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1.
Neuroradiology ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Very preterm (VPT) infants are at high risk for motor and behavioral deficits. We investigated microstructural differences using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) among VPT infants with different grades of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), their association with early motor function and temperament ratings, and the potential moderating effect of IVH severity on the above structure-function relations. METHODS: Fifty-seven VPT (≤32 weeks gestational age) infants with IVH (Low Grade (Papile grading I/II): 42; High Grade (III/IV): 15) were studied. DTI was acquired between 39 and 44 weeks postmenstrual age and was analyzed using the tract-based spatial statistics approach. Early motor function and temperament were assessed at 3-month corrected age based on the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) and Infant Behavioral Questionnaire - Revised, Short Version (IBQ-R-S), respectively. RESULTS: Significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean, axial, and/or radial diffusivity were found in VPT infants with High Grade IVH compared to Low Grade IVH (p < 0.05). Significant associations were found between DTI metrics and motor function in both IVH groups and between DTI and Fear temperament ratings in the High Grade IVH Group (all p < 0.05). IVH severity had a significant moderating effect on the relation between DTI and motor and Fear ratings (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: DTI is a sensitive neuroimaging biomarker providing a refined understanding of the impact and location of differing severities of IVH on the developing white matter of VPT infants. Early motor and behavioral outcomes are associated with microstructural changes that are influenced by severity of IVH.

2.
Endocr Pract ; 27(3): 206-211, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between pathologic features and molecular classes (BRAF-like, RAS-like, and non-BRAF-like non-RAS-like [NBNR]). METHODS: Retrospective review of a merged database containing 676 patients, 84% (571/676) were assigned to a molecular class from publicly accessible sequenced data of thyroid neoplasms. RESULTS: The merged cohort included 571 neoplasms: 353 (62%) BRAF-like, 172 (30%) RAS-like, and 46 (8.1%) NBNR. Lymph node metastasis (any N1 disease) was present in 166/337 (49%) of BRAF-like, 23/164 (14%) of RAS-like, and 0/46 (0%) of NBNR and are significantly different (P < .001). Gross extra-thyroidal extension was observed in 27 patients, including 24/331 (7%) of BRAF-like, 2/160 (1%) of RAS-like, and 1/46 (2%) of NBNR (P = .01). N1B lymph node metastases or T4 disease was present in 74/333 (22%) of BRAF-like, 10/160 (6%) of RAS-like, and 1/46 (2%) of NBNR (P < .0001). Distant metastasis was present in 4/151 (2.6%) of BRAF-like, 2/50 (4%) of RAS-like and 0/46 for NBNR (P = .627). Angioinvasion was present in 0/81 (0%) of BRAF-like, 3/53 (6%) of RAS-like, and 3/46 (7%) of NBNR (P = .08); and multifocality was present in 27/81 (33%) of BRAF-like, 9/53 (17%) of RAS-like, and 1/46 (2%) for NBNR (P = .0001). CONCLUSION: Pathological features of metastasis, gross extra-thyroidal extension, and multifocality were more prevalent in BRAF-like samples compared to RAS-like and NBNR. A trend towards increased frequency of angioinvasion in RAS-like and NBNR cancers compared to BRAF-like samples was observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate if preoperative knowledge of molecular mutations in thyroid tumors aids in decision-making regarding extent of surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar, Variante Folicular , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética
3.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive advanced neuroimaging and neurochemical assessment can identify subtle abnormalities and predict neurodevelopmental impairments. Our objective was to quantify white matter metabolite levels and evaluate their relationship with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 3 years. METHODS: Our study evaluated a longitudinal prospective cohort of very premature infants (<32 weeks gestational age) with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy from the centrum semiovale performed at term-equivalent age and standardized cognitive, verbal, and motor assessments at 3 years corrected age. We separately examined metabolite ratios in the left and right centrum semiovale. We also conducted an exploratory interaction analysis for high/low socioeconomic status (SES) to evaluate the relationship between metabolites and neurodevelopmental outcomes, after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: We found significant relationships between choline/creatine levels in the left and right centrum semiovale and motor development scores. Exploratory interaction analyses revealed that, for infants with low SES, there was a negative association between choline/creatine in the left centrum semiovale and motor assessment scores at age 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Brain metabolites from the centrum semiovale at term-equivalent age were associated with motor outcomes for very preterm infants at 3 years corrected age. This effect may be most pronounced for infants with low SES. IMPACT: Motor development at 3 years corrected age for very preterm infants is inversely associated with choline neurochemistry within the centrum semiovale on magnetic resonance spectroscopy at term-equivalent age, especially in infants with low socioeconomic status. No prior studies have studied metabolites in the centrum semiovale to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years corrected age based on high/low socioeconomic status. For very preterm infants with lower socioeconomic status, higher choline-to-creatine ratio in central white matter is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes.

