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1.
Infectio ; 22(1): 46-54, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-892750

RESUMO

Abstract The search for strategies for the reduction of Surgical Site infection (SSI) is a priority, given the impact those infections have on the outcome of the patients. The preope rative patient skin antisepsis, has recently gained greater significance in the prevention of SSI, as one of the critical factors, which can be intervened and can reduce the risk of infection. In recent years, comprehensive investigations have been published, not only dedicated to the comparison of antiseptic solutions, application techniques, but also about the importance of preoperative washing, use of surgical tapes and dressings impregnated with antiseptics, and preoperative shaving. This review outlines the key findings related to the preoperative patient's skin antisepsis and offers a protocol with practical recommendations to be implemented in the institutions of our country. It provides evidence based recommendations about the use of antiseptic solutions (povidone iodine, chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine plus alcohol, etc.) with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each one.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pele , Bandagens , Antissepsia , Povidona-Iodo , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Clorexidina , Fita Cirúrgica , Anti-Infecciosos Locais
2.
Infectio ; 21(4): 255-266, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-892740

RESUMO

Abstract Congenital transmission of Chagas disease has not been extensively studied in Colombia, and there are no standardized processes in the health system regarding the specific diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this disease. To generate recommendations on congenital Chagas disease and Chagas in women of childbearing age in Colombia, a consensus of experts was developed. An extensive literature search through the Medline database was carried out using the MeSH terms: «Chagas disease/congenital¼, «prevention and control¼, «diagnosis¼, «therapeutics¼ and «pregnancy¼. Appropriate abstracts were selected and the full texts were analyzed. The relevant information was synthesized, classified, and organized into tables and figures and was presented to a panel of experts, which was composed of 30 professionals from various fields. Based on the Delphi methodology, three rounds of consultation were conducted. The first and second rounds were based on electronic questionnaires that measured the level of consensus of each question among the participants. The third round was based on a face-to-face discussion focusing on those questions without consensus in the previous consultations. The evidence was adapted to national circumstances on a case-by-case basis, and the content the final document was approved. These recommendations are proposed for use in routine medical practice by health professionals in Colombia.


Resumen La transmisión congénita de la enfermedad de Chagas ha sido poco estudiada en Colombia y existen pocos procedimientos rutinarios en el sistema de salud para el manejo de esta enfermedad. Por ello se desarrolló un consenso de expertos dirigido a generar recomendaciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento de Chagas con- génito y orientación a mujeres en edad fértil. Con ese propósito se realizó una búsqueda extensiva de la literatura, empleando una combinación de términos Mes (Chagas, Chagas congénito, prevención, control, diagnóstico, tratamiento y embarazo) para reflejar el estado del arte en cada tema de interés. Después de ello, se leyeron los resúmenes y aquellos seleccionados para análisis del texto completo. La literatura relevante se sintetizo, clasifico y organizo en tablas y se presentó al panel de expertos, el cual estaba constituido por 30 profesionales en diferentes áreas. Mediante la metodología Delphi se realizaron 2 rondas de cuestionarios virtuales y una reunión presencial en los cuales se evaluaron los niveles de acuerdo entre los participantes. Los puntos con falta de consenso durante las 2 rondas virtuales se expusieron durante las mesas de discusión en la ronda presencial. La evidencia utilizada se adaptó a las particularidades nacionales según el caso y se aprobó el contenido del documento final. Se propone que estas recomendaciones sean usadas por profesionales de la salud en Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença de Chagas/congênito , Consenso , Orientação/fisiologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Colômbia
3.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 64 Suppl 2: s5-s65, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28863425

RESUMO

Immunoglobulins are heterodimeric proteins composed of 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a plasma derivative and contains more than 95% of IgG. The composition of IgG subclasses is similar to that of normal human plasma. Immunoglobulin therapy was first introduced more than 50 years ago, and its use has been described in numerous diseases. In Colombia, the importance of this immunomodulatory resource prompted the need for clinical practice guidelines to be available for its use. For this reason, a multidisciplinary group of experts was brought together and distributed in working groups, by specialties, in order to develop an initial manuscript. Systematic literature searches were undertaken; identified evidences were evaluated and classified to support a preliminary draft that was discussed, analyzed and amended. Recommendations were issued on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in pathologies that include primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseas es, neurological disorders, infections, transplants and miscellaneous conditions; grades were assigned to each one of them according to the GRADE system. The final result translated into recommendations that are put forth with the purpose to inform, guide and support on optimal use of this immunomodulatory resource.


