY gained in the non-Black cohort; PCV21 at ages 50/65 years had the most favorable public health outcomes. From the healthcare perspective, compared to no vaccination, PCV21 at age 50 years cost $46,213/QALY gained in the Black cohort and $86,629/QALY in non-Blacks. All other strategies were dominated in both cohorts and from both perspectives. When considering childhood pneumococcal vaccination indirect effects, costs of PCV21 at ages 50/65 years remained less than $140,000/QALY gained from the societal perspective in both populations. PCV21 is potentially cost-effective compared to currently approved pneumococcal vaccines in adults aged 50 years or older from both the societal and healthcare perspectives.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Vacinas Conjugadas/uso terapêutico , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Vacinação , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
4.
Value Health ; 27(6): 721-729, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the impact of expanding pneumococcal vaccination to all 50-year-olds to decrease racial disparities by estimating from the societal perspective, the cost-effectiveness of 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV20) and 15-valent conjugate vaccine followed by 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PCV15/PPSV23) for 50-year-olds. METHODS: A Markov model compared the cost-effectiveness of PCV20 or PCV15/PPSV23 in all general population 50- and 65-years-olds compared with current US recommendations and with no vaccination in US Black and non-Black cohorts. US data informed model parameters. Pneumococcal disease societal costs were estimated using direct and indirect costs of acute illness and of pneumococcal-related long-term disability and mortality. Hypothetical 50-year-old cohorts were followed over their lifetimes with costs and effectiveness discounted 3% per year. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses assessed model uncertainty. RESULTS: In Black cohorts, PCV20 for all at ages 50 and 65 was the least costly strategy and had greater effectiveness than no vaccination and current recommendation strategies, whereas PCV15/PPSV23 at 50 and 65 cost more than $1 million per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained compared with PCV20 at 50 and 65. In non-Black cohorts, PCV20 at 50 and 65 cost $62 083/QALY and PCV15/PPSV23 at 50 and 65 cost more than $1 million/QALY with current recommendations, again being more costly and less effective. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, PCV20 at 50 and 65 was favored in 85.7% (Black) and 61.8% (non-Black) of model iterations at a $100 000/QALY gained willingness-to-pay threshold. CONCLUSIONS: When considering the societal costs of pneumococcal disease, PCV20 at ages 50 and 65 years in the general US population is a potentially economically viable strategy, particularly in Black cohorts.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Cadeias de Markov , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/economia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Pneumocócicas/economia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/etnologia , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Vacinação/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Análise de Custo-Efetividade
5.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 22(1): 61-71, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the societal cost of racial disparities in pneumococcal disease among US adults aged ≥  50 years. METHODS: In a model-based analysis, societal costs of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and hospitalized nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBP) were estimated using (1) direct medical costs plus indirect costs of acute illness; (2) indirect costs of pneumococcal mortality; and (3) direct and indirect costs of related disability. Disparities costs were calculated as differences in average per-person pneumococcal disease cost between Black and non-Black adults aged ≥  50 years multiplied by the Black population aged ≥  50 years. Costs were in 2019 US dollars (US$), with future costs discounted at 3% per year. RESULTS: Total direct and indirect costs per IPD case were US$186,791 in Black populations and US$182,689 in non-Black populations; total hospitalized NBP costs per case were US$100,632 (Black) and US$96,781 (non-Black). The difference in population per-person total pneumococcal disease costs between Black and non-Black adults was US$47.85. Combined societal costs of disparities for IPD and hospitalized NBP totaled US$673.2 million for Black adults aged ≥  50 years. Disease and disability risks, life expectancy, and case-fatality rates were influential in one-way sensitivity analyses, but the lowest cost across all analyses was US$194 million. The 95% probability range of racial disparity costs were US$227.2-US$1156.9 million in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: US societal cost of racial pneumococcal disease disparities in persons aged ≥ 50 years is substantial. Successful pneumococcal vaccination policy and programmatic interventions to mitigate these disparities could decrease costs and improve health.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Adulto , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Expectativa de Vida , Vacinação , Políticas , Análise Custo-Benefício
6.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 22(1-3): 103-113, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37978885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate health literacy, knowledge, household disposal, and misuse practices of antibiotics among the United Arab Emirates (UAE) residents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted between May 1st and August 31st, 2022. The study encompassed a sample of 1074 participants. RESULTS: Participants involved in a medical field (OR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.45-2.69, p < 0.001) were more likely to have adequate health literacy. Most participants rarely (n = 315; 29.33%) or sometimes (n = 292; 27.19%) sought help from a doctor or pharmacist with reading the instructions and leaflets of antibiotics. A bachelor`s degree was associated with a reduced odds ratio of self-medication with antibiotics (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.29-0.75, p = 0.002). Only 10.61% of unneeded antibiotics were returned to the pharmacy, 79.42% were disposed of at home and 10% were disposed of using other disposal practices. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of adequate health literacy were observed in those involved in the medical field and those with higher educational levels. The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics among the UAE population was low. These findings highlight the importance of improving health literacy, promoting responsible antibiotic use, and encouraging proper disposal practices among the population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Med Econ ; 27(1): 126-133, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105744