4.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), an objective and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, for its potential as an imaging biomarker to predict the need and timing of CSF diversion surgery in patients after prenatal myelomeningocele (MMC) repair. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data based on 35 pediatric patients after prenatal MMC repair (gestational age at birth 32.68 ± 3.42 weeks, range 24-38 weeks; 15 females and 20 males). A logistic regression analysis was used to classify patients to determine the need for CSF diversion surgery. The model performance was compared between using the frontooccipital horn ratio (FOHR) alone and using the FOHR combined with DTI values (the genu of the corpus callosum [gCC] and the posterior limb of the internal capsule [PLIC]). For patients who needed to be treated surgically, timing of the procedure was used as the clinical outcome to test the predictive value of DTI acquired prior to surgery based on a linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the gCC (p = 0.014) and PLIC (p = 0.037) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) values in the gCC (p = 0.013) were found in patients who required CSF diversion surgery compared with those who did not require surgery (all p values adjusted for age). Based on the logistic regression analysis, the FOHR alone showed an accuracy of performance of 0.69 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.60. The performance of the model was higher when DTI measures were used in the logistic regression model (accuracy = 0.77, AUC = 0.84 for using DTI values in gCC; accuracy = 0.75, AUC = 0.84 for using DTI values in PLIC). Combining the DTI values of the gCC or PLIC and FOHR did not improve the model performance when compared with using the DTI values alone. In patients who needed CSF diversion surgery, significant correlation was found between DTI values in the gCC and the time interval between imaging and surgery (FA: ρ = 0.625, p = 0.022; MD: ρ = -0.6830, p = 0.010; both adjusted for age and FOHR). CONCLUSIONS: The authors' data demonstrated that DTI could potentially serve as an objective biomarker differentiating patients after prenatal MMC repair regarding those who may require surgery for MMC-associated hydrocephalus. The predictive value for the need and timing of CSF diversion surgery is highly clinically relevant for improving and optimizing decision-making for the treatment of hydrocephalus in this patient population.

5.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528802

RESUMO

Adolescents with epilepsy are at risk for deficits in working memory, which could lead to learning difficulties and poor academic outcomes. We used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine potential disruption in working memory function in adolescents with epilepsy as compared to healthy controls. We recruited 29 adolescents (13-17 years) with non-lesional epilepsy and 20 healthy controls. All participants performed an N-back fMRI task and neuropsychological testing. A general linear model approach was used to create group activation maps of N-back fMRI for epilepsy and control groups and both groups combined (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). Functionally defined regions of interest (ROIs) were identified based on clusters of combined group activation (z > 5). Subsets of these functional ROIs corresponding to cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks were selected and differences in functional connectivity between the epilepsy and control groups were assessed. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly poorer working memory scores compared to controls. For the N-back fMRI task, there were no significant differences in group activation. Functional connectivity was significantly reduced between the left frontal operculum and anterior cingulate gyrus (cingulo-opercular network) in adolescents with epilepsy compared to controls. This study demonstrates working memory deficits and an altered pattern of connectivity in brain networks supporting working memory in adolescents with epilepsy. Working memory performance was worse in adolescents with epilepsy; though scores were not directly correlated with reduced connectivity. These results suggest the neural substrates of working memory in adolescents with epilepsy may differ from those in typically-developing adolescents, and require further investigation to understand the reasons for poorer working memory performance.

