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1.
J Hum Genet ; 64(10): 1051-1054, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388109

RESUMO

Rapid progress has recently been made in the elucidation of the genetic basis of childhood-onset inherited generalized dystonia (IGD) due to the implementation of genomic sequencing methodologies. We identified four patients with childhood-onset IGD harboring novel disease-causing mutations in lysine-specific histone methyltransferase 2B gene (KMT2B) by whole-exome sequencing. The main focus of this paper is to gain novel pathophysiological insights through understanding the molecular consequences of these mutations.The disease course is mostly progressive, evolving from lower limbs into generalized dystonia, which could be associated with dysarthria, dysphonia, intellectual disability, orofacial dyskinesia, and sometimes distinct dysmorphic facial features. In two patients, motor performances improved after bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS). Pharmacotherapy with trihexyphenidyl reduced dystonia in two patients.We discovered three novel KMT2B mutations. Our analyses revealed that the mutation in patient 1 (c.7463 A > G, p.Y2488C) is localized in the highly conserved FYRC domain of KMT2B. This mutation holds the potential to alter the inter-domain FYR interactions, which could lead to KMT2B instability. The mutations in patients 2 and 3 (c.3602dupC, p.M1202Dfs*22; c.4229delA, p.Q1410Rfs*12) lead to predicted unstable transcripts, likely to be subject to degradation by non-sense mediated decay.Childhood-onset progressive dystonia with orofacial involvement is one of the main clinical manifestations of KMT2B mutations. In all, 26% (18/69) of the reported cases have T2 signal alterations of the globus pallidus internus, mostly at a younger age. Anticholinergic medication and GPi-DBS are promising treatment options and shall be considered early.An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 368-383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) starts in early childhood with loss of visual acuity and color vision deficits. OPA1 mutations are responsible for the majority of cases, but in a portion of patients with a clinical diagnosis of ADOA, the cause remains unknown. This study aimed to identify novel ADOA-associated genes and explore their causality. METHODS: Linkage analysis and sequencing were performed in multigeneration families and unrelated patients to identify disease-causing variants. Functional consequences were investigated in silico and confirmed experimentally using the zebrafish model. RESULTS: We defined a new ADOA locus on 7q33-q35 and identified 3 different missense variants in SSBP1 (NM_001256510.1; c.113G>A [p.(Arg38Gln)], c.320G>A [p.(Arg107Gln)] and c.422G>A [p.(Ser141Asn)]) in affected individuals from 2 families and 2 singletons with ADOA and variable retinal degeneration. The mutated arginine residues are part of a basic patch that is essential for single-strand DNA binding. The loss of a positive charge at these positions is very likely to lower the affinity of SSBP1 for single-strand DNA. Antisense-mediated knockdown of endogenous ssbp1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in zebrafish resulted in compromised differentiation of retinal ganglion cells. A similar effect was achieved when mutated mRNAs were administered. These findings point toward an essential role of ssbp1 in retinal development and the dominant-negative nature of the identified human variants, which is consistent with the segregation pattern observed in 2 multigeneration families studied. INTERPRETATION: SSBP1 is an essential protein for mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. Our data have established pathogenic variants in SSBP1 as a cause of ADOA and variable retinal degeneration. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:368-383.