Las inmunoglobulinas son proteínas heterodiméricas compuestas de 2 cadenas pesadas y 2 cadenas ligeras. La inmunoglobulina G humana es un derivado del plasma y contiene más de 95 % de IgG. La composición de las subclases de IgG es similar a la del plasma humano normal. El tratamiento con inmunoglobulina comenzó hace más de 50 años y su uso se ha descrito en numerosas enfermedades. En Colombia, la importancia de este recurso inmunomodulador condujo a la necesidad de contar con una guía de práctica clínica para su uso, para lo cual se reunió un grupo multidisciplinario de expertos, quienes se distribuyeron en mesas de trabajo, por especialidad, para redactar un texto base. Se llevaron a cabo búsquedas bibliográficas sistemáticas; las evidencias identificadas se valoraron y clasificaron para sustentar un texto preliminar que fue discutido, analizado y corregido. Se emitieron recomendaciones de uso de la inmunoglobulina intravenosa en patologías que abarcan inmunodeficiencias primarias y secundarias, enfermedades autoinmunes, alteraciones neurológicas, infecciones, trasplantes y enfermedades misceláneas; se asignaron calificaciones según el sistema GRADE para cada una. El resultado final se tradujo en las recomendaciones que se presentan con la finalidad de informar, orientar y apoyar en el uso óptimo de dicho recurso inmunomodulador.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Imunomodulação , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Colômbia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
4.
Infectio ; 21(3): 182-191, jul.-set. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-892728

RESUMO

Resumen La búsqueda de estrategias para la disminución de la infección de sitio operatorio (ISO) es una prioridad, dado el impacto que ésta tiene en los resultados de la atención de los pacientes. Recientemente ha tomado gran relevancia en la prevención de la ISO, la preparación prequirúrgica de la piel del paciente como uno de los factores clave, en los que se puede intervenir y disminuir el riesgo. En los últimos años han aparecido revisiones exhaustivas dedicadas no solo a la comparación de las soluciones antisépticas, y técnica de aplicación, también acerca de la importancia del baño pre operatorio, uso de cintas y compresas quirúrgicas impregnadas con antisépticos y el recorte de cabello preoperatorio. En esta publicación se describen los hallazgos más importantes relacionados con la preparación antiséptica de la piel del paciente y se propone un protocolo con recomendaciones prácticas para ser implementado en las instituciones del país. Se incluyen recomendaciones basadas en niveles de evidencia sobre el uso de las soluciones antisépticas (yodopovidona, clorhexidina, clorhexidina mas alcohol, entre otras) con énfasis en las ventajas y desventajas de cada una de ellas.


Abstract The search for strategies for reduction of Surgical Site infection (SSI) is a priority, given the impact that infections have on the outcome of the patients. The preoperative patient skin antisepsis, has recently gained greater significance in the prevention of SSI, as one of the critical factors, which can be intervened and can reduce the risk of infection. In recent years, comprehensive investigations have been published not only dedicated to the comparison of antiseptic solutions, application techniques, but also about the importance of preoperative bathing, use of surgical tapes and dressings impregnated with antiseptics, and preoperative shaving. This review outlines the key findings related to the preoperative patient's skin antisepsis and offers a protocol with practical recommendations to be implemented in the institutions of our country. It provides evidence based recommendations about the use of antiseptic solutions (povidone iodine, chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine plus alcohol, etc.) with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each one.


Assuntos
Humanos , Medidas de Segurança , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Desinfecção , Salas Cirúrgicas , Desinfecção/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais
5.
Biomedica ; 36(4): 612-619, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent pathogen at critical care services. Its presence leads to increased hospital stays and mortality risk in patients with bacteremia. However, the etiology of this resistance marker has not been fully studied. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in critically ill patients treated at intensive care units in Bogotá, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective paired case-control study, nested in a cohort of patients diagnosed with S. aureus bacteremia and treated at intensive care units between 2006 and 2008 in Bogotá. Cases were patients with positive blood culture to methicillin resistance, matched in a 1:1 ratio with methicillin-sensitive controls isolated from the same institution and hospitalization year. We used conditional logistic regression to analyze the risk factors associated with the presence of resistance, with emphasis on prior antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: We included 372 patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Factors such as the use of pre-hospital devices: vascular (OR=1.986, 95% CI 1.038 to 3.801) and urinary (OR=2.559, 95% CI: 1.170 to 5.596), along with the number of previously used antibiotics, were associated with the emergence of resistance. The number of antibiotics used previously was determined to have a gradient effect, particularly carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: The rational use of antibiotics and surveillance of exposure to surgical procedures or use of invasive devices are interventions that could diminish the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia causes.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Infectio ; 20(4): 250-264, jul.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-953970

