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1.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(3): 101434, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622829

RESUMO

Almost one decade ago, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitotane (EDP-M) has been established as first-line systemic therapy of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Although heterogeneous, the prognosis of advanced stage ACC is still poor and novel treatments are urgently needed. This article provides a short summary of current systemic ACC treatment and provides a comprehensive overview of new therapeutic approaches that have been investigated in the past years, including drugs targeting the IGF pathway, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, radionuclide treatment, and immunotherapy. The results of most of these trials were disappointing and we will discuss possible reasons why these drugs failed (e.g. drug interactions with mitotane, disease heterogeneity with exceptional responses in very few patients, and resistance mechanisms to immunotherapy). We then will present potential new drug targets that have emerged from many molecular studies (e.g. wnt/ß-catenin, cyclin-dependent kinases, PARP1) that may be the foundation of next-generation therapies of ACC.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy. Tumor-related glucocorticoid excess is present in ~60% of patients and associated with particularly poor prognosis. Results of first clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors were heterogeneous. Here we characterize tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) in ACC in association with glucocorticoids as potential explanation for resistance to immunotherapy. METHODS: We performed immunofluorescence analysis to visualize tumor-infiltrating T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD3+CD4+), cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) and regulatory T cells (Tregs; CD3+CD4+FoxP3+) in 146 ACC tissue specimens (107 primary tumors, 16 local recurrences, 23 metastases). Quantitative data of immune cell infiltration were correlated with clinical data (including glucocorticoid excess). RESULTS: 86.3% of ACC specimens showed tumor infiltrating T cells (7.7 cells/high power field (HPF)), including T helper (74.0%, 6.7 cells/HPF), cytotoxic T cells (84.3%, 5.7 cells/HPF) and Tregs (49.3%, 0.8 cells/HPF). The number of TILs was associated with better overall survival (HR for death: 0.47, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.87), which was true for CD4+- and CD8+ subpopulations as well. In localized, non-metastatic ACC, the favorable impact of TILs on overall and recurrence-free survival was manifested even independently of ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage, resection status and Ki67 index. T helper cells were negatively correlated with glucocorticoid excess (Phi=-0.290, p=0.009). Patients with glucocorticoid excess and low TILs had a particularly poor overall survival (27 vs. 121 months in patients with TILs without glucocorticoid excess). CONCLUSION: Glucocorticoid excess is associated with T cell depletion and unfavorable prognosis. To reactivate the immune system in ACC by checkpoint inhibitors, an inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis might be pivotal and should be tested in prospective studies.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449514

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Objective response rate to mitotane in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is approximately 20%, and adverse drug effects are frequent. To date, there is no marker established that predicts treatment response. Mitotane has been shown to inhibit sterol-O-acyl transferase 1 (SOAT1), which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in ACC cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SOAT1 protein expression as a marker of treatment response to mitotane. PATIENTS: A total of 231 ACC patients treated with single-agent mitotane as adjuvant (n = 158) or advanced disease therapy (n = 73) from 12 ENSAT centers were included. SOAT1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. SETTING: Retrospective study at 12 ACC referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Sixty-one of 135 patients (45%) with adjuvant mitotane treatment had recurrences and 45/68 patients (66%) with mitotane treatment for advanced disease had progressive disease. After multivariate adjustment for sex, age, hormone secretion, tumor stage, and Ki67 index, RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.85; P = 0.82), and DSS (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.58-2.93; P = 0.53) in adjuvantly treated ACC patients did not differ significantly between tumors with high and low SOAT1 expression. Similarly, in the advanced stage setting, PFS (HR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.63-2.84; P = 0.45) and DSS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.70; P = 0.45) were comparable and response rates not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: SOAT1 expression was not correlated with clinical endpoints RFS, PFS, and DSS in ACC patients with mitotane monotherapy. Other factors appear to be relevant for mitotane treatment response and ACC patient survival.