3.
FASEB J ; : fj201900914RR, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345061

RESUMO

We previously reported that inactivation of the transmembrane taurine transporter (TauT or solute carrier 6a6) causes early retinal degeneration in mice. Compatible with taurine's indispensability for cell volume homeostasis, protein stabilization, cytoprotection, antioxidation, and immuno- and neuromodulation, mice develop multisystemic dysfunctions (hearing loss; liver fibrosis; and behavioral, heart, and skeletal muscle abnormalities) later on. Here, by genetic, cell biologic, in vivo 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we conducted in-depth characterization of a novel disorder: human TAUT deficiency. Loss of TAUT function due to a homozygous missense mutation caused panretinal degeneration in 2 brothers. TAUTp.A78E still localized in the plasma membrane but is predicted to impact structural stabilization. 3H-taurine uptake by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reduced by 95%, and taurine levels were severely reduced in plasma, skeletal muscle, and brain. Extraocular dysfunctions were not yet detected, but significantly increased urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine indicated generally enhanced (yet clinically unapparent) oxidative stress and RNA oxidation, warranting continuous broad surveillance.-Preising, M. N., Görg, B., Friedburg, C., Qvartskhava, N., Budde, B. S., Bonus, M., Toliat, M. R., Pfleger, C., Altmüller, J., Herebian, D., Beyer, M., Zöllner, H. J., Wittsack, H.-J., Schaper, J., Klee, D., Zechner, U., Nürnberg, P., Schipper, J., Schnitzler, A., Gohlke, H., Lorenz, B., Häussinger, D., Bolz, H. J. Biallelic mutation of human SLC6A6 encoding the taurine transporter TAUT is linked to early retinal degeneration.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358956

RESUMO

It is challenging to estimate genetic variant burden across different subtypes of epilepsy. Herein, we used a comparative approach to assess the genetic variant burden and genotype-phenotype correlations in four most common brain lesions in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Targeted sequencing analysis was performed for a panel of 161 genes with a mean coverage of >400×. Lesional tissue was histopathologically reviewed and dissected from hippocampal sclerosis (n = 15), ganglioglioma (n = 16), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (n = 8), and focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 15). Peripheral blood (n = 12) or surgical tissue samples histopathologically classified as lesion-free (n = 42) were available for comparison. Variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Overall, we identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 25.9% of patients with a mean coverage of 383×. The highest number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants was observed in patients with ganglioglioma (43.75%; all somatic) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (37.5%; all somatic), and in 20% of cases with focal cortical dysplasia type II (13.33% somatic, 6.67% germline). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic positive genes were disorder specific and BRAF V600E the only recurrent pathogenic variant. This study represents a reference for the genetic variant burden across the four most common lesion entities in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The observed large variability in variant burden by epileptic lesion type calls for whole exome sequencing of histopathologically well-characterized tissue in a diagnostic setting and in research to discover novel disease-associated genes.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 384-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256876

RESUMO

Proteins anchored to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) play various key roles in the human body, particularly in development and neurogenesis. As such, many developmental disorders are caused by mutations in genes involved in the GPI biosynthesis and remodeling pathway. We describe ten unrelated families with bi-allelic mutations in PIGB, a gene that encodes phosphatidylinositol glycan class B, which transfers the third mannose to the GPI. Ten different PIGB variants were found in these individuals. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells and fibroblasts from the affected individuals showed decreased cell surface presence of GPI-anchored proteins. Most of the affected individuals have global developmental and/or intellectual delay, all had seizures, two had polymicrogyria, and four had a peripheral neuropathy. Eight children passed away before four years old. Two of them had a clinical diagnosis of DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures), a condition that includes sensorineural deafness, shortened terminal phalanges with small finger and toenails, intellectual disability, and seizures; this condition overlaps with the severe phenotypes associated with inherited GPI deficiency. Most individuals tested showed elevated alkaline phosphatase, which is a characteristic of the inherited GPI deficiency but not DOORS syndrome. It is notable that two severely affected individuals showed 2-oxoglutaric aciduria, which can be seen in DOORS syndrome, suggesting that severe cases of inherited GPI deficiency and DOORS syndrome might share some molecular pathway disruptions.