RESUMO

AIM: Albumin role as fluid resuscitation in sepsis remains understudied in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intravenous (IV) Albumin compared to Crystalloids in sepsis patients using patient-level data in Jordan. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of sepsis patients aged 18 or older admitted to intensive care units (ICU) at two major tertiary hospitals during the period 2018-2019. Patients information, type of IV fluid, and clinical outcomes were retrieved from medical records, and charges were retrieved from the billing system. A 90-day partitioned survival model with two health states (alive and dead) was constructed to estimate the survival of sepsis patients receiving either Albumin or Crystalloids as IV fluids for resuscitation. Overall survival was predicted by fitting a Weibull model on the patient-level data from the current study. To further validate the results, and to support the assessment of uncertainty, time-dependent transition probabilities of death at each cycle were estimated and used to construct a state-transition patient-level simulation model with 10,000 microsimulation trials. Adopting the healthcare system perspective, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios(ICERs) of Albumin versus Crystalloids were calculated in terms of the probability to be discharged alive from the ICU. Uncertainty was explored using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: In the partitioned survival model, Albumin was associated with an incremental cost of $1,007 per incremental1% in the probability of being discharged alive from the ICU. In the state-transition patient-level simulation model, ICER was $1,268 per incremental 1% in the probability of being discharged alive. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that Albumin was favored at thresholds >$800 per incremental 1%in the probability of being discharged alive from the ICU. CONCLUSION: IV Albumin use in sepsis patients might not be cost-effective from the healthcare perspective of Jordan. This has important implications for policymakers to readdress Albumin prescribing practice in sepsis patients.


Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of infection, which usually requires resuscitation with intravenous fluids. Still, no conclusive evidence is available about the best fluid resuscitation to be used in sepsis patients especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study compared the costs and effectiveness of intravenous Albumin versus Crystalloids in sepsis patients. Findings from this study showed that resuscitation with Albumin is much more expensive compared to resuscitation with Crystalloids with no significant difference in mortality but with prolonged length of stay in the hospital and the intensive care unit. Decision makers are advised to change Albumin prescribing practices in a way that mitigates the associated clinical and financial burdens without compromising quality of care or resuscitate with Crystalloids.


Assuntos
Sepse , Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Retrospectivos , Jordânia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Albuminas/uso terapêutico
8.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 17: 3107-3118, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38050627

RESUMO

Aims of the Study: To evaluate medication adherence level and identify predictors of poor medication adherence in elderly patients with Cardiovascular (CVS) diseases and type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on elderly patients who attended King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) outpatient diabetes and cardiology clinics from March 6, 2023, to July 6, 2023. Data on age, sex, socio-demographics, biological variables, medication characteristics, and chronic comorbidities were obtained from electronic patients' medical records and a validated questionnaire. Medication adherence levels (low, moderate, and high) were assessed using the Arabic version of the 4-item Morisky, Green, and Levine Medication Adherence Scale-Medication Assessment Questionnaire. Results: Data from 506 elderly patients were analyzed. The average age of the participants was 67.93 years (SD = 6.22). 7.9% of patients showed low adherence levels, 33.6% showed moderate adherence level, and 58.5% of patients showed a high level of adherence toward their prescribed medications. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that single/currently unmarried patients and patients who were living with others were more likely to have a higher adherence level; Odd Ratios (ORs) were 4.75 and 4.10, respectively. Patients who took their medications ≥ 3 and 2 times a day showed higher adherence to their medications than those who only took them once a day.; ORs were 2.15 and 2.36, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated an inadequate level of adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidities. This study revealed the necessity of implementing programs to help in raising the awareness among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes and CVDs of the importance of adherence to prescribed long-term medication regimens.

