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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is the lethal form of the disease. Several recent studies have identified genomic alterations in mCRPC, but the clinical implications of these genomic alterations have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to assess the association between key driver gene alterations and overall survival (OS), and to use whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing to identify genomic drivers of enzalutamide resistance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed survival analyses and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on WGS and RNA sequencing results for a cohort of 101 mCRPC patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: OS was the clinical endpoint for all univariate and multivariable survival analyses. Candidate drivers of enzalutamide resistance were identified in an unbiased manner, and mutations of the top candidate were further assessed for enrichment among enzalutamide-resistant patients using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Harboring two DNA alterations in RB1 was independently predictive of poor OS (median 14.1 vs 42.0mo; p=0.007) for men with mCRPC. GSEA identified the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway as the top differentially modulated pathway among enzalutamide-resistant patients. Furthermore, ß-catenin mutations were exclusive to enzalutamide-resistant patients (p=0.01) and independently predictive of poor OS (median 13.6 vs 41.7mo; p=0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of two RB1 DNA alterations identified in our WGS analysis was independently associated with poor OS among men with mCRPC. The Wnt/ß-catenin pathway plays an important role in enzalutamide resistance, with differential pathway expression and enrichment of ß-catenin mutations in enzalutamide-resistant patients. Moreover, ß-catenin mutations were predictive of poor OS in our cohort. PATIENT SUMMARY: We observed a correlation between genomic findings for biopsy samples from metastases from men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and clinical outcomes. This work sheds new light on clinically relevant genomic alterations in mCRPC and provides a roadmap for the development of new personalized treatment regimens in mCRPC.

3.
Oncogene ; 38(28): 5658-5669, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996246

RESUMO

BET bromodomain inhibitors block prostate cancer cell growth at least in part through c-Myc and androgen receptor (AR) suppression. However, little is known about other transcriptional regulators whose suppression contributes to BET bromodomain inhibitor anti-tumor activity. Moreover, the anti-tumor activity of BET bromodomain inhibition in AR-independent castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC), whose frequency is increasing, is also unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that BET bromodomain inhibition blocks growth of a diverse set of CRPC cell models, including those that are AR-independent or in which c-Myc is not suppressed. To identify transcriptional regulators whose suppression accounts for these effects, we treated multiple CRPC cell lines with the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 and then performed RNA-sequencing followed by Master Regulator computational analysis. This approach identified several previously unappreciated transcriptional regulators that are highly expressed in CRPC and whose suppression, via both transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms, contributes to the anti-tumor activity of BET bromodomain inhibitors.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3823, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846826

RESUMO

The BET bromodomain protein BRD4 is a chromatin reader that regulates transcription, including in cancer. In prostate cancer, specifically, the anti-tumor activity of BET bromodomain inhibition has been principally linked to suppression of androgen receptor (AR) function. MYC is a well-described BRD4 target gene in multiple cancer types, and prior work demonstrates that MYC plays an important role in promoting prostate cancer cell survival. Importantly, several BET bromodomain clinical trials are ongoing, including in prostate cancer. However, there is limited information about pharmacodynamic markers of response or mediators of de novo resistance. Using a panel of prostate cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that MYC suppression-rather than AR suppression-is a key determinant of BET bromodomain inhibitor sensitivity. Importantly, we determined that BRD4 was dispensable for MYC expression in the most resistant cell lines and that MYC RNAi + BET bromodomain inhibition led to additive anti-tumor activity in the most resistant cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that MYC suppression is an important pharmacodynamic marker of BET bromodomain inhibitor response and suggest that targeting MYC may be a promising therapeutic strategy to overcome de novo BET bromodomain inhibitor resistance in prostate cancer.

