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1.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(2): 533-539, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mutations in hereditary breast cancer genes play an important role in the risk for cancer. METHODS: Cancer susceptibility genes were sequenced in 664 unselected breast cancer cases from Guatemala. Variants were annotated with ClinVar and VarSome. RESULTS: A total of 73 out of 664 subjects (11%) had a pathogenic variant in a high or moderate penetrance gene. The most frequently mutated genes were BRCA1 (37/664, 5.6%) followed by BRCA2 (15/664, 2.3%), PALB2 (5/664, 0.8%), and TP53 (5/664, 0.8%). Pathogenic variants were also detected in the moderate penetrance genes ATM, BARD1, CHEK2, and MSH6. The high ratio of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations is due to two potential founder mutations: BRCA1 c.212 + 1G > A splice mutation (15 cases) and BRCA1 c.799delT (9 cases). Cases with pathogenic mutations had a significantly earlier age at diagnosis (45 vs 51 years, P < 0.001), are more likely to have had diagnosis before menopause, and a higher percentage had a relative with any cancer (51% vs 37%, P = 0.038) or breast cancer (33% vs 15%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hereditary breast cancer mutations were observed among Guatemalan women, and these women are more likely to have early age at diagnosis and family history of cancer. These data suggest the use of genetic testing in breast cancer patients and those at high risk as part of a strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality in Guatemala.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Células Germinativas , Guatemala , Humanos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 219, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among Latin American women. Peru has the sixth highest mortality rate for cervical cancer in the region with regional variations. We aimed to determine overall and regional cervical cancer mortality rates and trends in Peru between 2008 and 2017. METHODS: We performed an ecological study on the number of deaths by cervical cancer in Peru. Deaths were extracted from the Peruvian Ministry of Health mortality database. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) were estimated per 100,000 women-years using the world standard Segi population. We computed mortality trends using the Joinpoint regression program, estimating the annual percent change (APC). For spatial analysis, GeoDA software was used. RESULTS: Peru showed downward trends in the last decade (from 11.62 in 2008 to 9.69 in 2017 (APC = - 2.2, 95% CI: - 4.3, - 0.1, p < 0.05). According to regional-specific analysis, the highest ASMR was in the rainforest region, although this declined from 34.16 in 2008 to 17.98 in 2017 (APC = - 4.3, 95% CI: - 7.2, - 1.3, p < 0.01). Concerning spatial analysis and clustering, the mortality rates from 2008 to 2017 showed a positive spatial autocorrelation and significant clustering (Moran's I: 0.35, p < 0.001) predominantly in the neighboring North-East departments (Loreto, Ucayali, and San Martin). CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality trends in the entire population are decreasing, mortality rates remain very high, mainly in the rainforest region. Our results encourage a need for further development and improvement of the current health care delivery system in Peru.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade , Peru/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227430

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global public health problem linked to the rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders.1 Accurate estimates of NAFLD in populations are challenging because the gold standard for detection is liver biopsy, an invasive procedure that precludes its use in research settings.2 NAFLD can also be detected via noninvasive imaging, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging-determined proton density fat fraction, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the controlled attenuation parameter derived via transient elastography (CAP-TE).2 Given the complexities of imaging in population studies, however, many estimates have been based on calculated indices, such as the Fatty Liver Index (FLI)3 and the Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI).4 Concern has been raised that the indices underestimate the prevalence of NAFLD,5 thus downplaying the scope of the public health challenge. Ability to examine whether these concerns are substantive has been provided by a recent study of the US population. Using data from the study, it was reported that the US prevalence of CAP-TE-determined NAFLD was 47.8%.6 The current analysis used data from the same national study to examine how well the fatty liver indices corresponded to CAP-TE-determined NAFLD. Because most persons with NAFLD reportedly have elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels,7 the correspondence between elevated ALT and CAP-TE was also examined.