4.
Endocrine ; 69(2): 441-450, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468269

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are a group of clinically rare and heterogeneous tumors of the pancreas. Currently there are no studies investigating the gender difference in PNEN susceptibility. Thus, the purpose of this study was aimed at examining how gender shapes risk factors, clinicopathological features, and comorbidities in PNENs. METHODS: The study design consisted of an Italian multicenter, retrospective study. The study included all consecutive patients with PNENs followed at the participating centers. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients (105 males,124 females, age 54 ± 0.98 years) with PNENs were enrolled at the participating centers. The clinicopathological features (age, gender, BMI, histology, tumor size, tumor grade, distant metastasis, hormonal function, and diagnostic circumstances), comorbidities (cardiovascular diseases (CVD), pancreatitis, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and potential risk factors (smoking and drinking) were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Females were slightly prevalent (54.15%). PNENs were diagnosed at younger age in females compared to males (p = 0.04). The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher in males than in females (p = 0.006). In the female group, the presence of T2DM was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (p = 0.04) and metastatic disease (p = 0.02). The proportion of smokers and alcohol drinkers was significantly higher in the male group (p < 0.001). No significant gender differences were detected regarding the other parameters included in the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified gender differences of PNENs in terms of age at diagnosis, associated comorbidities, and potential risk factors. A gender-tailored approach could become a potential strategy to better understand the natural history of PNENs and improve the effectiveness of PNENs clinical management.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373071

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are aggressive tumors with a heterogeneous prognosis and limited therapeutic options for advanced stages. This study aims to identify novel drug targets for a personalized treatment in ACC. RNA was isolated from 40 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ACC samples. We evaluated gene expression of 84 known cancer drug targets by reverse transcriptase quantitative real time-PCR and calculated fold change using 5 normal adrenal glands as reference (overexpression by fold change >2.0). The most promising candidate cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was investigated at protein level in 104 ACC samples and tested by in vitro experiments in two ACC cell lines (NCI-H295R and MUC1). The most frequently overexpressed genes were TOP2A (100% of cases, median fold change = 16.5), IGF2 (95%, fold change = 52.9), CDK1 (80%, fold change = 6.7), CDK4 (62%, fold change = 2.6), PLK4 (60%, fold change = 2.8), and PLK1 (52%, fold change = 2.3). CDK4 was chosen for functional validation, as it is actionable by approved CDK4/6-inhibitors (e.g., palbociclib). Nuclear immunostaining of CDK4 significantly correlated with mRNA expression (R = 0.52, P < 0.005). We exposed both NCI-H295R and MUC1 cell lines to palbociclib and found a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of cell viability, which was more pronounced in the NCI-H295R cells in line with higher CDK4 expression. Furthermore, we tested palbociclib in combination with insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin receptor inhibitor linsitinib showing an additive effect. In conclusion, we demonstrate that RNA profiling is useful to discover potential drug targets and that CDK4/6 inhibitors are promising candidates for treatment of selected patients with ACC.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245135

RESUMO

Mitotane is the main option of treatment for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, limited evidence is available regarding the impact of plasma mitotane levels on patient outcome. To address this question, we retrospectively analyzed patients with advanced ACC treated with mitotane for ≥3 months, with ≥3 measurements of plasma mitotane reported in the Lysosafe Online® database (HRA Pharma, France), followed at 12 tertiary centers in Italy from 2005 to 2017. We identified 80 patients, initially treated with mitotane alone (56.2%) or plus chemotherapy (43.8%). The preference toward combination therapy was given to de novo stage IV ACC and younger patients. After the first line of treatment, 25% of valid cases experienced clinical benefit (14.5% objective response, 10.5% stabilization of disease) and 75% progression, without differences between the groups of treatment. Patients with progression had a lower time in the target range (TTR) of plasma mitotane and an unfavorable outcome. Death occurred in 76.2% of cases and multivariate analysis showed that clinical benefit after first treatment and longer TTR were favorable predictors of overall survival (OS). In conclusion, the present findings support the importance of mitotane monitoring and strengthen the concept of a therapeutic window for mitotane.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276412

RESUMO

Patients affected by gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) have an increased risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis, as several factors impact on bone metabolism in these patients. In fact, besides the direct effect of bone metastasis, bone health can be affected by hormone hypersecretion (including serotonin, cortisol, and parathyroid hormone-related protein), specific microRNAs, nutritional status (which in turn could be affected by medical and surgical treatments), and vitamin D deficiency. In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome associated with NET occurrence, bone damage may carry other consequences. Osteoporosis may negatively impact on the quality of life of these patients and can increment the cost of medical care since these patients usually live with their disease for a long time. However, recommendations suggesting screening to assess bone health in GEP-NET patients are missing. The aim of this review is to critically analyze evidence on the mechanisms that could have a potential impact on bone health in patients affected by GEP-NET, focusing on vitamin D and its role in GEP-NET, as well as on factors associated with MEN1 that could have an impact on bone homeostasis.