5.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(6): 1235-1240, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918106

RESUMO

Therapeutic resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) can be accompanied by treatment-emergent small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (t-SCNC), a morphologically distinct subtype. We performed integrative whole-genome and -transcriptome analysis of mCRPC tumor biopsies including paired biopsies after progression, and multiple samples from the same individual. t-SCNC was significantly less likely to have amplification of AR or an intergenic AR-enhancer locus, and demonstrated lower expression of AR and its downstream transcriptional targets. Genomic and transcriptional hallmarks of t-SCNC included biallelic loss of RB1, elevated expression levels of CDKN2A and E2F1, and loss of expression of the AR and AR-responsive genes including TMPRSS2 and NKX3-1. We identified three tumors that converted from adenocarcinoma to t-SCNC and demonstrate spatial and temporal intrapatient heterogeneity of metastatic tumors harboring adenocarcinoma, t-SCNC, or mixed expression phenotypes, with implications for treatment strategies in which dual targeting of adenocarcinoma and t-SCNC phenotypes may be necessary. IMPLICATIONS: The t-SCNC phenotype is characterized by lack of AR enhancer gain and loss of RB1 function, and demonstrates both interindividual and intraindividual heterogeneity.Visual Overview: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/17/6/1235/F1.large.jpg.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is incurable and progression after drugs that target the androgen receptor-signaling axis is inevitable. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments beyond hormonal manipulation. We sought to identify activated kinases in mCRPC as therapeutic targets for existing, approved agents, with the goal of identifying candidate drugs for rapid translation into proof of concept Phase II trials in mCRPC. METHODS: To identify evidence of activation of druggable kinases in these patients, we compared mRNA expression from metastatic biopsies of patients with mCRPC (n = 101) to mRNA expression in localized prostate from TCGA and used this analysis to infer differential kinase activity. In addition, we assessed the differential phosphorylation levels for key MAPK pathway kinases between mCRPC and localized prostate cancers. RESULTS: Transcriptomic profiling of 101 patients with mCRPC as compared to patients with localized prostate cancer identified evidence of hyperactive ERK1, and whole genome sequencing revealed frequent amplifications of members of the MAPK pathway in 32% of this cohort. Next, we confirmed elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in castration resistant prostate cancer as compared to untreated primary prostate cancer. We observed that the presence of detectable phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the primary tumor is associated with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy independent of clinicopathologic features. ERK1 is the immediate downstream target of MEK1/2, which is druggable with trametinib, an approved therapeutic for melanoma. Trametinib elicited a profound biochemical and clinical response in a patient who had failed multiple prior treatments for mCRPC. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that pharmacologic targeting of the MEK/ERK pathway may be a viable treatment strategy for patients with refractory metastatic prostate cancer. An ongoing Phase II trial tests this hypothesis.

8.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 358, 2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to establish the workflows required to implement a real-time process involving multi-omic analysis of patient samples to support precision-guided therapeutic intervention, a tissue acquisition and analysis trial was implemented. This report describes our findings to date, including the frequency with which mutational testing led to precision-guided therapy and outcome for those patients. METHODS: Eligible patients presenting to Oregon Health and Science University Knight Cancer Institute were enrolled on the study. Patients with biopsy proven metastatic or locally advanced unresectable prostate cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia receiving standard of care therapy were eligible. Metastatic site biopsies were collected and analyzed using the Knight Diagnostic Lab GeneTrails comprehensive solid tumor panel (124 genes). CLIA certified genomic information was made available to the treating physician. RESULTS: Between 1/26/2017 and 5/30/2018, 38 patients were enrolled, with 28 successfully undergoing biopsy. Of these, 25 samples yielded sufficient tumor for analysis. The median biopsy cellularity and number of cores collected were 70% (15-90%) and 5 (2-20), respectively. No procedure-related complications occurred. GeneTrails analysis revealed that 22 of 25 (88%) tumor samples harbored at least one potentially actionable mutation, and 18 (72%) samples harbored 2 or more potentially actionable mutations. The most common genetic alterations identified involved: DNA damage repair genes, cell cycle regulating genes, PIK3CA/Akt/mTOR pathway, and FGF gene family. To date, CLIA certified genomic results were used by treating physicians for precision-guided therapy in 5 (23%) patients. CONCLUSION: We report the feasibility of real-time tissue acquisition and analysis to support a successful translational oncology platform. The workflow will provide the foundation to improve access and accrual to biomarker driven precision oncology trials.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224345