RESUMO

Resumen: El citomegalovirus es una de las principales causas de infección y enfermedad en receptores de trasplante renal, con un notorio impacto en términos de morbilidad, mortalidad y costos. Sin embargo, no existe en Colombia una práctica clínica estandarizada entre los centros de trasplante, por lo cual, es de suma importancia disponer de guías con el fin de orientar la estratificación, el diagnóstico de laboratorio, el tratamiento y la prevención de la infección y enfermedad por citomegalovirus en pacientes adultos con trasplante renal. A través de la metodología ADAPTE para la evaluación de calidad y transculturización de guías de práctica clínica a nuestro medio, un grupo multidisciplinario realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura: se seleccionaron las guías internacionales, las cuales fueron evaluadas con el instrumento AGREE II en términos de calidad. Con la guía base seleccionada se buscó la evidencia existente para contestar a las preguntas, de acuerdo con el método de desarrollo de recomendaciones GRADE. Se realizaron recomendaciones para la estratificación, el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y la prevención de la infección y enfermedad por citomegalovirus en pacientes adultos con trasplante renal en Colombia.


Abstract: Cytomegalovirus is a primary cause of infection and illness in patients who have had renal transplantation, with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and economic costs. However, there is no standardized clinical practice in transplant centers in Colombia, and it is important to have guidelines to stratify, diagnose, treat and prevent cytomegalovirus infection and disease. Through ADAPTE's methodology for the quality evaluation and adaptation of clinical practice guidelines in our setting, a multidisciplinary group carried out a systematic review of the medical literature, selecting international guidelines that were evaluated with the AGREE-II instrument in terms of quality. With each selected guideline, an evidence table was constructed and the GRADE strategy was performed to develop recommendations. Recommendations related to stratification, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infections and disease caused by cytomegalovirus in adult transplant patients were developed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Transplante de Rim , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , Consenso , Infecções , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Transplantes , Diagnóstico
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 612-618, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-950927

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent pathogen at critical care services. Its presence leads to increased hospital stays and mortality risk in patients with bacteremia. However, the etiology of this resistance marker has not been fully studied. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in critically ill patients treated at intensive care units in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective paired case-control study, nested in a cohort of patients diagnosed with S. aureus bacteremia and treated at intensive care units between 2006 and 2008 in Bogotá. Cases were patients with positive blood culture to methicillin resistance, matched in a 1:1 ratio with methicillin-sensitive controls isolated from the same institution and hospitalization year. We used conditional logistic regression to analyze the risk factors associated with the presence of resistance, with emphasis on prior antibiotic therapy. Results: We included 372 patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Factors such as the use of pre-hospital devices: vascular (OR=1.986, 95% CI 1.038 to 3.801) and urinary (OR=2.559, 95% CI: 1.170 to 5.596), along with the number of previously used antibiotics, were associated with the emergence of resistance. The number of antibiotics used previously was determined to have a gradient effect, particularly carbapenems. Conclusions: The rational use of antibiotics and surveillance of exposure to surgical procedures or use of invasive devices are interventions that could diminish the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia causes.


Resumen Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina es uno de los agentes patógenos más frecuentes en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Su presencia prolonga las hospitalizaciones y aumenta el riesgo de mortalidad en los pacientes con bacteriemia. Sin embargo, la etiología de este marcador de resistencia no ha sido completamente estudiada. Objetivo. Determinar los factores asociados con la aparición de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina causante de bacteriemia en pacientes atendidos en unidades de cuidados intensivos en Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles emparejados, anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de bacteriemia por S. aureus atendidos en unidades de cuidados intensivos de Bogotá entre 2006 y 2008. Los casos fueron pacientes con hemocultivo positivo para resistencia a la meticilina, emparejados 1 a 1 con controles con hemocultivos sensibles a la meticilina de la misma institución y año de hospitalización. Se analizaron mediante regresión logística condicional los factores de riesgo asociados con la presencia de resistencia, con énfasis en el tratamiento previo con antibióticos. Resultados. Se incluyeron 372 pacientes con bacteriemia por S. aureus. Factores como el uso de dispositivos previos a la hospitalización: vasculares (Odds ratio, OR=1,986; IC95% 1,038-3,801) y urinarios (OR=2,559; IC95% 1,170-5,596), así como el número de antibióticos administrado previamente, se asociaron con la aparición de resistencia. Se registró un efecto de gradiente con el número de antibióticos usados previamente, especialmente carbapenémicos. Conclusiones. El uso racional de antibióticos y la vigilancia de la exposición a procedimientos quirúrgicos o al uso de dispositivos invasivos, son intervenciones que podrían disminuir la aparición de S. aureus resistente a meticilina causante de bacteriemia.