8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(6): 912-918, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise plays an important role in bone mineralization as well as factors involved in bone metabolism influence the athletic performance. In European countries, soccer is the most popular sport. The aim of the study was to investigate bone metabolism, bone mass and structural integrity profile in professional male adult football players. METHODS: Sixteen professional male football players from a single team of the Second division Italian League (mean age 22.4±0.7 years) were enrolled. Bone biochemical parameters, including serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, intact plasma PTH, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD), 24-h urinary calcium and phosphorus, and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS), were evaluated at the beginning (October 2012) and at the end of the League (May 2013). RESULTS: 25-OHD levels were significantly lower at the end of the League compared to the beginning (27.1±5.9 vs. 36.6±9.5 ng/mL, fold change [FC]=0.25, P=0.008), and the prevalence of 25-OHD deficiency increased from 25% to 73%. Moreover, higher rate of previous bone, cartilage or ligament injuries correlated with 25-OHD deficiencies (P=0.014). T-score and Z-score were at the upper limits of the normality ranges, without significant difference between the beginning and end of the League. Phosphaturia was slightly decreased at the end of the League (691.0±364.5 vs. 934.0±274.3 mg/24h, FC=0.26, P=0.06). A significant correlation was found between phosphaturia and BQI (R2=0.28, P=0.03), and both T-s and Z-s (R2=0.28, P=0.03) at the beginning of the League. CONCLUSIONS: With this pilot study, we demonstrated that vitamin D status significantly worsened at the end of the League. Therefore, vitamin D supplementation might be suggested in adult football players in order to prevent vitamin D deficiency and improve the athletic performance.

9.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(2): 231-247, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907366

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency has become a pandemic health problem with a consequent increase of requests for determining circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. However, the analytical performance of these immunoassays, including radioimmunoassay and ELISA, is highly variable, and even mass spectrometric methods, which nowadays serves as the gold standard for the quantitatively determination of 25(OH)D, do not necessarily produce comparable results, creating limitations for the definition of normal vitamin D status ranges. To solve this problem, great efforts have been made to promote standardization of laboratory assays, which is important to achieve comparable results across different methods and manufacturers. In this review, we performed a systematic analysis evaluating critically the advantages and limits of the current assays available for the measure of vitamin D status, i.e., circulating 25(OH)D and its metabolites, making suggestions that could be used in the clinical practice. Moreover, we also suggest the use of alternatives to blood test, including standardized surveys that may be of value in alerting health-care professionals about the vitamin D status of their patients.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are frequent in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. They are usually not surgically treated unless larger than 1 to 2 cm or a growth rate > 0.5 cm per year. Somatostatin analogues represent one of the main therapeutic options in pNETs, but they have never been prospectively investigated in MEN1-related pNETs. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of lanreotide in patients with MEN1-related pNETs < 2 cm. METHODS: MEN1 patients with 1 or more pNETs < 2 cm of maximal diameter were considered. Study design was prospective observational, comparing patients treated with lanreotide autogel 120 mg every 28 days (LAN group) and patients in active surveillance, not receiving any therapy (AS group). RESULTS: Forty-two patients were enrolled: 23 in LAN and 19 in AS group. Median follow-up was 73 months. Initial imaging identified a total of 91 pNETs. The median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the LAN than in the AS group (median not reached vs 40 months, P < 0.001). In the LAN group, 4 patients had an objective tumor response, 15 patients had stable disease, while 4 had tumor progression. In the AS group, 13 patients had pNET progression, while 6 were stable. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study evaluating the efficacy of somatostatin analogues in MEN1-related pNETs. These findings highlight that lanreotide autogel is effective as antiproliferative therapy in MEN1-related pNETs < 2cm, suggesting the utility of somatostatin analogues to arrest the development of tumor lesions as well as to delay or avoid pancreatic surgery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/complicações , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/etiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684071

RESUMO

Mitotane is used as a post-operative adjuvant treatment for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Monitoring of plasma mitotane concentrations is recommended, but we do not know what impact target concentrations have on patient outcome. To answer this question, we retrospectively analyzed patient records in the Lysosafe Online® database (HRA Pharma, France) for patients who were treated for ≥6 months and who had ≥3 measurements of plasma mitotane levels during follow-ups at 11 tertiary centers in Italy from 2005 to 2017. We identified 110 patients treated with adjuvant mitotane for a median of 46 months (IQR, interquartile range, 28-62) with a median maintenance dose of 2.0 g/day (IQR 1.5-2.5). Achievement of target mitotane concentrations (≥14 mg/L) required a median of 8 months (IQR 5-19). Female sex was associated inversely with the dose, while body mass index (BMI) was correlated positively. Multivariate analysis showed that the Ki67 index and time to achieve the target range of plasma mitotane were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival (RFS). In a separate multivariate model, considering only the maintenance phase (month 7 to month 36, M7-M36) of treatment, the time in the target range of plasma mitotane was associated with a significantly lower risk of recurrence (Hazard Ratio, HR = 0.93; 0.88-0.98, p < 0.01). The prognostic implications of the time in target range and the time needed to reach target mitotane concentrations support the use of mitotane monitoring and may inform practice.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500357