6.
J Hum Genet ; 64(8): 803-813, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165786

RESUMO

Rapid progress has recently been made in the elucidation of the genetic basis of childhood-onset inherited generalized dystonia (IGD) due to the implementation of genomic sequencing methodologies. We identified four patients with childhood-onset IGD harboring novel disease-causing mutations in lysine-specific histone methyltransferase 2B gene (KMT2B) by whole-exome sequencing. The main focus of this paper is to gain novel pathophysiological insights through understanding the molecular consequences of these mutations. The disease course is mostly progressive, evolving from lower limbs into generalized dystonia, which could be associated with dysarthria, dysphonia, intellectual disability, orofacial dyskinesia, and sometimes distinct dysmorphic facial features. In two patients, motor performances improved after bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS). Pharmacotherapy with trihexyphenidyl reduced dystonia in two patients. We discovered three novel KMT2B mutations. Our analyses revealed that the mutation in patient 1 (c.7463A > G, p.Y2488C) is localized in the highly conserved FYRC domain of KMT2B. This mutation holds the potential to alter the inter-domain FYR interactions, which could lead to KMT2B instability. The mutations in patients 2 and 3 (c.3596_3697insC, p.M1202Dfs*22; c.4229delA, p.Q1410Rfs*12) lead to predicted unstable transcripts, likely to be subject to degradation by non-sense-mediated decay. Childhood-onset progressive dystonia with orofacial involvement is one of the main clinical manifestations of KMT2B mutations. In all, 26% (18/69) of the reported cases have T2 signal alterations of the globus pallidus internus, mostly at a younger age. Anticholinergic medication and GPi-DBS are promising treatment options and shall be considered early.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1139-1157, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155282

RESUMO

Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS) is characterized by coarse facial features with gingival enlargement, intellectual disability (ID), hypertrichosis, and hypoplasia or aplasia of nails and terminal phalanges. De novo missense mutations in KCNH1 and KCNK4, encoding K+ channels, have been identified in subjects with ZLS and ZLS-like phenotype, respectively. We report de novo missense variants in KCNN3 in three individuals with typical clinical features of ZLS. KCNN3 (SK3/KCa2.3) constitutes one of three members of the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels that are part of a multiprotein complex consisting of the pore-forming channel subunits, the constitutively bound Ca2+ sensor calmodulin, protein kinase CK2, and protein phosphatase 2A. CK2 modulates Ca2+ sensitivity of the channels by phosphorylating SK-bound calmodulin. Patch-clamp whole-cell recordings of KCNN3 channel-expressing CHO cells demonstrated that disease-associated mutations result in gain of function of the mutant channels, characterized by increased Ca2+ sensitivity leading to faster and more complete activation of KCNN3 mutant channels. Pretreatment of cells with the CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole revealed basal inhibition of wild-type and mutant KCNN3 channels by CK2. Analogous experiments with the KCNN3 p.Val450Leu mutant previously identified in a family with portal hypertension indicated basal constitutive channel activity and thus a different gain-of-function mechanism compared to the ZLS-associated mutant channels. With the report on de novo KCNK4 mutations in subjects with facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, ID, and gingival overgrowth, we propose to combine the phenotypes caused by mutations in KCNH1, KCNK4, and KCNN3 in a group of neurological potassium channelopathies caused by an increase in K+ conductance.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8444, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186450

RESUMO

Little is known on the causes and pathogenesis of the adipose tissue disorder (familial) Multiple Symmetric Lipomatosis (MSL). In a four-generation MSL-family, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in 3 affected individuals and 1 obligate carrier and identified Calcyphosine-like (CAPSL) as the most promising candidate gene for this family. Screening of 21 independent patients excluded CAPSL coding sequence variants as a common monogenic cause, but using immunohistochemistry we found that CAPSL was down-regulated in adipose tissue not only from the index patient but also in 10 independent sporadic MSL-patients. This suggests that CAPSL is regulated in sporadic MSL irrespective of the underlying genetic/multifactorial cause. Furthermore, we cultivated pre-adipocytes from MSL-patients and generated 3T3-L1-based Capsl knockout and overexpressing cell models showing altered autophagy, adipogenesis, lipogenesis and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression. CAPSL seems to be involved in adipocyte biology and perturbation of autophagy is a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of MSL. Downregulation of CAPSL and upregulation of UCP1 were common features in MSL fat while the known MSL genes MFN2 and LIPE did not show consistent alterations. CAPSL immunostainings could serve as first diagnostic tools in MSL clinical care with a potential to improve time to diagnosis and healthcare options.

10.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.