8.
Biomedica ; 36(2): 265-75, 2016 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regular long-term clinical follow-up is an important component of HIV care.  OBJECTIVE: To describe the reasons for follow-up loss among patients enrolled in the HIV/AIDS program of a university hospital.  MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was carried out on a retrospective cohort between January 1st, 2012 and July 31st, 2013.  RESULTS: A group of 45 patients was selected; the incidence density rate of patients lost to follow-up was 17.7 per 100 patient/years. The following variables were significantly linked to follow-up loss in the bivariate analysis: Unemployment (p=0.000); alcohol consumption (p=0.004); number of years of evolution of the disease (p=0.032); gender (p=0.027), and mean age of 34 years (p=0.000). When logistic regression was adjusted for the probability of follow-up loss the significant variables were: Mean age of 34 years (p=0.019, 95% CI: 0.871-0.976); female (p=0.017, 95% CI: 1.903-31.83); alcohol consumption (p=0.028, 95% CI: 0.040-0.830), and unemployment (p=0.001, 95% CI: 4.696-464.692).  CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS programs need to establish follow-up systems and means to trace any losses in order to establish strategies to improve patient retention and, thus, their long-term quality of life.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colômbia , Seguimentos , Hospitais , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(2): 265-275, jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-791116

RESUMO

Introducción. El seguimiento clínico regular a largo plazo, es un componente importante en la atención de los pacientes con HIV. Objetivo. Describir las razones de la pérdida de seguimiento de los pacientes inscritos en el programa de HIV/sida de un hospital universitario. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte retrospectiva, entre el 1º de enero de 2012 y el 31 de julio de 2013. Resultados. Se seleccionaron 45 pacientes; la tasa de densidad de incidencia de los pacientes que se perdieron en el seguimiento fue de 17,7 por 100 pacientes por año. En el análisis bivariado, el desempleo (p = 0,000), el consumo de alcohol (p = 0,004), el tiempo de la evolución de la enfermedad en años (p=0,032), el sexo (p = 0,027), y la edad promedio de 34 años (p = 0,000) fueron estadísticamente significativos en relación con la pérdida de seguimiento. Al hacer el ajuste por regresión logística para la probabilidad de pérdida de seguimiento, se evidenció que las variables de edad promedio de 34 años (p=0,019; IC 95% 0,871-0,976), sexo femenino (p=0,017; IC 95% 1,903-31,83), consumo de alcohol (p=0,028; IC 95% 0,040-0,830) y desempleo (p=0,001; IC 95% 4,696-464,692) tuvieron significación estadística . Conclusiones. Es necesario que los programas de HIV/sida establezcan sistemas de seguimiento y rastreo, con el fin de establecer estrategias para mejorar la retención de los pacientes y, por ende, su calidad de vida a largo plazo.


Introduction: Regular long-term clinical follow-up is an important component of HIV care. Objective: To describe the reasons for follow-up loss among patients enrolled in the HIV/AIDS program of a university hospital. Materials and methods: A nested case-control study was carried out on a retrospective cohort between January 1 st , 2012 and July 31 st , 2013. Results: A group of 45 patients was selected; the incidence density rate of patients lost to follow-up was 17.7 per 100 patient/years. The following variables were significantly linked to follow-up loss in the bivariate analysis: Unemployment (p=0.000); alcohol consumption (p=0.004); number of years of evolution of the disease (p=0.032); gender (p=0.027), and mean age of 34 years (p=0.000). When logistic regression was adjusted for the probability of follow-up loss the significant variables were: Mean age of 34 years (p=0.019, 95% CI: 0.871-0.976); female (p=0.017, 95% CI: 1.903-31.83); alcohol consumption (p=0.028, 95% CI: 0.040-0.830), and unemployment (p=0.001, 95% CI: 4.696-464.692). Conclusions: HIV/AIDS programs need to establish follow-up systems and means to trace any losses in order to establish strategies to improve patient retention and, thus, their long-term quality of life.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Incidência , Perda de Seguimento , Fatores de Risco
10.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 63(4): 565-581, oct.-dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-767565

RESUMO

Mediante un proceso de adaptación de guías de práctica clínica se seleccionaron y evaluaron guías de infección de vías urinarias en mujeres premenopáusicas no embarazadas; se identificaron 3 de alta calidad. Con base en las evidencias y las recomendaciones aportadas por estas guías, se realizó un consenso para realizar recomendaciones para personal de salud -médicos, personal de laboratorio y enfermeros- sobre el diagnóstico de las infecciones urinarias -cistitis y pielonefritis-, sus tratamientos y prevención de la recurrencia.