9.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 19: 913-928, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38023626

RESUMO

Aims of the Study: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of Drug-related problems (DRPs), as well as to evaluate the impact of DRPs on the health-related quality of life in geriatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a three-month period. Patients aged 60 years and older visited diabetes clinics from October 1, 2022, to December 31, 2022, were included in the study. Data were collected through structured questionnaires, whereas lab results, medication records, comorbidities, and the consequences of DRPs were collected from electronic medical records. DRPs were identified and classified using the PCNE V501 classification system. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated using the validated EuroQol criteria. Results: A total of 491 patients participated in the study, and the mean age of the patients was 67.51 years (SD = 5.84 years). Female patients represented 52.34% of total subjects. A total of 461 (around 94%) experienced at least one drug-related problem (DRP), ranging from one to nine DRPs per patient, with a total number of DRPs equal to 1625 identified. The most common DRP was the drug choice problem, affecting 52.98% of patients. Factors such as high drug frequency, living conditions, the number of diabetes medications, comorbidities, and smoking were significantly associated with higher numbers of DRPs. Higher numbers of DRPs were found to significantly worsen health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients. Conclusion: Geriatric individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus encounter a significant prevalence of DRPs, with drug choice problems being the most common followed by dosing problems. Risk factors contributing to these DRPs include high drug frequency, living conditions, high number of diabetes medications, multimorbidity, and smoking. Also, the study concluded that the increased number of DRPs was associated with negative impact on HRQoL domains in geriatric patients with type 2 diabetes.

10.
Heliyon ; 9(9): e20102, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37809575

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the role of a clinical pharmacist in improving knowledge and outcomes among isotretinoin users. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group (received education about isotretinoin by a clinical pharmacist in addition to the physician) and a control group (received routine education by the physician), then followed for three months. Patients' knowledge about isotretinoin optimal use, and side effects and their management and other outcomes were measured in both groups at baseline and at follow up after three months using a validated questionnaire. Results: Two-hundred and three patients completed the study; 103 were in the intervention group and 100 in the control group. The knowledge improvement between baseline score and follow-up score was greater in the intervention group (mean = 2.835 ± 1.329) compared to the control group (mean = 0.530 ± 0.784) with mean differences = -2.30495, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Implementing clinical pharmacy services in dermatology clinics can positively increase patients' level of knowledge about isotretinoin, which could reduce the severity of its side effects. Therefore, improving patients' quality of life, and improvement in acne. Practice implications: Implementing clinical pharmacist services to patients using isotretinoin is feasible in an outpatient setting. Clinical pharmacist counseling and education improve the medication knowledge among patients who use isotretinoin.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(38): e34633, 2023 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37746954