4.
Helicobacter ; 25(6): e12756, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested an association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the current study was to examine the association in Guatemala, a region with elevated prevalences of both H pylori and NAFLD. Associations between H pylori and other metabolic conditions were also examined, as were associations between H hepaticus and H bilis and the metabolic conditions. MATERIALS & METHODS: The analysis included 424 participants from a cross-sectional study in Guatemala. H pylori seropositivity was defined as positivity for ≥ 4 antigens. Seropositivities for H bilis and H hepaticus were defined as positivity for ≥ 2 antigens. NAFLD was estimated using the Fatty Liver Index and the Hepatic Steatosis Index. Other conditions examined were obesity, central obesity, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. RESULTS: No overall associations between H pylori,H hepaticus, or H bilis and NAFLD or related metabolic conditions were found. Seropositivity for H pylori antigens CagA and VacA and H hepaticus antigen HH0713 was each significantly associated with NAFLD, however. In addition, associations were observed between the H pylori antigens HyuA, HP1564, and UreA and specified metabolic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: While no overall associations between H pylori or Helicobacter species with NAFLD or related conditions were observed, some selected Helicobacter spp. antigens were associated with NAFLD. Further research is warranted to examine whether H. species are associated with any metabolic condition.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1406, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Self-collection testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) is an alternative form of cervical cancer screening that can be completed privately and at home. Understanding how the use of HPV testing influences follow-up care in low-resourced settings is crucial before broad implementation. This study aimed to identify if access to self-collection HPV testing impacts participation in established cervical cancer screening programs among women in two rural communities in Guatemala. METHODS: A cohort of 956 women was recruited in 2016 and followed for 2 years for the HPV Multiethnic Study (HPV MES). At baseline, women answered a questionnaire assessing cervical cancer screening history and were offered self-collection HPV testing. Women were re-contacted yearly to determine receipt of additional screening. Statistical changes in screening behavior before and throughout study participation, stratified by self-collection status, were assessed using McNemar pair tests for proportions. Alluvial plots were constructed to depict changes in individual screening behavior. The odds of changes in Pap-compliance (screened in past 3 years), given collection status, were assessed using multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: Reported screening rates increased 2 years after enrollment compared to rates reported for the 3 years before study entry among women who collected a sample (19.1% increase, p < 0.05), received results of their test (22.1% increase, p < 0.05), and received positive (24.2% increase, p < 0.1) or negative results (21.7% increase, p < 0.05). However, most increases came from one community, with minimal changes in the other. The adjusted odds of becoming Pap compliant were higher for women who collected a sample vs. did not (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64, 3.40), received their result vs. did not (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.52, 3.02), and received a positive result vs. negative (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 0.63, 16.10). CONCLUSIONS: Participation in self-collection HPV testing campaigns may increase likelihood of involvement in screening programs. However, results varied between communities, and reporting of screening histories was inconsistent. Future work should identify what community-specific factors promote success in HPV testing programs and focus on improving education on existing cervical cancer interventions.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , População Rural , Manejo de Espécimes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Guatemala, cirrhosis is among the 10 leading causes of death, and mortality rates have increased lately. The reasons for this heavy burden of disease are not clear as the prevalence of prominent risk factors, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and heavy alcohol consumption, appears to be low. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, however, appears to be high, and thus could be associated with the high burden of cirrhosis. Whether AFB1 increases the risk of cirrhosis in the absence of viral infection, however, is not clear. DESIGN: Cirrhosis cases (n=100) from two major referral hospitals in Guatemala City were compared with controls (n=200) from a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs of cirrhosis and quintiles of AFB1 in crude and adjusted models. A sex-stratified analysis was also conducted. RESULTS: The median AFB1 level was significantly higher among the cases (11.4 pg/mg) than controls (5.11 pg/mg). In logistic regression analyses, higher levels of AFB1 was associated with cirrhosis (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, OR: 11.55; 95% CI 4.05 to 32.89). No attenuation was observed with adjustment by sex, ethnicity, hepatitis B virus status, and heavy alcohol consumption. A significantly increasing trend in association was observed in both models (p trend <0.01). Additionally, the cirrhosis-AFB1 association was more prominent among men. CONCLUSIONS: The current study found a significant positive association between AFB1 exposure and cirrhosis. Mitigation of AFB1 exposure and a better understanding of additional risk factors may be important to reduce the burden of cirrhosis in Guatemala.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/sangue , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Micotoxinas/sangue , Aflatoxina B1/efeitos adversos , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Health Sci Rep ; 3(2): e155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382660