RESUMO

Bone represents a common site of metastases for several solid tumors. However, the ability of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) to localize to bone has always been considered a rare and late event. Thanks to the improvement of therapeutic options, which results in longer survival, and of imaging techniques, particularly after the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) with gallium peptides, the diagnosis of bone metastases (BMs) in NENs is increasing. The onset of BMs can be associated with severe skeletal complications that impair the patient's quality of life. Moreover, BMs negatively affect the prognosis of NEN patients, bringing out the lack of curative treatment options for advanced NENs. The current knowledge on BMs in gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) and bronchopulmonary (BP) NENs is still scant and is derived from a few retrospective studies and case reports. This review aims to perform a critical analysis of the evidence regarding the role of BMs in GEP- and BP-NENs, focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlining the development of BMs, as well as clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of BMs, in an attempt to provide suggestions that can be used in clinical practice.

13.
Int J Obes Suppl ; 9(1): 32-49, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391923

RESUMO

Over the past 20 years the use of dietary supplements as adjuvant therapy for weight loss gained growing favor among consumers and dietician-nutritionists, with the subsequent astounding increase in health costs. Despite the reassuring label of natural remedy for losing weight, dietary supplements contain a wide variety of ingredients on which available information is rather scanty and scientifically incomplete. Currently, there is little evidence that weight-loss supplements offer effective aids to reduce weight and meet criteria for recommended use. Robust, randomized, placebo-controlled studies to provide clear-cut scientific evidence of their efficacy and potential side effects in clinical practice are still lacking. Understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements among nutritionists and physicians is critical to counsel patients appropriately, especially considering the risk of serious adverse effects and interference with concomitant therapies. Detailed information on the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used weight-loss dietary supplements has been recently published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). However, in this report the thorny issue that may result from drug interactions with weight-loss dietary supplements has been not sufficiently addressed. The aim of this review was to provide a synthetic, evidence-based report on efficacy and safety of the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements marketed for weight loss, particularly focusing on their possible drug interactions.

14.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 181: 632-638, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207445

RESUMO

Because of the increased incidence of infections caused by resistant pathogens, due to the intensive use of antibiotics, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies against bacteria, possibly based on non conventional drugs. (+)-Usnic acid is a natural compound that exerts a potent antibacterial activity, however its clinical application is hampered by its scarce solubility in water. Usnic acid was included, by both passive and active loading techniques, in liposomes containing structurally related glucosylated amphiphiles. Liposome formulations were characterized from the physicochemical point of view and their activity against biofilm associated Staphylococcus epidermidis was also evaluated. The inclusion of usnic acid in glucosylated cationic liposomes promotes its penetration in biofilm matrix with a consequent increase of its antimicrobial activity. The effect of both cationic charge and sugar residue seems to be synergistic.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Benzofuranos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Lipossomos/síntese química , Lipossomos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 223: 104781, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229409

RESUMO

The plant alkaloid voacamine (VOA) displays many interesting pharmacological activities thus, considering its scarce solubility in water, its encapsulation into liposome formulations for its delivery is an important goal. Different cationic liposome formulations containing a phospholipid, cholesterol and one of two diasteromeric cationic surfactants resulted able to maintain a stable transmembrane difference in ammonium sulfate concentration and/or pH gradient and to accumulate VOA in their internal aqueous bulk. The fluidity of the lipid bilayer affects both the ability to maintain a stable imbalance of protons and/or ammonium ions across the membrane and the entrapment efficiency. It was shown that VOA loaded into liposomes is more efficient than the free alkaloid to revert resistance of osteosarcoma cells resistant to doxorubicin to an extent depending on their composition.

16.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 17(6): 610-617, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963976

RESUMO

Vitamin D and calcium are considered crucial for the treatment of bone diseases. Both vitamin D and calcium contribute to bone homeostasis but also preserve muscle health by reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Low vitamin D concentrations result in secondary hyperparathyroidism and contribute to bone loss, although the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism varies, even in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency. Findings from observational studies have shown controversial results regarding the association between bone mineral density and vitamin D/calcium status, thus sparking a debate regarding optimum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium for the best possible skeletal health. Although most of the intervention studies reported a positive effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D on bone in patients with osteoporosis, this therapeutic approach has been a matter of debate regarding potential side effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Thus, the aim of this review is to consider the current evidence on the physiological role of vitamin D and calcium on bone and muscle health. Moreover, we provide an overview on observational and interventional studies that investigate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on bone health, also taking into account the possible CV side-effects. We also provide molecular insights on the effect of calcium plus vitamin D on the CV system.