Using a process of adaptation, guidelines for the diagnosis, treament and prevention of urinary tract infection in premenopausal non-pregnant women were chosen and assessed. Three high quality guidelines were identified. Based on the evidence that supported these guidelines and their recommendations, a consensus was made to do recommendations for healthcare workers (physicians, laboratory personnel and nurses) on the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (cystitis and pyelonephritis), their treatment and the prevention of recurrence.

11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 93(6): 1224-1230, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26392162

RESUMO

Nifurtimox (NFX) is one of the approved drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Safety profile studies and models on risk factors for treatment interruption in adults are scarce in Latin America. This study evaluated retrospectively the medical records of adult Chagas disease patients treated with NFX between 2007 and 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. An accelerated failure time model was used, and associations were expressed as time ratio (TR). In total, 76 adult patients with NFX were included: 60 (79.0%) completed 60 days of treatment, 61 (80.3%) presented adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and 16 (21.0%) required treatment interruption. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (23.7%), nauseas (18.4%), sleep disturbances (18.4%), loss of appetite (17.1%), and temporary loss of memory (15.2%). ADRs were classified as mild (64.5%), moderate (30.4%), and severe (5.1%). Time of treatment was significantly longer when presenting ≤ 3 ADRs (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04-3.03), presence of non-severe ADRs (TR: 6.52; 95% CI: 3.24-13.1), doses of NFX ≤ 8 mg/kg/day (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.90-3.49), and age < 48 years (TR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.90-2.74). Treatment with NFX in adults caused a high frequency of ADRs, but most of the cases were mild and did not require treatment interruption. Severity and number of ADRs were the main predictors for treatment interruption.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Nifurtimox/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Antiprotozoários/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Colômbia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nifurtimox/administração & dosagem , Nifurtimox/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Biomedica ; 34 Suppl 1: 58-66, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24968037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Among hospital-acquired infections, bacteremia is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, especially among intensive care unit patients, where it is more frequent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most aggressive agents causing bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between initial antimicrobial therapy and hospital mortality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter and retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2008. Antimicrobial therapy was considered adequate if it included at least one intravenous antibiotic to which the P. aeruginosa isolate was susceptible in vitro, was administered at the recommended dose and frequency for bacteremia, and initiated within the first 48 hours from diagnosis. The main outcome was 30-day hospital mortality. Patients were paired according to exposure level using propensity score matching, and then a parametric survival model was fitted. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty four patients were included. Median age and the APACHE II score were 56 and 13, respectively. The source of bacteremia was identified in 68.3 % of cases, the respiratory tract being the most frequent. Forty-four percent of patients received inadequate therapy, with bacterial resistance as the main associated variable. The incidence of severe sepsis, septic shock, multiple organ failure and death within the first 30 days was 67.7, 50, 41.5 and 43.9%, respectively. Adequate therapy was associated with a longer time to the event (adjusted time ratio, 2.95, 95% CI, 1.63 to 5.33). CONCLUSION: Adequate initial antimicrobial therapy is a protective factor against hospital mortality in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , APACHE , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Falha de Tratamento
13.
Infectio ; 18(2): 50-65, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-715233

RESUMO

La transmisión congénita de la enfermedad de Chagas ha sido poco estudiada en Colombia y existen pocos procedimientos rutinarios en el sistema de salud para el manejo de esta enfermedad. Por ello se desarrolló un consenso de expertos dirigido a generar recomendaciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento de Chagas congénito y orientación a mujeres en edad fértil. Con ese propósito se realizó una búsqueda extensiva de la literatura, empleando una combinación de términos MeSH (Chagas, Chagas congénito, prevención, control, diagnóstico, tratamiento y embarazo) para reflejar el estado del arte en cada tema de interés. Después de ello, se leyeron los resúmenes y aquellos seleccionados para análisis del texto completo. La literatura relevante se sintetizó, clasificó y organizó en tablas y se presentó al panel de expertos, el cual estaba constituido por 30 profesionales en diferentes áreas. Mediante la metodología Delphi se realizaron 2 rondas de cuestionarios virtuales y una reunión presencial en los cuales se evaluaron los niveles de acuerdo entre los participantes. Los puntos con falta de consenso durante las 2 rondas virtuales se expusieron durante las mesas de discusión en la ronda presencial. La evidencia utilizada se adaptó a las particularidades nacionales según el caso y se aprobó el contenido del documento final. Se propone que estas recomendaciones sean usadas por profesionales de la salud en Colombia.