RESUMO

Background and aims: Guatemala has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Western hemisphere. The major risk factors in Guatemala are not well characterized, but the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) appears to be low, while the prevalence of aflatoxin (AFB1) exposure appears to be high. To examine whether AFB1 may contribute to the elevated incidence of HCC in Guatemala, this study examined the frequency of the AFB1-signature mutation in the TP53 gene (R249S) as well as other somatic mutations. In addition, we assessed whether the frequency of the TP53 mutation differed by sex. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HCC tissues were obtained from three hospitals in Guatemala City between 2016 and 2017. In addition, tumor tissues preserved in RNAlater were also obtained. Sociodemographic and clinical information including HBV and HCV status were collected. Targeted sequencing of TP53 was performed in the FFPE samples, and a panel of 253 cancer-related genes was sequenced in the RNAlater samples. Results: Ninety-one FFPE tissues were examined, from 52 men and 39 women. Median (IQR) age at diagnosis was 62 (51-70). Among those with known HBV and HCV status, two were HBV+ and three were HCV+. Overall, 47% of the HCCs had a TP53 mutation. The AFB1-signature R249S mutation was present in 24%. No overlap between the R249S mutation and HBV+ was observed in this cohort. Among 18 RNAlater samples examined, 44% had any TP53 mutation and 33% had the R249S mutation. Other somatic mutations were identified in known HCC driver genes. Conclusions: The presence of the TP53 R249S mutation in the samples studied suggests that AFB1 may contribute to the high incidence of HCC in Guatemala. The proportion of HBV+ tumors was low, suggesting that AFB1 may be associated with HCC in the absence of concomitant HBV infection. Further investigation of AFB1 and other risk factors for HCC in Guatemala is warranted.

8.
Cancer ; 126(11): 2666-2678, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECCs) are highly lethal bile duct tumors. Their incidence can be difficult to estimate because of changes in cancer coding over time. No studies to date have examined their global incidence and trends with high-quality topography- and histology-specific cancer registry data. Therefore, this study examined ICC and ECC incidence with the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus database. METHODS: Regional and national cancer registry data were used to estimate age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 person-years, 95% confidence intervals, and average annual percent changes (AAPCs) for ICC in 38 countries and for ECC in 33 countries from 1993 to 2012. ICC and ECC trends were tabulated and plotted by country. Rates versus birth cohort by age were plotted, and an age-period-cohort analysis was performed to assess age and cohort incidence rate ratios. RESULTS: The highest rates of ICC and ECC were in Asia, specifically South Korea (ASR for ICC, 2.80; ASR for ECC, 2.24), Thailand (ASR for ICC, 2.19; ASR for ECC, 0.71), and Japan (ASR for ICC, 0.95; ASR for ECC, 0.83). Between 1993 and 2012, incidence rates of both ICC and ECC increased in most countries. The largest ASR increases over the study period occurred in Latvia (AAPC, 20.1%) and China (AAPC, 11.1%) for ICC and in Thailand (AAPC, 8.8%) and Colombia (AAPC, 8.5%) for ECC. CONCLUSIONS: In the 20 years examined, ICC and ECC incidence increased in the majority of countries worldwide. ICC and ECC incidence may continue to increase because of metabolic and infectious etiologic factors. Efforts to further elucidate risk factors contributing to these increases in incidence are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(2): 317-330, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597196