RESUMO

Purpose: This study assesses the action of panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), in restoring sensitivity to bicalutamide in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) model and the efficacy and safety of the panobinostat/bicalutamide combination in CRPC patients resistant to second-line antiandrogen therapy (2ndLAARx).Patients and Methods: The CWR22PC xenograft and isogenic cell line were tested for drug interactions on tumor cell growth and on the androgen receptor (AR), AR-splice variant7, and AR targets. A phase I trial had a 3 × 3 panobinostat dose-escalation design. The phase II study randomized 55 patients to panobinostat 40 mg (A arm) or 20 mg (B arm) triweekly ×2 weeks with bicalutamide 50 mg/day in 3-week cycles. The primary endpoint was to determine the percentage of radiographic progression-free (rPF) patients at 36 weeks versus historic high-dose bicalutamide.Results: In the model, panobinostat/bicalutamide demonstrated synergistic antitumor effect while reducing AR activity. The dose-limiting toxicity was not reached. The probability of remaining rPF exceeded protocol-specified 35% in the A arm and 47.5% and 38.5% in the B arm. The probabilities of remaining rPF were 47.5% in the A arm and 38.5% in the B arm, exceeding the protocol-specified threshold of 35%. A arm/B arm: adverse events (AE), 62%/19%; treatment stopped for AEs, 27.5%/11.5%; dose reduction required, 41%/4%; principal A-arm grade ≥3 AEs, thrombocytopenia (31%) and fatigue (14%).Conclusions: The 40 mg panobinostat/bicalutamide regimen increased rPF survival in CRPC patients resistant to 2ndLAARx. Panobinostat toxicity was tolerable with dose reductions. Epigenetic HDACI therapy reduces AR-mediated resistance to bicalutamide in CRPC models with clinical benefit in patients. The combination merits validation using a second-generation antiandrogen. Clin Cancer Res; 1-12. ©2018 AACR.

11.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(8): 933-937, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099369

RESUMO

Background: PARP inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer whose tumors harbor homologous recombination DNA repair gene alterations. However, questions remain for many practicing clinicians about which patients are ideally suited for PARP inhibitor treatment. This report details our institutional experience using PARP inhibitor therapy in patients whose tumors harbored specific DNA repair gene alterations. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients at Oregon Health & Science University who were treated with PARP inhibition. We identified 8 patients and determined the impact of the specific DNA repair gene alterations on tumor response and time on treatment with PARP inhibition. Results: A number of DNA repair gene alterations were identified. Three patients had pathogenic BRCA2 mutations and one had a BRCA2 mutation of uncertain significance. Conversely, the 4 other patients' tumors harbored alterations in other DNA repair genes, none of which were clearly pathogenic. A statistically significant difference in benefit was seen between patients whose tumors harbored BRCA2 gene alterations and those whose tumors did not, as measured by >50% decline in prostate-specific antigen levels (100% vs 0%; P=.03) and duration on therapy (31.4 vs 6.4 weeks; P=.03). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that not all DNA repair alterations are equally predictive of PARP inhibitor response. Importantly, all responding patients had tumors harboring BRCA2 DNA repair alterations, including one without a known pathogenic mutation. Conversely, among the 4 nonresponders, several DNA repair alterations in genes other than BRCA2 were identified that were not clearly pathogenic. This demonstrates the need to carefully examine the functional relevance of the DNA repair alterations identified, especially in genes other than BRCA2, when considering patients for PARP inhibitor treatment.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(24): 2492-2503, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985747