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) long-term effect is the new challenge facing healthcare providers that should be further assessed. We aim to describe the characteristics and patterns of long-term consequences of COVID-19 among recovered patients. COVID-19 patients baseline data was extracted from hospital records and alive patients filled self-reported symptoms questionnaires. A follow-up chest X-ray (CXR) was then scored based on lung abnormalities and compared with baseline CXR images. Six hundred ninety-four patients were included for the questionnaire and final analysis. Patients who were categorized as critical or severe were more prone to develop at least one symptom than those who were categorized as moderate. The most newly diagnosed comorbidities after discharge were diabetes (40.9%), cardiovascular diseases (18.6%), and hypertension (11.9%). Most patients with prolonged symptoms after discharge had a significant decrease in the quality of life. Small number of CXR showed persistent abnormalities in the middle right, the lower right, and lower left zones with an average overall score during admission 13.8 ± 4.9 and 0.3 ± 1.01 for the follow-up images. Effects of COVID-19 were found to persist even after the end of the infection. This would add on to the disease burden and would foster better management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitais
12.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 22(10): 957-965, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37293991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-marketing surveillance of drugs is a cornerstone of pharmacovigilance. This study was conducted to characterize patterns of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in Jordan. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ADR reports submitted to the pharmacovigilance database of the Jordan Food and Drug Administration during 2015-2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The most commonly reported drugs, drug classes, ADRs, and ADRs consequences were explored. Logistic regression identified possible predictors of reporting serious ADRs. RESULTS: A total of 2744 ADR reports were included, among which 28.4% were classified as serious. An annual increase in ADR reporting was observed. The most commonly implicated drug classes were antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents (24.0%), anti-infectives for systemic use (14.2%), and alimentary tract and metabolism (12.1%). Covid-19 vaccination was the most reported drug (22.8%). Fatigue (6.3%), injection site pain (6.1%), and headache (6.0%) were the top three common ADRs. Among ADRs with outcome information, 4.7% were fatal. Patient's age and intravenous medication use largely predicted reporting serious ADRs. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides contemporary insights into the post-marketing surveillance of drugs in Jordan. The findings are foundational for future studies exploring drug-ADRs causality relationships. Efforts that promote pharmacovigilance concepts should be sustained and enhanced at the national level.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacovigilância , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia
13.
Saudi Pharm J ; 31(6): 808-814, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37228318

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students' experience with the newly developed simulation-based pharmaceutical care (PC) rotation by evaluating their knowledge and attitudes towards PC before and after the rotation. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to sixth year PharmD students enrolled in the clinical training rotation "Comprehensive Pharmaceutical Care" during the 2020/2021 academic semesters at Jordan University of Science and Technology's (JUST) Faculty of Pharmacy. Questionnaires were distributed before and after completing four experiential training weeks and consisted of three sections. The first section collected students' demographic details while the second and third sections evaluated students' knowledge about, and attitudes toward PC, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to describe and compare changes in students' knowledge and attitudes pre-and post-rotation. Results: A total of 106 valid questionnaires were completed with a response rate of 99.07%. The rates of correct answers increased after the rotation with median total knowledge score increasing from 8 to 10 (out of 13, P value < 0.001). Significant improvements in students' understanding of aspects relating to the concept and process of PC, and the role of clinical pharmacist in PC provision, were shown post the simulation-based clinical rotation. Similarly, their attitudes toward performing PC were either improved or emphasized. In contrast results also revealed that specific aspects of the rotation require further refinement, such as the comprehensiveness of the PC process and responsibilities in providing PC. Conclusions: PharmD students' understanding and attitudes toward PC were either improved or emphasized after the simulation-based PC rotation. This study highlights the value of simulation as a unique instructional technique that can assist educators to develop PC competencies for pharmacy students.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37191454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prescribing practice of albumin in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to compare the clinical and economic outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) albumin compared to crystalloids in the ICU. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of ICU adult patients admitted to King Abdullah University Hospital during 2018-2019. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and admission charges were retrieved from medical records and billing system. Survival analysis, multivariable regression models, and propensity score matching estimator were performed to evaluate the impact of IV resuscitation fluid types on the clinical and economic outcomes. RESULTS: Albumin administration in the ICU was associated with significantly lower hazards of ICU death (HR = 0.57; P value <0.001), but without improving overall death probability compared to crystalloids. Albumin was associated with significant prolongation in the ICU length of stay (5.86 days; P value <0.001). Only 88 patients (24.3%) were prescribed albumin for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications. Admission charges were significantly higher for patients treated with albumin (p value <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: IV Albumin use in the ICU was not associated with significant improvement in clinical outcomes, but with a remarkable increase in economic burden. The majority of patients received albumin for non-FDA-approved indications.