Congenital transmission of Chagas disease has not been extensively studied in Colombia, and there are no standardized processes in the health system regarding the specific diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this disease. In order to generate recommendations on congenital Chagas disease and Chagas in women of childbearing age in Colombia, a consensus of experts was developed. An extensive literature search through the Medline database was carried out using the MeSH terms: " Chagas disease/congenital " , " prevention and control " , " diagnosis " , " therapeutics " and " pregnancy " . Appropriate abstracts were selected and the full texts were analyzed. The relevant information was synthesized, classified, and organized into tables and figures and was presented to a panel of experts, which was composed of 30 professionals from various fields. Based on the Delphi methodology, three rounds of consultation were conducted. The first and second rounds were based on electronic questionnaires that measured the level of consensus of each question among the participants. The third round was based on a face-toface discussion focusing on those questions without consensus in the previous consultations. The evidence was adapted to national circumstances on a case-by-case basis, and the content the final document was approved. These recommendations are proposed for use in routine medical practice by health professionals in Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Adulto , Doença de Chagas , Terapêutica , Trypanosoma cruzi , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Colômbia , Diagnóstico
14.
Acta méd. colomb ; 39(2): 211-215, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-720236

RESUMO

El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto en pacientes con malaria está asociado a infección por Plasmodium falciparum, ocasionalmente manifestado en pacientes infectados por Plasmodium vivax, por lo que han sido pocos los casos reportados en la literatura (1). Reportamos el caso de un paciente de 43 años quien estuvo en área endémica y desarrolló síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto (SDRA) por Plasmodium vivax. El diagnóstico fue realizado por métodos microscópicos. Concluimos que el SDRA asociado a Plasmodium vivax puededesarrollarse antes de iniciar terapia antimalárica, condición con una alta morbimortalidad. (Acta Med Colomb 2014; 39: 211-215).


The adult acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with malaria is associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, and only occasionally manifested in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax, so few cases have been reported in the literature. 1 The case of a 43 year old patient who was in an endemic area and developed acute adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by Plasmodium vivax is reported. The diagnosis was made by microscopic methods. It was concluded that ARDS associated with Plasmodium vivax can develop before starting antimalarial therapy, a condition with high morbidity and mortality. (Acta Med Colomb 2014; 39: 211-215).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Plasmodium vivax , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Respiração Artificial , Parasitemia , Malária
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 58-66, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-712422

RESUMO

Introducción. La bacteriemia es una de las infecciones hospitalarias de mayor mortalidad, especialmente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, donde es más frecuente. Pseudomonas aeruginosa es uno de los causantes de bacteriemia más agresivos. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación entre el tratamiento antibiótico inicial y la mortalidad hospitalaria en estos pacientes. Materiales y métodos. Se trata de un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo multicéntrico realizado entre 2005 y 2008. Se consideró tratamiento adecuado aquel iniciado en las primeras 48 horas del diagnóstico que incluyera, al menos, una dosis de antibiótico intravenoso al que P. aeruginosa fuera sensible y hubiera sido suministrado en la dosis y frecuencia recomendadas. El desenlace principal fue la mortalidad hospitalaria en un lapso de 30 días. Se hizo pareo según grado de exposición usando índices de propensión y, posteriormente, análisis paramétrico de supervivencia. Resultados. Se incluyeron 164 pacientes. La mediana de edad y la clasificación del APACHE II ( Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ) fue de 56 y 13, respectivamente. Se identificó la fuente de la bacteriemia en 68,3 % de los casos, y la más frecuente fue el tracto respiratorio; 44 % de los pacientes recibió tratamiento inadecuado, y la resistencia bacteriana fue la principal variable asociada. La proporción de incidencia de sepsis grave, choque séptico, falla orgánica múltiple y muerte en el lapso de 30 días fue de 67,7, 50, 41,5 y 43,9 %, respectivamente. El tratamiento adecuado se asoció a una prolongación del tiempo hasta el evento (razón de tiempo ajustada, 2,95, IC 95%, 1,63 a 5,33). Conclusión. El tratamiento antibiótico inicial adecuado es un factor protector contra la mortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes con bacteriemia por P. aeruginosa .