6.
Stat Med ; 40(7): 1845-1858, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426642

RESUMO

A frequent problem in longitudinal studies is that data may be assessed at subject-selected, irregularly spaced time-points, resulting in highly unbalanced outcome data, inducing bias, especially if availability of data is directly related to outcome. Our aim was to develop a multivariate joint model in a mixed outcomes framework to minimize irregular sampling bias. We demonstrate using blood glucose monitoring throughout pregnancy and risk of preterm birth among women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose measurements were unequally spaced and intensity of sampling varied between and within individuals over time. Multivariate linear mixed effects submodel for the longitudinal outcome (blood glucose), Poisson model for the intensity of glucose sampling, and logistic regression model for binary process (preterm birth) were specified. Association between models is captured through shared random effects. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to fit the model. The multivariate joint model provided better prediction, compared with a joint model with a multivariate linear mixed effects submodel (ignoring intensity of glucose sampling) and a two-stage model. Most association parameters were significant in the preterm birth outcome model, signifying improvement of predictive ability of the binary endpoint by sharing random effects between glucose monitoring and preterm birth. A simulation study is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the multivariate joint modeling approach.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric uveitis can lead to sight-threatening complications and impact quality of life (QOL) and functioning. We aim to examine health-related QOL (HRQOL), mental health, physical disability, vision-related functioning (VRF), and vision-related QOL (VRQOL) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), JIA-associated uveitis (JIA-U), and other non-infectious uveitis. We hypothesize that there will be differences based on the presence of eye disease. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted at four sites. Patients with JIA, JIA-U, or non-infectious uveitis were enrolled. Patients and parents completed the PedsQL (HRQOL), RCADS (anxiety/depression), CHAQ (physical disability), and EYE-Q (VRF/VRQOL). Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were compared by diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 549 patients, 332 had JIA, 124 JIA-U, and 93 other uveitis. Children with JIA-U had worse EYE-Q scores compared to JIA only. In children with uveitis, those with anterior uveitis (JIA-U and uveitis only) had less ocular complications, better EYE-Q scores, and worse CHAQ and PedsQL physical summary scores compared to those with non-anterior disease. In children with anterior uveitis, those with JIA-U had worse PedsQL physical summary and CHAQ scores than anterior uveitis only. Further, EYE-Q scores were worse in children with bilateral uveitis and more visual impairment. There were no differences in RCADS scores among groups. CONCLUSION: We provide a comprehensive outcome assessment of children with JIA, JIA-U, and other uveitis diagnoses. Differences in QOL and function were noted based on underlying disease. Our results support the addition of a vision-specific measure to better understand the impact of uveitis.

8.
Pediatrics ; 147(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) often have persistent language delays despite early identification and interventions. The technology-assisted language intervention (TALI), which incorporates augmentative and alternative communication technology into a speech-language therapy model, was designed to support language learning. The study objective was to evaluate the impact of the TALI on spoken language outcomes in DHH children. METHODS: Children aged 3 to 12 years with mild to profound bilateral hearing loss were enrolled in a single-site randomized controlled trial. Children were randomly assigned to receive the TALI or treatment as usual (TAU) (with no change in current care) and were followed for 24 weeks. Primary outcomes included spoken language measures elicited from language samples. Secondary outcomes included standardized assessments. Intention-to-treat analyses were used. RESULTS: Analyses focused on 41 children randomly assigned to TALI (n = 21) or TAU (n = 20). Among all participants, mean age was 6.3 years (SD 2.5). Over 24 weeks, children in the TALI group, compared with those in the TAU group, had significantly greater increases in the length of phrases they used to express themselves (ß = .91 vs .15, respectively; P< .0001). Similar findings were seen with conversational turn-taking and number of different words spoken. CONCLUSIONS: Providing visual supports for language concepts that are typically challenging for DHH children to acquire allowed children to process and comprehend spoken language more fully. Such strategies can mitigate persistent language delays with the goal of improving lifelong outcomes and independence across settings.