RESUMO

Purpose The prevalence and features of treatment-emergent small-cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-SCNC) are not well characterized in the era of modern androgen receptor (AR)-targeting therapy. We sought to characterize the clinical and genomic features of t-SCNC in a multi-institutional prospective study. Methods Patients with progressive, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) underwent metastatic tumor biopsy and were followed for survival. Metastatic biopsy specimens underwent independent, blinded pathology review along with RNA/DNA sequencing. Results A total of 202 consecutive patients were enrolled. One hundred forty-eight (73%) had prior disease progression on abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. The biopsy evaluable rate was 79%. The overall incidence of t-SCNC detection was 17%. AR amplification and protein expression were present in 67% and 75%, respectively, of t-SCNC biopsy specimens. t-SCNC was detected at similar proportions in bone, node, and visceral organ biopsy specimens. Genomic alterations in the DNA repair pathway were nearly mutually exclusive with t-SCNC differentiation ( P = .035). Detection of t-SCNC was associated with shortened overall survival among patients with prior AR-targeting therapy for mCRPC (hazard ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.82). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the transcriptome identified a small-cell-like cluster that further enriched for adverse survival outcomes (hazard ratio, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.25 to 7.19). A t-SCNC transcriptional signature was developed and validated in multiple external data sets with > 90% accuracy. Multiple transcriptional regulators of t-SCNC were identified, including the pancreatic neuroendocrine marker PDX1. Conclusion t-SCNC is present in nearly one fifth of patients with mCRPC and is associated with shortened survival. The near-mutual exclusivity with DNA repair alterations suggests t-SCNC may be a distinct subset of mCRPC. Transcriptional profiling facilitates the identification of t-SCNC and novel therapeutic targets.

13.
Cell ; 174(3): 758-769.e9, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033370

RESUMO

While mutations affecting protein-coding regions have been examined across many cancers, structural variants at the genome-wide level are still poorly defined. Through integrative deep whole-genome and -transcriptome analysis of 101 castration-resistant prostate cancer metastases (109X tumor/38X normal coverage), we identified structural variants altering critical regulators of tumorigenesis and progression not detectable by exome approaches. Notably, we observed amplification of an intergenic enhancer region 624 kb upstream of the androgen receptor (AR) in 81% of patients, correlating with increased AR expression. Tandem duplication hotspots also occur near MYC, in lncRNAs associated with post-translational MYC regulation. Classes of structural variations were linked to distinct DNA repair deficiencies, suggesting their etiology, including associations of CDK12 mutation with tandem duplications, TP53 inactivation with inverted rearrangements and chromothripsis, and BRCA2 inactivation with deletions. Together, these observations provide a comprehensive view of how structural variations affect critical regulators in metastatic prostate cancer.

14.
Oncogene ; 37(38): 5221-5232, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849118

RESUMO

Expression of the transmembrane pseudokinase ROR1 is required for survival of t(1;19)-pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19) pre-B-ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and many solid tumors. However, targeting ROR1 with small-molecules has been challenging due to the absence of ROR1 kinase activity. To identify genes that regulate ROR1 expression and may, therefore, serve as surrogate drug targets, we employed an siRNA screening approach and determined that the epigenetic regulator and E3 ubiquitin ligase, UHRF1, is required for t(1;19) pre-B-ALL cell viability in a ROR1-dependent manner. Upon UHRF1 silencing, ROR1 protein is reduced without altering ROR1 mRNA, and ectopically expressed UHRF1 is sufficient to increase ROR1 levels. Additionally, proteasome inhibition rescues loss of ROR1 protein after UHRF1 silencing, suggesting a role for the proteasome in the UHRF1-ROR1 axis. Finally, we show that ROR1-positive cells are twice as sensitive to the UHRF1-targeting drug, naphthazarin, and undergo increased apoptosis compared to ROR1-negative cells. Naphthazarin elicits reduced expression of UHRF1 and ROR1, and combination of naphthazarin with inhibitors of pre-B cell receptor signaling results in further reduction of cell survival compared with either inhibitor alone. Therefore, our work reveals a mechanism by which UHRF1 stabilizes ROR1, suggesting a potential targeting strategy to inhibit ROR1 in t(1;19) pre-B-ALL and other malignancies.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(18): E4179-E4188, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581250