11.
J Exp Bot ; 70(15): 3867-3879, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037302

RESUMO

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) were combined to analyse the chromatin state of lateral organ founder cells (LOFCs) in the peripheral zone of the Arabidopsis apetala1-1 cauliflower-1 double mutant inflorescence meristem. On a genome-wide level, we observed a striking correlation between transposase hypersensitive sites (THSs) detected by ATAC-seq and DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs). The mostly expanded DHSs were often substructured into several individual THSs, which correlated with phylogenetically conserved DNA sequences or enhancer elements. Comparing chromatin accessibility with available RNA-seq data, THS change configuration was reflected by gene activation or repression and chromatin regions acquired or lost transposase accessibility in direct correlation with gene expression levels in LOFCs. This was most pronounced immediately upstream of the transcription start, where genome-wide THSs were abundant in a complementary pattern to established H3K4me3 activation or H3K27me3 repression marks. At this resolution, the combined application of FACS/ATAC-seq is widely applicable to detect chromatin changes during cell-type specification and facilitates the detection of regulatory elements in plant promoters.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 994-1006, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051115

RESUMO

Congenital lower urinary-tract obstruction (LUTO) is caused by anatomical blockage of the bladder outflow tract or by functional impairment of urinary voiding. About three out of 10,000 pregnancies are affected. Although several monogenic causes of functional obstruction have been defined, it is unknown whether congenital LUTO caused by anatomical blockage has a monogenic cause. Exome sequencing in a family with four affected individuals with anatomical blockage of the urethra identified a rare nonsense variant (c.2557C>T [p.Arg853∗]) in BNC2, encoding basonuclin 2, tracking with LUTO over three generations. Re-sequencing BNC2 in 697 individuals with LUTO revealed three further independent missense variants in three unrelated families. In human and mouse embryogenesis, basonuclin 2 was detected in lower urinary-tract rudiments. In zebrafish embryos, bnc2 was expressed in the pronephric duct and cloaca, analogs of the mammalian lower urinary tract. Experimental knockdown of Bnc2 in zebrafish caused pronephric-outlet obstruction and cloacal dilatation, phenocopying human congenital LUTO. Collectively, these results support the conclusion that variants in BNC2 are strongly implicated in LUTO etiology as a result of anatomical blockage.

13.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 574-580, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For individuals with ovarian cancer (OC), therapy options mainly depend on BRCA1/2 germline status. What is the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants, that is, does genetic tumour testing identify subgroups of individuals who also might benefit from targeted therapy? METHODS: Paired analysis of tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA to determine the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants in OC predisposition genes (ATM, BRCA1/2, BRIP1, MSH2/6, PALB2, RAD51C/D and TP53) and the PIK3CA and PTEN genes in individuals with OC (AGO-TR1 study, NCT02222883). Results were complemented by BRCA1, PALB2 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses and stratified by histological subtype; 473 individuals were included. RESULTS: The combined analyses revealed that deleterious germline variants in established OC predisposition genes (all: 125/473, 26.4%; BRCA1/2: 97/473, 20.5%), deleterious somatic variants in established OC predisposition genes excluding TP53 (all: 39/473, 8.2%; BRCA1/2: 30/473, 6.3%) and promoter methylation (all: 67/473, 14.2%; BRCA1: 57/473, 12.1%; RAD51C: 10/473, 2.1%; PALB2: 0/473) were mutually exclusive, with a few exceptions. The same holds true for deleterious somatic PIK3CA and/or PTEN variants (33/473, 7.0%) found to be enriched in endometrioid and clear cell OC (16/35, 45.7%); 84.3 % of the deleterious single-nucleotide/indel germline variants in established OC predisposition genes showed significantly higher variant fractions (VFs) in the tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA, indicating a loss of the wild-type alleles. CONCLUSION: Tumour sequencing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, PIK3CA and PTEN genes along with BRCA1 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses identified large subgroups of germline mutation-negative individuals who may be addressed in interventional studies using PARP or PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02222883.