Introduction: Among hospital-acquired infections, bacteremia is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, especially among intensive care unit patients, where it is more frequent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most aggressive agents causing bacteremia. Objective: To evaluate the association between initial antimicrobial therapy and hospital mortality in these patients. Materials and methods: A multicenter and retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2008. Antimicrobial therapy was considered adequate if it included at least one intravenous antibiotic to which the P. aeruginosa isolate was susceptible in vitro, was administered at the recommended dose and frequency for bacteremia, and initiated within the first 48 hours from diagnosis. The main outcome was 30-day hospital mortality. Patients were paired according to exposure level using propensity score matching, and then a parametric survival model was fitted. Results: One hundred and sixty four patients were included. Median age and the APACHE II score were 56 and 13, respectively. The source of bacteremia was identified in 68.3 % of cases, the respiratory tract being the most frequent. Forty-four percent of patients received inadequate therapy, with bacterial resistance as the main associated variable. The incidence of severe sepsis, septic shock, multiple organ failure and death within the first 30 days was 67.7, 50, 41.5 and 43.9%, respectively. Adequate therapy was associated with a longer time to the event (adjusted time ratio, 2.95, 95% CI, 1.63 to 5.33). Conclusion: Adequate initial antimicrobial therapy is a protective factor against hospital mortality in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , APACHE , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Falha de Tratamento , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 17(9): e744-9, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23623704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecular epidemiology and presence of virulence genes in community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and their relationship to clinical outcomes. METHODS: An observational and prospective study of infections caused by MRSA was conducted between June 2006 and December 2007 across seven hospitals in three Colombian cities. MRSA isolates were analyzed for SCCmec. Also, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were performed and 25 virulence genes were identified. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy isolates were collected from 262 adult hospital patients with MRSA infections. Overall, 68% of the isolates were classified as HA-MRSA and 32% as CA-MRSA. We identified differences in the patterns of virulence genes: 85% of HA-MRSA isolates possessed the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc), whereas 92% of CA-MRSA isolates possessed the lukF-PV/lukS-PV genes. Multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of mortality for seg (p=0.001, odds ratio 4.73) and a protective effect for eta (p=0.018, odds ratio 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that three clones of MRSA predominantly circulate in Colombia: a Chilean clone, a pediatric clone that causes HA-MRSA infections, and a USA300-related clone (SCCmec IVc) in CA-MRSA infections, which differ in the content of clinically important virulence genes. This study confirms that PVL is not a determinant of severity or mortality in CA-MRSA infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
17.
Infectio ; 16(1): 3-5, ene.-mar. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-649986

RESUMO

Recientemente se oficializó el nuevo plan de beneficios (Plan Obligatorio de Salud, POS), el cual se encuentra vigente desde el 1° de enero de 2012 (1). En este plan se incluyeron nuevos medicamentos antimicrobianos, a saber: amoxicilina- ácido clavulánico, artemeter más lumenfantrina, artesunato, azitromicina, caspofungina, cefepima, cefuroxima, claritromicina, rifabutina, la combinación de isoniazida y rifampicina, pirazinaida con etambutol o sin él, tenofovir-emtricitabina y valaciclovir. Asimismo, se incluyeron nuevas presentaciones de atazanavir, primaquina y de la asociación rifampicina más isoniacida.


The new benefit plan (Plan Obligatorio de Salud, POS) was recently made official and has been in effect since 1 January 2012 (1). New antimicrobial medicines were included in this plan: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, artemether plus lumenfantrin, artesunate, azithromycin, caspofungin, cefepime, cefuroxime, clarithromycin, rifabutin, the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin, pyrazinamide with or without ethambutol, tenofovir-emtricitabine and valacyclovir. New presentations of atazanavir, primaquine and the combination of rifampicin plus isoniazid were also included.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Pessoal de Saúde , Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis
18.
Infectio ; 15(1): 25-32, mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-635673