Assuntos
Albuminas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soluções Cristaloides , Administração Intravenosa , Tempo de Internação
15.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 39(3): 399-407, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36731422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence, predictors, mortality, and economic outcomes of recurrent Acute kidney injury (AKI) in Jordan. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that included adult patients who were admitted with AKI to university hospitals in the country from 2010-2019. Recurrent episodes of AKI, laboratory data, baseline medication list, and death dates were retrieved from patient's medical records. The incidence rate of recurrent AKI was estimated. Predictors of recurrent AKI and mortality during the five years post-discharge was evaluated. Total admission charges were described and evaluated in total and by service provided. RESULTS: Among 1162 AKI patients, 57 patients (4.9%) died during the index admission (first admission during the study period), and among the survivors, 220 patients were re-hospitalized with a recurrent AKI during five years of follow-up. Patients with higher discharge serum creatinine level (SCr) at index admission had higher odds of AKI recurrence (OR = 1.001). Patients who were on respiratory, antineoplastic, or anticoagulant medications were also more susceptible to recurrence; ORs were 1.69, 2.77, and 4.16, respectively. Patients who were elderly, with recurrent AKI episodes, or with a more extended hospital stay at index admission were more likely to die during the five years post discharge. The median charge of recurrent admissions was higher than the median charge of the index admissions; 1519.17 JOD ($2142.7) versus 1362.85 JOD ($1922.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent AKI is associated with increased mortality and health expenditures. Higher discharge SCr levels at index admission, and chronic comorbidities are associated with a higher likelihood of AKI recurrence.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Assistência ao Convalescente , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Financeiro , Fatores de Risco , Alta do Paciente , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar
16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36833021

RESUMO

This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of multi-drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii infections (MDR-AB) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with or without a COVID-19 infection and risk factors for blood stream infection. A total of 170 patients with MDR-AB were enrolled in the study. Of these, 118 (70%) patients were admitted to the ICU due to a COVID-19 infection. Comparing the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups, the use of mechanical ventilation (98.31% vs. 76.92%, p = 0.000), the presence of septic shock (96.61% vs. 82.69%, p = 0.002), and the use of steroid (99.15% vs. 71.15%, p = 0.000) and tocilizumab therapies (33.05% vs. 0%, p = 0.000) were more prevalent and statistically more significant in patients with COVID-19 infections. The average length of the ICU stay (21.2 vs. 28.33, p = 0.0042) was significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 infections. Survival rate was 21.19% for the COVID-19 group and 28.85% for non-COVID-19 group with a p-value = 0.0361. COVID-19 status was associated with significantly higher hazards of death (HR 1.79, CI 95% 1.02-3.15, p = 0.043). Higher SOFAB (15.07 vs. 12.07, p = 0.0032) and the placement of an intravascular device (97.06% vs. 89.71%, p = 0.046) were significantly associated with the development of a bloodstream infection. Our study has shown that critically ill patients with an MDR-AB infection, who were admitted due to a COVID-19 infection, had a higher hazard for death compared to non-COVID-19 infected patients.