17.
Hormones (Athens) ; 18(1): 75-84, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644069

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of implementation of short-term patient empowerment as applied to Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence on metabolic and anthropometric parameters in prediabetic overweight or obese subjects. METHODS: The sample included 42 subjects with prediabetes, aged 18-75 years and with body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2, who received dietary advice on MD by nutritionists during session groups every 2 weeks for 4 months. Data on energy caloric intake and macronutrient consumption were collected using a 7-day food diary record. Adherence to MD was investigated through the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. No advice was given regarding caloric restriction and physical activity. At baseline and at the end of the study, each subject underwent anthropometric, metabolic, and nutritional assessments. RESULTS: Approximately 40.5% of subjects had achieved restoration of normal glucose tolerance by the end of the study. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, visceral adiposity index, triglycerides, and total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly decreased, while HDL cholesterol had significantly increased by the end of the study. The subjects significantly increased adherence to MD, as assessed by the PREDIMED questionnaire at follow-up. A reduction of prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was also reported. Interestingly, the PREDIMED score correlated with HbA1C values at follow-up, after adjusting for BMI and total caloric intake. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of short-term patient empowerment as applied to MD adherence was shown to improve anthropometric and metabolic parameters in prediabetic overweight or obese subjects. This is of considerable importance, given that diet must be the cornerstone of treatment in patients at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
18.
Minerva Endocrinol ; 44(1): 43-57, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963827

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The different presentation of adrenocortical tumors in benign adenoma (ACA) or adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is related to the variability at the molecular level. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is one of the most frequently altered pathways in ACC. In this review we will critically analyze the evidence regarding the pathogenic role of the IGF system in adrenal tumorigenesis, focusing on ACC. We will also examine the preclinical and clinical studies which investigated the targeting of the IGF system as a therapeutic approach in ACC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The IGF system plays a crucial role in the embryogenesis of adrenal glands. No significant alterations of the IGF system were observed in ACA. In ACC, the IGF2 overexpression is one of the most frequent molecular change presented in more than 85% of cases. However, IGF2 seems to be only a tumor progression factor which requires additional hits to trigger adrenal tumorigenesis. Also, the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) appears to be higher expressed in ACC. Many IGF1R target-drugs have been developed to inhibit the activation of the IGF system. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Preclinical studies using antibody or tyrosine kinase which target the IGF1R, or the dual-targeting of IGF1R and insulin receptor (IR) reduced ACC cells proliferation both in vitro and in vivo in mouse xenograft model. However, these promising results were not confirmed in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: Nowadays, predictive markers for the response of target-IGF therapy are missing and further studies which investigate new molecular markers and evaluate the entire IGF receptors, including the IR, are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Somatomedinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Somatomedinas/genética
19.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513732

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms mostly originating from the gastroenteropancreatic tract (GEP-NETs). Data regarding nutritional status in GEP-NET patients are limited. The aim of the study was to investigate the nutritional status and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in GEP-NET patients and to correlate them with tumor aggressiveness. A cross-sectional case-control observational study was conducted enrolling 83 patients with well-differentiated G1/G2 GEP-NETs after resection, as well as 83 healthy subjects, age, sex and body mass index-matched. Nutritional status was assessed by evaluating with Bioelectrical Impedance analysis and its phase angle (PhA), adherence to the MD according to PREDIMED score, dietary assessment, anthropometric parameters, and clinico-pathological characteristics. GEP-NET patients consumed less frequently vegetables, fruits, wine, fish/seafood, nuts, and more frequently red/processed meats, butter, cream, margarine, and soda drinks than controls. Patients with more aggressive disease presented a lower adherence to MD according to PREDIMED categories in comparison to G1, localized and free/stable disease status. A smaller PhA value and a lower PREDIMED score were significantly correlated with G2 tumor, metastases, and progressive disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an association between nutritional status and tumor aggressiveness in a selected group of GEP-NETs. Moreover, higher intakes of food of MD, may represent a potential tool for prevention of tumor aggressiveness. Thus, a skilled nutritionist should be an integral part of the multidisciplinary management of GEP-NET patients.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Estado Nutricional , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
20.
Endocrine ; 62(3): 517-518, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203121

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Figure 1. There is a typo in the word "osteoclastogenesis" and the word "activity" is missing in the same entity. It should be "osteoclastogenesis" instead of "osteoclestogenesis".

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