RESUMO

Primary liver cancer, the major histology of which is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. We comprehensively examined recent international trends of primary liver cancer and HCC incidence using population-based cancer registry data. Incidence for all primary liver cancer and for HCC by calendar time and birth cohort was examined for selected countries between 1978 and 2012. For each successive 5-year period, age-standardized incidence rates were calculated from Volumes V to XI of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) series using the online electronic databases, CI5plus. Large variations persist in liver cancer incidence globally. Rates of liver cancer remain highest in Asian countries, specifically in the East and South-East, and Italy. However, rates in these high-risk countries have been decreasing in recent years. Rates in India and in most countries of Europe, the Americas and Oceania are rising. As the population seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to decline, we anticipate rates of HCC in many high-risk countries will continue to decrease. Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is likely to bring down rates further in some high-rate, as well as low-rate, countries with access to effective therapies. However, such gains in the control of liver cancer are at risk of being reversed by the growing obesity and diabetes epidemics, suggesting diabetes treatment and primary prevention of obesity will be key in reducing liver cancer in the longer-term.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
Int J Public Health ; 65(2): 217-226, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Examine the association between commonly reported barriers to health care, including discordant spoken languages between patients and providers, and reported previous cervical cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the nationally representative Guatemala National Maternal and Child Health Survey from the Demographic and Health Surveys Program were used to explore associations between barriers and screening rates nationwide and in high-risk populations, such as rural and indigenous communities. Negative binomial regressions were run accounting for survey sample weights to calculate prevalence ratios. RESULTS: 64.0%, 57.5% and 47.5% of women reported ever screening, in the overall, indigenous, and rural populations, respectively. Overall, never screened for cervical cancer was associated with the following health barriers: needing permission, cost, distance, not wanting to go alone, and primary language not spoken by health providers, even after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Offering screening programs alone is not enough to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Guatemala. Measures need to be taken to reduce barriers to health care, particularly in rural areas, where screening rates are lowest.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Guatemala , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural
11.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 430-440, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of conditions, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Studies in the United States have reported an increased mortality risk among individuals with NAFLD; therefore, the population attributable fractions (PAFs) for mortality were examined. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A total of 12,253 adult individuals with ultrasound assessment of NAFLD from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and mortality follow-up through 2015 were included in the analysis. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NAFLD in association with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Overall, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific PAFs and 95% CIs were estimated. In the current study, presence of NAFLD was associated with a 20% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.34). The overall PAF for all-cause mortality associated with NAFLD was 7.5% (95% CI, 3.0, 12.0). The PAF for diabetes-specific mortality was 38.0% (95% CI, 13.1, 63.0) overall, 40.8% (95% CI, 2.1, 79.6) in men, and 36.8% (95% CI, 6.6, 67.0) in women. The PAF for liver disease (LD)-specific mortality was notably higher in men (68.3%; 95% CI, 36.3, 100.0) than women (3.5%; 95% CI, -39.7, 46.8). In the race-specific analysis, the PAFs of NAFLD for all-cause mortality (9.3%; 95% CI, 4.0, 14.6) and diabetes-specific mortality (44.4%; 95% CI, 10.8, 78.0) were significantly greater than zero only for whites. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, approximately 8% of all-cause mortality and more than one-third of LD- and diabetes-specific deaths are associated with NAFLD. With these high percentages, efforts are needed to reduce the burden of NAFLD in the United States.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/mortalidade , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 31(4): 1595-1611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guatemala lacks cancer prevention strategies and has low screening rates. OBJECTIVE: To assess the history of chronic conditions, risk factors, and cancer screening uptake among three Indigenous populations of Southwestern Guatemala. METHODS: We conducted a health needs assessment. RESULTS: The assessment was completed by 247 adults. Median age was 40 years old (IR: 28-59). Most participants were female (94.3%), of Mayan descent (95.8%), and did not have a primary health care provider (84.2%). Most have never been screened for colorectal (men=100.0%; women=98.8%), prostate (75.0%), breast (90.9%), or cervical (76.9%) cancer, and all have severe tooth decay. However, most participants reported healthy behaviors including being physically active (women=59.7%; men=92.9%), being nonsmokers (women=99.6%; men=78.6%), and not consuming alcohol (women=82.3%; men=46.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Although most participants reported healthy behaviors, there is a remarkable lack of access to cancer screening. An increase in cancer incidence is expected unless cancer prevention efforts are undertaken.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias , Adulto , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029158, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662358

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Guatemala. Self-collection testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) has been suggested as a form of cervical cancer screening to facilitate access in LMICs. This study assessed and compared the acceptability of self-collection HPV testing in two rural, indigenous and ethnically distinct communities in Guatemala: Santiago Atitlán, Sololá and Livingston, Izabal. METHODS: All participants, women between the ages of 18 and 60, completed a questionnaire. Eligible participants were also asked to self-collect a vaginal sample and complete a questionnaire regarding comfort and acceptability. Self-collected samples were tested for high-risk HPV using the real-time PCR Hybribio kit. RESULTS: In the indigenous community of Santiago Atitlán, of 438 age-eligible participants, 94% completed self-collection. Of those, 81% found it comfortable and 98% were willing to use it as a form of screening. In the multiethnic (Afro-Caribbean, indigenous) community of Livingston, of 322 age-eligible participants, 53% chose to self-collect. Among those who took the test, 83% found it comfortable and 95% were willing to use it as a form of screening. In Livingston, literacy (can read and/or write vs cannot read or write) was higher in women who chose to self-collect (prevalence ratio 2.25; 95% CI 1.38 to 3.68). Ethnicity, history of screening and reproductive history were not associated with willingness to self-collect in Livingston. Women in Santiago reported less prior use of healthcare than women in Livingston. Overall, 19% (106/549) of samples tested positive for high-risk HPV. CONCLUSION: Among women willing to self-collect in rural and indigenous communities in Guatemala, self-collection for HPV testing is highly acceptable. However, willingness to try self-collection might vary across communities and settings. Women from a community that used less healthcare were more likely to choose self-collection. Further research is necessary to determine what factors influence a woman's choice to self-collect.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Povos Indígenas , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , População Rural , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Alfabetização , Estado Civil , Teste de Papanicolaou , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
14.
Toxicol Rep ; 6: 465-471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193789