9.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Veterans have an increasing prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and high levels of intolerance to positive airway pressure (PAP). The hypoglossal nerve stimulator (HNS) is a promising alternative surgical treatment for OSA in these patients, many of whom suffer from mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that may negatively affect their ability to use PAP. Our aims were: 1) to assess postoperative changes in OSA severity and sleepiness in a veteran only population after HNS; 2) to compare postoperative changes in OSA severity, sleepiness and HNS adherence between veterans with and without PTSD; and 3) to compare HNS adherence in our population to HNS adherence in the current literature as well as published PAP adherence data. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective case series. METHODS: Clinical data on consecutive patients undergoing HNS in a Veterans Affairs hospital were examined for demographic data as well as medical, sleep, and mental health comorbidities. The overall cohort as well as subsets of patients with and without PTSD were examined for postoperative changes in OSA severity (apnea hypopnea index [AHI], lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT]), and sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale [ESS]), as well as for device adherence. PTSD and depression symptomatology were measured using the PTSD Checklist 5 (PCL-5) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Forty-six veterans were included. Forty-four patients were male (95.6%), 45 were white (97.8%), and the mean age was 61.3 years. Twenty-six patients met PCL-5 criteria for PTSD and 17 did not. OSA severity and sleepiness improved significantly in the overall cohort after HNS; median (IQR) AHI decreased from 39.2 (24.0, 63.0) to 7.4 (1.2, 20.8) events/hour (P < .0001), mean LSAT increased from 81% to 88% (P < .0001) and mean ESS decreased from 10.9 to 6.7 (P < .0001). These improvements were similar between patients with and without PTSD (P = .434-.918). Overall device adherence was 6.1 hours/night for the overall cohort and was not significantly different between patients with and without PTSD (P = .992). CONCLUSIONS: HNS is an efficacious therapy in a veteran population, providing patients with significant improvements in OSA severity and sleepiness. Veterans with and without PTSD benefited similarly from HNS when comparing improvements in sleep apnea severity and sleepiness as well as device usage. Adherence was similar to previously published HNS adherence data and better than PAP adherence reported in the literature. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2020.

10.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify perinatal clinical diseases and treatments that are associated with the development of objectively diagnosed diffuse white matter abnormality (DWMA) on structural MRI at term-equivalent age in very preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 392 very preterm infants (<32 weeks gestational age) were enrolled from five level III/IV NICUs between September 2016 and November 2019. Brain MRIs were collected at 39 to 45 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) to evaluate DWMA volume. A pre-defined list of pertinent maternal characteristics, pregnancy/delivery data, and neonatal ICU data were collected for enrolled patients to identify antecedents of objectively diagnosed DWMA. RESULTS: Of the 392 infants in the cohort, 377 (96%) had high quality MRI data. Their mean (SD) gestational age was 29.3 (2.5) weeks. In multivariable linear regression analyses, pneumothorax (p=.027), severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (p=.009), severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (P < .001), and male sex (p=.041) were associated with increasing volume of DWMA. The following factors were associated with decreased risk of DWMA: postnatal dexamethasone therapy for severe BPD (p=.004), duration of caffeine therapy for severe BPD (p = 0.009), and exclusive maternal milk diet at NICU discharge (p=.049). CONCLUSIONS: Severe ROP and BPD exhibited the strongest adverse association with development of DWMA. We also identified treatments and nutritional factors that appear protective against the development of DWMA that also have implications for the clinical care of very preterm infants.

11.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293683

RESUMO

A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-01297-2.