17.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(4): 497-504, 2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36719822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Data about AKI incidence and outcomes in patients with cirrhosis is scarce in the Middle East region. This study explored the incidence and impact of AKI on clinical and economic outcomes in cirrhosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of cirrhosis patients admitted to an educational hospital in Jordan during the years 2012-2022. Demographics, clinical and biochemical information, and charges were retrieved from medical electronic records. Logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate predictors of AKI and mortality in cirrhosis adjusting for covariates. Hospital charges were also described. RESULTS: A total of 380 cirrhosis patients were included with an AKI incidence of 27.9%. Male sex, elevated baseline serum creatinine, presence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and higher comorbidity score were independently associated with AKI development ( P < 0.05). The hospital mortality rate was markedly higher for patients with AKI versus those without AKI (51.9% vs. 6.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). AKI was associated independently with higher odds of hospital death (OR = 5.83, P < 0.001), prolongation of the median hospital stays by 5 days ( P < 0.001), more clinical complications, and increased total hospital charges per admission by $2500. CONCLUSION: AKI is prevalent in cirrhosis patients, and it is associated with increased mortality, hospitalization, and cost. This burden in cirrhosis emphasizes the need for early identification of patients at high risk of AKI and applying prompt and effective management approaches, aiming at improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Cirrose Hepática , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitalização , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Fatores de Risco
18.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 33: 76-82, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes and medical expenditures associated with COVID-19 admissions. In addition, this study aimed to investigate the impact of patients' characteristics and baseline comorbidities on intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality, and medical expenditures for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Prince Hamza Hospital and King Abdullah University Hospital, during the period from March 2020 to June 2021. Medical records and pharmacy data were followed and reviewed throughout their admissions. The ICU admission, inpatient mortality, hospital length of stay, and inpatient charges were described. Predictors of ICU admission and inpatient charges were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 7694 COVID-19 hospital admissions were included. Approximately 1189 patients (15.5%) were admitted to ICU and 21.4% died in the hospital. The fatality rate among those admitted to ICU was 82.6% compared with 10.2% for non-ICU admitted patients. The average admission charge and charge per admission day were 1598.2 and 200.2 Jordanian dinar, respectively, and both charges were higher in ICU admitted patients than non-ICU admitted patients. Being older in age, smoker or ex-smoker, and having chronic diseases were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of ICU admission and mortality among admitted patients. CONCLUSIONS: ICU admission in patients with COVID-19 is associated with poor clinical outcomes and substantial medical expenditures and is more likely among older adults, smokers, and those with chronic diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pacientes Internados , Gastos em Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
19.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 41: 208-213, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428051

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Psychiatric illness is prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study compared the assessment of anxiety and depressive symptoms among HD patients using two self-administered scales; hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and brief symptom inventory (BSI). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a convenience sample of HD patients (n = 352) from different dialysis centers in Jordan. Patients were interviewed in dialysis units, and demographics, clinical status, disease, and dialysis history data were collected. Symptoms of anxiety (HADS-A ≥ 8 and BSI-A ≥ 0.82) and depression (HADS-D ≥ 8 and BSI-D ≥ 0.82) were also measured. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 52.2 ± 15.6 years. The majority had been receiving HD three times daily and for >2 years. A significant moderate-strong correlation was observed between HADS-A and BSI-A (r = 0.753, p < 0.0001) as well as HADS-D and BSI-D (r = 0.588, p < 0.0001). Anxiety prevalence was 43.7 % using HADS-A ≥ 8 and 80.7 % using BSI-A ≥ 0.82, while depression prevalence was 53.1 % using HADS-D ≥ 8 and 51.7 % using BSI-D ≥ 0.82. When HADS was used as a standard, the operating characteristics reveal that a higher cut-off for BSI-A is recommended (≥1.58) for better anxiety screening. DISCUSSION: Specific and suitable cut-off points need to be further explored and validated for HADS and BSI scales among patients undergoing dialysis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Autorrelato , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Diálise Renal
20.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 30(5): 457-465, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Concerns have been raised about the influence of adverse drug effects on patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in COPD patients. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of COPD treatment-related adverse effects on HRQoL in COPD patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, COPD patients aged 40 years or older were identified and interviewed during their hospital visits. The EuroQol 5 Dimension 5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire was used for evaluating HRQoL. Potential treatment adverse effects were evaluated as experienced by participants during the last 2 weeks preceding the interview. The intensity of adverse effects was reported in the following categories: never, mild, moderate and severe. Multivariable linear regression model was performed to evaluate the influence of adverse drug effects on utility scores as an indicator of HRQoL. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 203 patients diagnosed with COPD were recruited in the current study. The mean utility score of the study sample was 0.68 (SD = 0.36). Moderate-severe constipation, moderate-severe confusion, mild urinary hesitation, moderate-severe urinary hesitation, moderate-severe dry eyes and moderate-severe drowsiness were significant predictors/determinants for the average utility scores (coefficients were -0.099, -0.191, -0.111, -0.157 and -0.144, respectively). In addition, having higher COPD Assessment Test scores and severe disease was negatively associated with average utility scores (coefficients were -0.287 and -0.124, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intensity of COPD treatment-related adverse effects has a negative influence on HRQoL in COPD patients. Anticholinergic drug effects are of concern in COPD adults' population.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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