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known human hepatocarcinogen and a recent study reported elevated AFB1 levels, measured by serum albumin biomarkers, among Guatemalan adults. While AFB1 can contaminate a variety of foodstuffs, including maize, Guatemala's main dietary staple, the relationship of maize intake to serum AFB1-albumin adducts levels in Guatemala has not been previously examined. As a result, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 461 Guatemalan adults living in five geographically distinct departments of the country. Participants provided a serum sample and completed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the least square means (LSQ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of log-transformed AFB1-albumin adducts by quintiles of maize consumption in crude and adjusted models. Additionally, analyses of tortilla consumption and levels of maize processing were conducted. The median maize intake was 344.3 g per day [Interquartile Range (IQR): 252.2, 500.8], and the median serum AFB1-albumin adduct level was 8.4 pg/mg albumin (IQR: 3.8, 22.3). In adjusted analyses, there was no association between overall maize consumption and serum AFB1-albumin levels. However, there was a statistically significant association between tortilla consumption and AFB1-albumin levels (ptrend = 0.01). The LSM of AFB1-albumin was higher in the highest quintile of tortilla consumption compared to the lowest quintile [LSM:9.03 95%CI: 7.03,11.70 vs 6.23, 95%CI: 4.95,8.17, respectively]. These findings indicate that tortilla may be an important source of AFB1 exposure in the Guatemalan population. Therefore, efforts to control or mitigate AFB1 levels in contaminated maize used for tortillas may reduce overall exposure in this population.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1175, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality from prostate cancer is expected to increase in the next decade in Thailand. Despite the perceived lower risk in this population vs. developed, western countries, it is becoming an important public health issue. Prostate cancer incidence varies between the most predominant religious groups in Thailand, Buddhists and Muslims. However limited data is available describing the prostate cancer survival in these two populations. Here we examine differences in prostate tumor characteristics and survival between Buddhists and Muslims in the province of Songkhla, Thailand. METHODS: 945 incident prostate cancer cases (1990-2014) from the population-based Songkhla Cancer Registry were used in this analysis. Age, grade, stage, and year at diagnosis were compared across religious groups, using Wilcoxon or Chi-square tests. Kaplan Meier methods were used to estimate the median survival time and 5-year survival probabilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) between religious groups and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality in age-adjusted and fully-adjusted models. RESULTS: Prostate tumor characteristics, age, and year at diagnosis were similar across religious groups. The median survival time after diagnosis of prostate cancer was longer in Buddhists 3.8 years compared with Muslims 3.2 years (p = 0.08). The age-adjusted risk of death after prostate cancer diagnosis was higher in Muslims compared with Buddhists (HR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.00, 1.72). After adjustment by stage and grade, results were slightly attenuated (HR: 1.27, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.67). CONCLUSION: Muslims have shorter survival after prostate cancer diagnosis than do Buddhists in Thailand. The reasons underlying this difference require additional investigation in order to design targeted interventions for both populations.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Religião , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Tailândia/epidemiologia
16.
J Glob Oncol ; 4: 1-11, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among men worldwide, and it poses a significant public health burden that has traditionally been limited mostly to developed countries. However, the burden of the disease is expected to increase, affecting developing countries, including Thailand. We undertook an analysis to investigate current and future trends of prostate cancer in the province of Songkhla, Thailand, using data from the Songkhla Cancer Registry from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: Joinpoint regression analysis was used to examine trends in age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer and provide estimated annual percent change (EAPC) with 95% CIs. Age-period-cohort (APC) models were used to assess the effect of age, calendar year, and birth cohort on incidence and mortality rates. Three different methods (Joinpoint, Nordpred, and APC) were used to project trends from 2013 to 2030. RESULTS: Eight hundred fifty-five cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed from 1990 to 2013 in Songkhla, Thailand. The incidence rates of prostate cancer significantly increased since 1990 at an EAPC of 4.8% (95% CI, 3.6% to 5.9%). Similarly, mortality rates increased at an EAPC of 5.3% (95% CI, 3.4% to 7.2%). The APC models suggest that birth cohort is the most important factor driving the increased incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer. Future incidence and mortality of prostate cancer are projected to continue to increase, doubling the rates observed in 2013 by 2030. CONCLUSION: It is critical to allocate resources to provide care for the men who will be affected by this increase in prostate cancer incidence in Songkhla, Thailand, and to design context-appropriate interventions to prevent its increasing burden.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Idoso , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Tailândia
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