12.
Pediatr Res ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of prenatal opioid exposure on brain development remains poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of term-born infants with and without prenatal opioid exposure. Structural brain MRI was performed between 40 and 48 weeks postmenstrual age. T2-weighted images were processed using the Developing Human Connectome Project structural pipeline. We compared 63 relative regional brain volumes between groups. RESULTS: Twenty-nine infants with prenatal opioid exposure and 42 unexposed controls were included. The groups had similar demographics, except exposed infants had lower birth weights, more maternal smoking and maternal Hepatitis C, fewer mothers with a college degree, and were more likely non-Hispanic White. After controlling for sex, postmenstrual age at scan, birth weight, and maternal education, exposed infants had significantly smaller relative volumes of the deep gray matter, bilateral thalamic ventrolateral nuclei, bilateral insular white matter, bilateral subthalamic nuclei, brainstem, and cerebrospinal fluid. Exposed infants had larger relative volumes of the right cingulate gyrus white matter and left occipital lobe white matter. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with prenatal opioid exposure had smaller brain volumes in multiple regions compared to controls, with two regions larger in the opioid-exposed group. Further research should focus on the relative contributions of maternal opioids and other exposures. IMPACT: Prenatal opioid exposure is associated with developmental and behavioral consequences, but the direct effects of opioids on the developing human brain are poorly understood. Prior small studies using MRI have shown smaller regional brain volumes in opioid-exposed infants and children. After controlling for covariates, infants with prenatal opioid exposure scanned at 40-48 weeks postmenstrual age had smaller brain volumes in multiple regions compared to controls, with two regions larger in the opioid-exposed group. This adds to the literature showing potential impact of prenatal opioid exposure on the developing brain.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Effects of Youngsters' Eyesight on Quality of Life (EYE-Q) questionnaire measures vision-related functioning (VRF) and vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) in children with uveitis. Our aim was to revise the Alpha version of the EYE-Q to refine VRF and VRQOL subscales and assess the validity of the EYE-Q. METHODS: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), JIA-associated uveitis, and other non-infectious uveitis were enrolled. Patients and parents completed the EYE-Q, PedsQL (overall QOL), and CHAQ (physical functioning). The Development site completed the Alpha version of the EYE-Q, and the Composite sites completed the Beta version. We compared item-subscale correlations, internal consistency, construct and discriminant validity amongst the different versions. RESULTS: Of the 644 patients enrolled, 61.6% completed the Alpha version, and 38.4% the Beta version of the EYE-Q. Mean patient age was 11.1 (SD = 4.2) years, and 70% were female. Fewer white patients (73.5%) completed the Alpha version compared to the Beta version (86.2%, p <0.001). With the exception of patient-reported VRF, both versions had similar item-subscale correlations. Version comparisons on scale internal consistencies indicated significant differences for parent- and patient-reported VRF, but each scale had a Cronbach's Alpha >0.80 Beta. When data were combined, the EYE-Q showed significant differences between JIA-only and uveitis patients on all parent and patient scores, except for patient-reported VRF. CONCLUSION: The EYE-Q appears to be a valid measure of VRF and VRQOL in pediatric uveitis. Our results suggest it may be used as an outcome measure in multi-center pediatric uveitis studies.

14.
Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil ; 11: 2151459320960087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117596

RESUMO

Introduction: Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are increasingly common as a result of a growing geriatric population with 1-year mortality rates approaching 35%. While preoperative medical optimization and early time to surgery have reduced morbidity and mortality, patients with numerous medical comorbidities remain high risk for death in the perioperative period. Identifying those with greatest risk with a scoring system or nomogram may assist multidisciplinary teams in reducing mortality following hemiarthroplasty. Purpose: Identify predictors of 30-day mortality in elderly patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty for a femoral neck fracture to generate a predictive nomogram to determine the probability of post-operative mortality. Methods: Retrospective evaluation using data from the ACS-NSQIP database from 2005 to 2014 with CPT code 27125 for hip hemiarthroplasty. Multiple factors including demographics and comorbidities were compared in patients who experienced 30-day mortality and those who did not. T-test and chi-square tests were used to analyze data and a multivariate model was generated using logistic regression. Results: Advanced age (odds ratio (OR) 1.04), underweight BMI (OR 1.55), male sex (OR 1.80), reduced functional status (OR 2.04), heart failure within 30 days prior to surgery (OR 2.22), American Society of Anesthesiologists grade > 2 (OR > 2.50), disseminated cancer (OR 3.43) were all found to have statistically significant odds ratios for 30-day mortality following hemiarthroplasty. Conclusion: A tool based on easily identifiable risk factors, demographics, and comorbidities was developed that can help predict elderly patients who will experience mortality within 30 days of following hemiarthroplasty. In addition to identifying high risk patients, the nomogram can serve as a counseling tool for physicians to use with patients and their families to assist with better understanding of perioperative mortality risk.