RESUMO

Medical castration that interferes with androgen receptor (AR) function is the principal treatment for advanced prostate cancer. However, clinical progression is universal, and tumors with AR-independent resistance mechanisms appear to be increasing in frequency. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new treatments targeting molecular pathways enriched in lethal prostate cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase and an important regulator of gene expression. Here, we show that LSD1 promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells, including those that are castration-resistant, independently of its demethylase function and of the AR. Importantly, this effect is explained in part by activation of a lethal prostate cancer gene network in collaboration with LSD1's binding protein, ZNF217. Finally, that a small-molecule LSD1 inhibitor-SP-2509-blocks important demethylase-independent functions and suppresses castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability demonstrates the potential of LSD1 inhibition in this disease.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(12)2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206995

RESUMO

Background: Real-time knowledge of the somatic genome can influence management of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). While routine metastatic tissue biopsy is challenging in mCRPC, plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as a minimally invasive tool to sample the tumor genome. However, no systematic comparisons of matched "liquid" and "solid" biopsies have been performed that would enable ctDNA profiling to replace the need for direct tissue sampling. Methods: We performed targeted sequencing across 72 clinically relevant genes in 45 plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples collected at time of metastatic tissue biopsy. We compared ctDNA alterations with exome sequencing data generated from matched tissue and quantified the concordance of mutations and copy number alterations using the Fisher exact test and Pearson correlations. Results: Seventy-five point six percent of cfDNA samples had a ctDNA proportion greater than 2% of total cfDNA. In these patients, all somatic mutations identified in matched metastatic tissue biopsies were concurrently present in ctDNA. Furthermore, the hierarchy of variant allele fractions for shared mutations was remarkably similar between ctDNA and tissue. Copy number profiles between matched liquid and solid biopsy were highly correlated, and individual copy number calls in clinically actionable genes were 88.9% concordant. Detected alterations included AR amplifications in 22 (64.7%) samples, SPOP mutations in three (8.8%) samples, and inactivating alterations in tumor suppressors TP53 , PTEN , RB1 , APC , CDKN1B , BRCA2 , and PIK3R1 . In several patients, ctDNA sequencing revealed robust changes not present in paired solid biopsy, including clinically relevant alterations in the AR, WNT, and PI3K pathways. Conclusions: Our study shows that, in the majority of patients, a ctDNA assay is sufficient to identify all driver DNA alterations present in matched metastatic tissue and supports development of DNA biomarkers to guide mCRPC patient management based on ctDNA alone.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
17.
Oncotarget ; 8(42): 71447-71455, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069718

RESUMO

Increased AR activity has been shown to be preserved in spatially distinct metastatic tumors from the same patient suggesting the requirement for lineage-specific dependencies for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Amplification of the AR gene is a common mechanism by which mCRPC increase AR activity. To determine whether AR amplification in circulating tumor cells (CTC) could complement metastatic tissue biopsies in men undergoing treatment for mCRPC, we developed a novel two-step assay to isolate CTCs and subsequently analyzed AR amplification status in CTCs and matched biopsy tissue from the same patient by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). AR gene status in CTCs showed strong concordance with AR gene status in matched tissue samples in 24 of 25 patients (Correlation: 96%; Kappa: 0.83; Sensitivity: 100%, Specificity: 83%). Our work demonstrates that AR amplification is conserved between CTCs and biopsies and that CTCs can serve as non-invasive surrogate to document AR amplification in mCRPC.