14.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(2)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967445

RESUMO

Conceptually similar to modifications of DNA, mRNAs undergo chemical modifications, which can affect their activity, localization, and stability. The most prevalent internal modification in mRNA is the methylation of adenosine at the N6-position (m6A). This returns mRNA to a role as a central hub of information within the cell, serving as an information carrier, modifier, and attenuator for many biological processes. Still, the precise role of internal mRNA modifications such as m6A in human and murine-dilated cardiac tissue remains unknown. Transcriptome-wide mapping of m6A in mRNA allowed us to catalog m6A targets in human and murine hearts. Increased m6A methylation was found in human cardiomyopathy. Knockdown and overexpression of the m6A writer enzyme Mettl3 affected cell size and cellular remodeling both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that mRNA methylation is highly dynamic in cardiomyocytes undergoing stress and that changes in the mRNA methylome regulate translational efficiency by affecting transcript stability. Once elucidated, manipulations of methylation of specific m6A sites could be a powerful approach to prevent worsening of cardiac function.

15.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 65, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair (MMR)-deficiency increases the risk of colorectal tumorigenesis. To determine whether the tumors develop on a normal or disturbed epigenetic background and how radiation affects this, we quantified genome-wide histone H3 methylation profiles in macroscopic normal intestinal tissue of young radiated and untreated MMR-deficient VCMsh2LoxP/LoxP (Msh2-/-) mice months before tumor onset. RESULTS: Histone H3 methylation increases in Msh2-/- compared to control Msh2+/+ mice. Activating H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 histone marks frequently accumulate at genes that are H3K27me3 or H3K4me3 modified in Msh2+/+ mice, respectively. The genes recruiting H3K36me3 enrich in gene sets associated with DNA repair, RNA processing, and ribosome biogenesis that become transcriptionally upregulated in the developing tumors. A similar epigenetic effect is present in Msh2+/+ mice 4 weeks after a single-radiation hit, whereas radiation of Msh2-/- mice left their histone methylation profiles almost unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: MMR deficiency results in genome-wide changes in histone H3 methylation profiles preceding tumor development. Similar changes constitute a persistent epigenetic signature of radiation-induced DNA damage.

16.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1832-1841, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675029

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heritable factors play an important etiologic role in connective tissue disorders (CTD) with vascular involvement, and a genetic diagnosis is getting increasingly important for gene-tailored, personalized patient management. METHODS: We analyzed 32 disease-associated genes by using targeted next-generation sequencing and exome sequencing in a clinically relevant cohort of 199 individuals. We classified and refined sequence variants according to their likelihood for pathogenicity. RESULTS: We identified 1 pathogenic variant (PV; in FBN1 or SMAD3) in 15 patients (7.5%) and ≥1 likely pathogenic variant (LPV; in COL3A1, FBN1, FBN2, LOX, MYH11, SMAD3, TGFBR1, or TGFBR2) in 19 individuals (9.6%), together resulting in 17.1% diagnostic yield. Thirteen PV/LPV were novel. Of PV/LPV-negative patients 47 (23.6%) showed ≥1 variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Twenty-five patients had concomitant variants. In-depth evaluation of reported/calculated variant classes resulted in reclassification of 19.8% of variants. CONCLUSION: Variant classification and refinement are essential for shaping mutational spectra of disease genes, thereby improving clinical sensitivity. Obligate stringent multigene analysis is a powerful tool for identifying genetic causes of clinically related CTDs. Nonetheless, the relatively high rate of PV/LPV/VUS-negative patients underscores the existence of yet unknown disease loci and/or oligogenic/polygenic inheritance.

17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(3): e539, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous skin disease, associated with defects in the skin permeability barrier. Several but not all genes with underlying mutations have been identified, but a clear correlation between genetic causes and clinical picture has not been described to date. METHODS: Our study included 19 families from Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Pakistan. All patients were born to consanguineous parents and diagnosed with ARCI. Mutations were analyzed by homozygosity mapping and direct sequencing. RESULTS: We have detected mutations in all families in five different genes: TGM1, ABCA12, CYP4F22, NIPAL4, and ALOXE3. Five likely pathogenic variants were unknown so far, a splice site and a missense variant in TGM1, a splice site variant in NIPAL4, and missense variants in ABCA12 and CYP4F22. We attributed TGM1 and ABCA12 mutations to the most severe forms of lamellar and erythematous ichthyoses, respectively, regardless of treatment. Other mutations highlighted the presence of a phenotypic spectrum in ARCI. CONCLUSION: Our results contribute to expanding the mutational spectrum of ARCI and revealed new insights into genotype/phenotype correlations. The findings are instrumental for a faster and more precise diagnosis, a better understanding of the pathophysiology, and the definition of targets for more specific therapies for ARCI.