15.
J Neurosci Res ; 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981154

RESUMO

The purpose of this clinical trial was to examine whether internal jugular vein compression (JVC)-using an externally worn neck collar-modulated the relationships between differential head impact exposure levels and pre- to postseason changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived diffusivity and anisotropy metrics of white matter following a season of American tackle football. Male high-school athletes (n = 284) were prospectively assigned to a non-collar group or a collar group. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from participants pre- and postseason and head impact exposure was monitored by accelerometers during every practice and game throughout the competitive season. Athletes' accumulated head impact exposure was systematically thresholded based on the frequency of impacts of progressively higher magnitudes (10 g intervals between 20 to 150 g) and modeled with pre- to postseason changes in DTI measures of white matter as a function of JVC neck collar wear. The findings revealed that the JVC neck collar modulated the relationships between greater high-magnitude head impact exposure (110 to 140 g) and longitudinal changes to white matter, with each group showing associations that varied in directionality. Results also revealed that the JVC neck collar group partially preserved longitudinal changes in DTI metrics. Collectively, these data indicate that a JVC neck collar can provide a mechanistic response to the diffusion and anisotropic properties of brain white matter following the highly diverse exposure to repetitive head impacts in American tackle football. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT# 04068883.

16.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) have improved language outcomes when enrolled in early intervention (EI) before the age of 6 months. Little is understood about the long-term impact of EI on outcomes of kindergarten readiness (K-readiness). The study objective was to evaluate the impact of EI before the age of 6 months (early) versus after 6 months (later) on K-readiness in children who are D/HH. METHODS: In this study, we leveraged data from the Ohio Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Data Linkage Project, which linked records of 1746 infants identified with permanent hearing loss born from 2008 to 2014 across 3 Ohio state agencies; 417 had kindergarten records. The Kindergarten Readiness Assessment was used to identify children as ready for kindergarten; 385 had Kindergarten Readiness Assessment scores available. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between K-readiness and early EI entry while controlling for confounders (eg, hearing loss severity and disability status). RESULTS: Children who were D/HH and entered EI early (n = 222; 57.7% of the cohort) were more likely to demonstrate K-readiness compared with children who entered EI later (33.8% vs 20.9%; P = .005). Children who entered early had similar levels of K-readiness as all Ohio students (39.9%). After controlling for confounders, children who entered EI early were more likely to be ready for kindergarten compared with children who entered later (odds ratio: 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.45). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the sustained effects of early EI services on early educational outcomes among children who are D/HH. EI entry before the age of 6 months may establish healthy trajectories of early childhood development, reducing the risk for later academic struggles.


Assuntos
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Transtornos da Audição , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desempenho Acadêmico , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ohio
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15920, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985533

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the independent prognostic value of a novel MRI biomarker-objectively diagnosed diffuse white matter abnormality volume (DWMA; diffuse excessive high signal intensity)-for prediction of motor outcomes in very preterm infants. We prospectively enrolled a geographically-based cohort of very preterm infants without severe brain injury and born before 32 weeks gestational age. Structural brain MRI was obtained at term-equivalent age and DWMA volume was objectively quantified using a published validated algorithm. These results were compared with visually classified DWMA. We used multivariable linear regression to assess the value of DWMA volume, independent of known predictors, to predict motor development as assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development, Third Edition at 3 years of age. The mean (SD) gestational age of the cohort was 28.3 (2.4) weeks. In multivariable analyses, controlling for gestational age, sex, and abnormality on structural MRI, DWMA volume was an independent prognostic biomarker of Bayley Motor scores ([Formula: see text]= -12.59 [95% CI -18.70, -6.48] R2 = 0.41). Conversely, visually classified DWMA was not predictive of motor development. In conclusion, objectively quantified DWMA is an independent prognostic biomarker of long-term motor development in very preterm infants and warrants further study.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886231