18.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 15(6): 733-741.e1, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28655452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate (AA) inhibits androgen biosynthesis and prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) when combined with prednisone (P). Resistance to therapy remains incompletely understood. In this open-label, single-arm, multicenter phase II study we investigated the clinical benefit of increasing the dose of AA at the time of resistance to standard-dose therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had progressive mCRPC and started AA 1000 mg daily and P 5 mg twice daily. Patients who achieved any prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline after 12 weeks of therapy continued AA with P until PSA or radiographic progression. At progression, AA was increased to 1000 mg twice daily with unchanged P dosing. Patients were monitored for response to therapy for a minimum of 12 weeks or until PSA or radiographic progression. The primary end point was PSA decline of at least 30% after 12 weeks of therapy at the increased dose of AA. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were enrolled from March 2013 through March 2014. Thirteen men experienced disease progression during standard-dose therapy and were subsequently treated with AA 1000 mg twice per day. Therapy was well tolerated. No PSA declines ≥ 30% nor radiographic responses were observed after 12 weeks of dose-escalated therapy. Higher baseline dehydroepiandrosterone levels, lower circulating tumor cell burden, and higher pharmacokinetic levels of abiraterone and abiraterone metabolites were associated with response to standard-dose therapy. CONCLUSION: Increasing the dose of abiraterone at the time of resistance has limited clinical utility and cannot be recommended. Lower baseline circulating androgen levels and interpatient pharmacokinetic variance appear to be associated with primary resistance to AA with P.


Assuntos
Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Androstenos/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 81: 228-236, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and androgen receptor pathway activation is common in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Buparlisib is an oral, pan-class I PI3 kinase inhibitor. METHODS: This was a multisite single arm phase II trial of buparlisib 100 mg ± enzalutamide daily in men with mCRPC whose disease progressed on or who were not candidates for docetaxel. The primary end-point was the rate of radiographic/clinical progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. RESULTS: Thirty men were accrued: 67% post-docetaxel; median prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 70 ng/dl, 83% had ≥4 prior therapies for mCRPC; 43% received concurrent enzalutamide. The final 6 month PFS rate was estimated to be 10% (95% confidence interval 2.5-23.6%). Median PFS was 1.9 months and was 3.5 months with concurrent enzalutamide. Median overall survival was 10.6 months. Concurrent enzalutamide led to a five-fold reduction in buparlisib concentrations. PSA declines were observed in 23%; no patients achieved a ≥50% decline, and no radiographic responses were observed. Severe adverse events occurred in four men including respiratory infection and multi-organ failure, urinary tract obstruction, confusion and one seizure in the setting of a new central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. Grade III adverse events were seen in 43% of patients; common toxicities included grade I-II weight loss, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, anorexia, rash, hyperglycemia and anxiety/mood disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Buparlisib did not demonstrate significant activity in men with mCRPC, suggesting that PI3K inhibition is not sufficient to reverse resistant mCRPC progression. Future studies of PI3K pathway inhibitors with concurrent enzalutamide should develop optimal dosing and focus on selected patients more likely to benefit.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 28(8): 1073-1081.e1, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the success rate of CT-guided bone biopsies in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and to investigate associated technical, imaging, and clinical parameters affecting diagnostic yields. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty CT-guided bone biopsy specimens were obtained from 72 men (median age, 68 y; range, 49-89 y) enrolled in a multicenter trial to identify mechanisms of resistance in mCRPC. Successful biopsy was determined by histologic confirmation of tumor cells and successful isolation of RNA for molecular analysis. RESULTS: The overall success rate of CT-guided bone biopsies was 69% (55/80) based on histology and 64% (35/55) based on isolation of molecular material for RNA sequencing. Biopsies performed in lesions with areas of radiolucency had significantly higher diagnostic yields compared with lesions of predominantly dense sclerosis (95% vs 33%; P = .002) and lesions of predominantly subtle sclerosis (95% vs 65%; P = .04). Success rates increased in lesions with density ≤ 475 HU (79% for ≤ 475 HU vs 33% for > 475 HU; P = .001) and in lesions with ill-defined margins (76% for ill-defined margins vs 36% for well-circumscribed margins; P = .005). Alkaline phosphatase was the only clinical parameter to correlate significantly with diagnostic yield (83% for > 110 U/L vs 50% for ≤ 110 U/L; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Image-guided bone tumor biopsies can be successfully used to acquire cellular and molecular material for analyses in patients with osteoblastic prostate cancer metastases. Diagnostic yields are significantly increased in lesions with areas of radiolucency, density ≤ 475 HU, ill-defined margins, and interval growth and in patients with alkaline phosphatase > 110 U/L.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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