Assuntos
Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Genótipo , Humanos , Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/epidemiologia , Lipoxigenase/genética , Masculino , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Arábia Saudita , Transglutaminases/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Blood ; 133(9): 962-966, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567752

RESUMO

The new recently described provisional lymphoma category Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration comprises cases similar to Burkitt lymphoma (BL) on morphological, immunophenotypic and gene-expression levels but lacking the IG-MYC translocation. They are characterized by a peculiar imbalance pattern on chromosome 11, but the landscape of mutations is not yet described. Thus, we investigated 15 MYC-negative Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration (mnBLL,11q,) cases by copy-number analysis and whole-exome sequencing. We refined the regions of 11q imbalance and identified the INO80 complex-associated gene NFRKB as a positional candidate in 11q24.3. Next to recurrent gains in 12q13.11-q24.32 and 7q34-qter as well as losses in 13q32.3-q34, we identified 47 genes recurrently affected by protein-changing mutations (each ≥3 of 15 cases). Strikingly, we did not detect recurrent mutations in genes of the ID3-TCF3 axis or the SWI/SNF complex that are frequently altered in BL, or in genes frequently mutated in germinal center-derived B-cell lymphomas like KMT2D or CREBBP An exception is GNA13, which was mutated in 7 of 15 cases. We conclude that the genomic landscape of mnBLL,11q, differs from that of BL both at the chromosomal and mutational levels. Our findings implicate that mnBLL,11q, is a lymphoma category distinct from BL at the molecular level.

19.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(2): 198-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576872

RESUMO

Current molecular tumor diagnostics encompass panel sequencing to detect mutations, copy number alterations, and rearrangements. However, tumor suppressor genes can also be inactivated by methylation within their promoter region. These epigenetic alterations are so far rarely assessed in the clinical setting. Therefore, we established the AllCap protocol facilitating the combined detection of mutations and DNA methylation at the coding and promoter regions of 342 DNA repair genes in one experiment. We demonstrate the use of the protocol by applying it to ovarian cancer cell lines with different responsiveness to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition. BRCA1, ATM, ATR, and EP300 mutations and methylation of the BRCA1 promoter were detected as potential predictors for therapy response. The required amount of input DNA was optimized, and the application to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples was verified to improve the clinical applicability. Thus, by adding DNA methylation values to panel resequencings, the AllCap assay will add another important level of information to clinical tests and will improve stratification of patients for systemic therapies.

20.
Mol Ecol ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520198

RESUMO

Hybridization can induce transposons to jump into new genomic positions, which may result in their accumulation across the genome. Alternatively, transposon copy numbers may increase through non-allelic (ectopic) homologous recombination in highly repetitive regions of the genome. The relative contribution of transposition bursts versus recombination-based mechanisms to evolutionary processes remains unclear because studies on transposon dynamics in natural systems are rare. We assessed the genome-wide distribution of transposon insertions in a young hybrid lineage ("invasive Cottus", n=11) and its parental species Cottus rhenanus (n=17) and Cottus perifretum (n=9) using a reference genome assembled from long single molecule PacBio reads. An inventory of transposable elements was reconstructed from the same data and annotated. Transposon copy numbers in the hybrid lineage increased in 120 (15.9%) out of 757 transposons studied here. The copy number increased on average by 69% (range: 10 - 197%). Given the age of the hybrid lineage, this suggests that they have proliferated within a few hundred generations since admixture began. However, frequency spectra of transposon insertions revealed no increase of novel and rare insertions across assembled parts of the genome. This implies that transposons were added to repetitive regions of the genome that remain difficult to assemble. Future studies will need to evaluate whether recombination-based mechanisms rather than genome-wide transposition may explain the majority of the recent transposon proliferation in the hybrid lineage. Irrespectively of the underlying mechanism, the observed over-abundance in repetitive parts of the genome suggests that gene-rich regions are unlikely to be directly affected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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