RESUMO

An adverse relationship between screen exposure time and brain functional/structural connectivity was reported in typically developing children, specifically related to neurobiological correlates of reading ability. As children with reading difficulties (RD) suffer from impairments in reading and executive functions (EF), we sought to determine the association between the ratio of screen time duration to reading time duration and functional connectivity of EF networks to the entire brain in children with RD compared to typical readers (TRs) using resting state data. Screen/reading time ratio was related to reduced reading and EF abilities. A larger screen/reading time ratio was correlated with increased functional connectivity between the salience network and frontal-EF regions in children with RD compared to TRs. We suggest that whereas greater screen/reading time ratio is related to excessive stimulation of the visual processing system in TRs, it may be related to decreased efficiency of the cognitive control system in RDs.

19.
Epilepsy Res ; 166: 106407, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) and Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) are the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes and they share a similar age-dependence. However, the two syndromes clearly differ in seizures and EEG patterns. The aim of this study is to investigate whether children of the same age with BECTS, CAE and typically-developing children have significant differences in grey matter volume that may underlie the different profiles of these syndromes. METHODS: Twenty one patients with newly-diagnosed BECTS and 18 newly diagnosed and drug naïve CAE were included and compared to 31 typically-developing children. Voxel-based morphometry was utilized to investigate grey matter volume differences among BECTS, CAE, and controls. We also examined the effect of age on grey matter volume in all three groups. In addition to the whole brain analysis, we chose regions of interest analysis based on previous literature suggesting the involvement of these regions in BECTS or CAE. The group differences of grey matter volume was tested with 2-sample t-test for between two groups' comparisons and ANOVA for three group comparisons. RESULTS: In the whole brain group comparisons, the grey matter volume in CAE was significantly decreased in the areas of right inferior frontal and anterior temporal compared to BECTS and controls (F2,67 = 27.53, p < 0.001). In the control group, grey matter volume in bifrontal lobes showed a negative correlation with age (r=-0.54, p < 0.05), whereas no correlation was found in either CAE or BECTS. With ROI analyses, the grey matter volume of posterior thalami was increased in CAE compared to other 2 groups (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that there are grey matter volume differences between CAE and BECTS. Our findings of grey matter volume differences may suggest that there may be localized, specific differences in brain structure between these two types of epilepsy.

20.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 3074532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685553

RESUMO

Background: Characterizing maternal glucose sampling over the course of the entire pregnancy is an important step toward improvement in prediction of adverse birth outcome, such as preterm birth, for women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objectives: To characterize the relationship between the gestational glycemic profile and risk of preterm birth using a joint modeling approach. Methods: A joint model was developed to simultaneously characterize the relationship between a longitudinal outcome (daily blood glucose sampling) and an event process (preterm birth). A linear mixed effects model using natural cubic splines was fitted to predict the longitudinal submodel. Covariates included mother's age at last menstrual period, age at diabetes onset, body mass index, hypertension, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Various association structures (value, value plus slope, and area under the curve) were examined before selecting the final joint model. We compared the joint modeling approach to the time-dependent Cox model (TDCM). Results: A total of 16,480 glucose readings over gestation (range: 50-260 days) with 32 women (28%) having preterm birth was included in the study. Mother's age at last menstrual period and age at diabetes onset were statistically significant (beta = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10, 1.72; beta = 0.84, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98) for the longitudinal submodel, reflecting that older women tended to have higher mean blood glucose and those with later diabetes onset tended to have a lower mean blood glucose level. The presence of nephropathy was statistically significant in the event submodel (beta = 2.29, 95% CI 1.05, 4.48). Cumulative association parameterization provided the best joint model fit. The joint model provided better fit compared to the time-dependent Cox model (DIC (JM) = 19,895; DIC (TDCM) = 19,932). Conclusion: The joint model approach was able to simultaneously characterize the glycemic profile and assess the risk of preterm birth and provided additional insights and a better model fit compared to the time-dependent Cox model.

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