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus es una de los principales causas de infección de pacientes en estado crítico. La información de vigilancia muestra 32,9 % de resistencia a la meticilina y una frecuencia de aislamiento como causante de infección de 12,15 % en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, especialmente infecciones del torrente sanguíneo. No se encontraron artículos de síntesis de de los datos sobre el impacto de la resistencia de esta bacteria en la mortalidad de los pacientes gravemente comprometidos. Esta revisión de la literatura resume los estudios de pronóstico sobre la infección del torrente sanguíneo por S. aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) en pacientes de la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Se incluyeron los artículos que evaluaron la mortalidad por bacteriemias primarias o secundarias, comparándola con controles sensibles a la meticilina o infectados por otra bacteria. No se incluyeron estudios con bacteriemias polimicrobianas. De 387 referencias, seis estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Los datos disponibles no permiten generar una conclusión sobre la mortalidad relacionada con SARM en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los análisis bivariados muestran un incremento de la mortalidad, el cual tiende a desaparecer cuando se controla por otras variables, como el tratamiento inicial apropiado y la gravedad del cuadro clínico. La participación de este microorganismo en la mortalidad de pacientes de la unidad de cuidados intensivos y sus determinantes, permanecen aún sin explicar.


Staphylococcus aureus is an important infectious pathogen in critically ill patients. Local surveillance shows its isolation as infectious causative pathogen at intensive care units in 12.15% of cases and a methicillin resistance rate of 32.9%, specially related with bloodstream infections. This review summarizes available prognosis studies related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections at intensive care unit (ICU). References with primary or secondary bacteremia patients compared with susceptible pathogen controls or different pathogen were included. Polymicrobial bacteremias were not included. 387 references were retrieved, only six studies met the inclusion criteria. The available evidence does not support a definitive conclusion about MRSA-related mortality in ICU. Increased mortality registered in bivariate analysis disappears when other covariates as appropriate initial therapy and baseline severity are adjusted. The involvement of this marker in ICU patient´s mortality and their prognosis determinants still remain unexplained.


Assuntos
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Bactérias , Resistência a Meticilina , Estado Terminal , Bacteriemia , Vigilância , Infecções , Meticilina
19.
Infectio ; 15(1): 49-63, mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-635676

RESUMO

Un número creciente de pacientes críticamente enfermos son atendidos por sepsis secundaria a infecciones bacterianas o micóticas. En este grupo de pacientes la sepsis per se es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de falla renal, la cual implica un mayor riesgo de mortalidad. Un panel de expertos en las áreas de infectología, cuidado crítico y nefrología prepararon un consenso basado en la información actual (“evidencia”) sobre el uso de antimicrobianos (antibióticos y antifúngicos) en pacientes críticamente enfermos con falla renal o en riesgo de padecerla. Se identificó la literatura científica relevante mediante un proceso de búsqueda sistemática y se generaron recomendaciones por medio del método presencial Delphi. Se propone que las recomendaciones de este consenso sean utilizadas por los trabajadores de la salud que manejen este grupo de pacientes,con el fin de identificar aquellos en mayor riesgo de progresión a falla renal y establecer las estrategias terapéuticas que tengan el mayor beneficio con la menor probabildad de efectos secundarios serios sobre la función renal. Se adicionó una estrategia para la implmentación de estas recomendaciones.


A growing number of critically ill patients are being taken care with sepsis secondary to bacterial or mycotic infections. In this group of patients, sepsis per se is a risk factor for the development of renal failure, which has been related to an increased risk of hospital mortality. An expert panel in infectious diseases, critical care and renal diseases prepared an evidence based consensus over the use of antimicrobials (antibacterial and antifungal agents) in critically ill patients with renal failure or at risk of suffering it. A sytematic review of the scientific literature was performed and recommendations were established by means of a consensus using the Delphi method. Recommendations proposed by this consensus are intended to be use by healthcare workers who are in charge of this kind of patients with the aim to identify the group of patients with higher risk of developing renal failure and to establish the therapeutic measures theat have the best outcome and lower frequenc of severe side effects in renal function. An implementation strategy was added with the recommendations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Consenso , Insuficiência Renal , Antifúngicos , Toxicologia , Fatores de Risco , Injúria Renal Aguda , Antígenos de Bactérias
20.
Univ. med ; 52(1): 120-129, ene.-mar. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-620376

RESUMO

El síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmunológica en caso de infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es una entidad clínica rara, que se manifiesta con la activación de procesos infecciosos oportunistas que se encontraban estables. Presentamos dos casos de este síndrome con compromiso del sistema nervioso central: síndrome de movimientos anormales y periférico, y síndrome de Guillain Barré...


Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the context of severe immunosupression secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a clinical entity manifested by a paradoxical clinical impairment due to an activation of infectious opportunistic processes previously under immune surveillance. We illustrate two case reports of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome with atypical central nervous system involvement (choreoathetosis) and acute inflammatory demyelinating polineuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome)...


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan , Polineuropatias
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