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1.
J Dent Hyg ; 94(4): 29-38, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753522

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of using mobile text messages and a novel floss holder as compared to finger flossing or the novel floss holder alone, on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis.Methods: A total 165 adults were assessed for eligibility and 144 met the criteria for randomization into three groups: Finger Floss (FF, n=43), Novel Floss Holder (NFH, n= 40), and Novel Floss Holder plus Text Messages (NFH+TM, n= 61) following a dental hygiene consultation appointment. Gingival bleeding points were measured on probing (BOMP) at baseline and four months later by a calibrated dental hygienist, blinded to the experimental groups. Participants also self-reported their oral hygiene behaviors, and indicated psychological determinants of behavior change prior to the dental hygiene consultation and at four months. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare groups over time.Results: Two subjects dropped out of the study making the total number of participants 142. At the four month follow-up, the NFH group and the NFH+TM groups demonstrated significantly higher levels of self-reported flossing, action self-efficacy, intention, action planning, and action control. The NFH+TM group showed lower levels of bleeding and higher levels of oral hygiene and recovery self-efficacy than the other groups, in addition to higher levels of maintenance self-efficacy as compared to the FF group.Conclusions: The use of a novel floss holder, NFH, was shown to improve the behavioral and psychological determinants of periodontal health four months after introduction of the device. However the clinical measures of BOMP only improved significantly when used in conjunction with text messages (NFH+TM). The use of a consciousness awareness technique,TMs, in combination with a novel device, may help patients to reach therapeutic objectives and contribute to the management of periodontal pathologies such as gingivitis.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Higiene Bucal , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
2.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 18(2): 192-200, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053277

RESUMO

AIM: This study investigates the joint role of volitional predictors of oral hygiene behaviours of flossing and brushing in adults with gingivitis, framed by the Health Action Process Approach model (HAPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a longitudinal online survey, 201 participants aged 18-75, of which 56.7% were women, completed assessments at baseline(T1), 2 weeks(T2) and 4 months(T3). Oral hygiene behaviours(OH) (brushing and flossing) and social cognitive determinants of behaviour in the HAPA: action and maintenance self-efficacy(ASE & MSE), intention(INT), coping planning(CP) and action control(AC) were evaluated. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of three nested models. In Model 1, action self-efficacy would determine MSE and INT, and INT would determine OH; in Model 2, INT would determine both CP and AC and the two OH behaviours; and in Model 3, CP and AC would be sequential mediators between INT and OH. RESULTS: Model 3, predicting a mediating process from intention to behaviour via coping planning and action control, showed the best fit according to the fit indices and explained more of the variance in dental hygiene. The mediating role of coping planning and action control between intention and oral hygiene behaviours was thus confirmed. Importantly, coping planning did not mediate between intention and oral hygiene behaviours, which means that oral hygiene intention influences action control through coping planning, and both sequentially mediate this influence on behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: For individuals who are not yet following the recommendations for specific oral hygiene behaviours, coping planning and action control represent psychological mechanisms by which intentions are put into practice.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Higiene Bucal , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Escovação Dentária , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 17(3): 202-213, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of using an intra-oral camera (IOC) during a dental hygiene consultation and mobile text messages (TM) between appointments on clinical, behavioural and psychological parameters of patients with gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned into four conditions: IOC, TM, IOC + TM and control, and examined at three assessment points over eight months (N = 142). Bleeding on marginal probing (BOMP), dental hygiene (brushing and flossing) and social cognitive determinants of behaviour change (outcome expectancies, action and volitional self-efficacy, intention, planning and action control) were evaluated in an examiner-blind controlled study. Mixed-effects modelling was employed to examine changes in study outcomes. Mediations by the psychological determinants were inspected for the effect on treatment groups in clinical parameters and behaviour. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, all treatment conditions improved dental hygiene and revealed a significant decrease in BOMP from baseline to 4 months, maintained at 8 months; this was clinically relevant in the IOC + TM group, where individuals had more positive outcome expectancies as well as higher levels of action self-efficacy and intention from baseline to four months, maintained at eight months. Volitional self-efficacy was reinforced in all treatments. The psychological determinants did not prove to be the mechanisms responsible for these effects. CONCLUSIONS: A multiple-strategy benefit from using the IOC in consultation and TM between appointments improves clinical, behavioural and psychological parameters of periodontal health four months after treatment, maintained at eight months' follow-up. Insights are provided for the efficacy of the images and text messages for oral hygiene changes.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária
4.
Span J Psychol ; 21: E31, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088460

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the risks and opportunities associated with Facebook usage and to explore the moderating role of psychosocial (mal)adjustment, nationality and age in these relationships. This correlational study involved a sample of 452 Brazilian and 500 Portuguese youths, aged between 14 and 20 years. Results showed that these youths spent a daily average of 61-120 minutes on Facebook, three to four times per week, displaying a positive attitude towards its use. These characteristics were most notable in the Brazilian youths [t(950) = 5.64, p < .001; t(950) = -5.07, p < .001; and t(950) = - 6.85, p < .001, respectively]. The Portuguese youths ran more risks than the Brazilians [t(950) = 6.36, p < .001], but both youths equally enjoyed the opportunities. In the case of the Portuguese youths, the risks and opportunities were moderated by the frequency of use, in other words "the higher the usage, the more risks and opportunities" (ß = -.235 p < .001and ß = -.167, p < .001, respectively). The psychosocial adjustment indicators did not moderate the effects of Facebook usage habits in risks and opportunities. The less psychosocially adjusted youths were those who ran more risks and also made the most of the opportunities. The results are discussed in light of the role of psychological, socio-cultural and developmental factors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Ajustamento Emocional , Assunção de Riscos , Ajustamento Social , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/etnologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(2): 126-135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Beliefs About Appearance Scale (BAAS) in terms of its factorial structure and invariance, reliability, and validity when applied to adults from the community. METHODS: Participants consisted of 810 heterosexual Portuguese individuals in a committed relationship. As a confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original structure of the BAAS, an exploratory factor analysis was performed. RESULTS: A 12-item version was extracted comprising two dimensions: one personal and the other social. The factorial model depicting this bidimensional structure revealed an adequate fit following confirmatory factor analysis. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses indicated invariance across gender. Concurrent and discriminant validities and internal consistency were estimated and observed to be adequate. CONCLUSIONS: This shorter measure of the BAAS can accurately assess body appearance beliefs and may be used in different research settings and contexts.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(2): 126-135, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-963098

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Beliefs About Appearance Scale (BAAS) in terms of its factorial structure and invariance, reliability, and validity when applied to adults from the community. Methods Participants consisted of 810 heterosexual Portuguese individuals in a committed relationship. As a confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original structure of the BAAS, an exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results A 12-item version was extracted comprising two dimensions: one personal and the other social. The factorial model depicting this bidimensional structure revealed an adequate fit following confirmatory factor analysis. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses indicated invariance across gender. Concurrent and discriminant validities and internal consistency were estimated and observed to be adequate. Conclusions This shorter measure of the BAAS can accurately assess body appearance beliefs and may be used in different research settings and contexts.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da Beliefs About Appearance Scale (BAAS), nomeadamente sua estrutura fatorial e invariância, fidelidade e validade quando aplicada a adultos de uma amostra comunitária. Métodos Participaram 810 heterossexuais portugueses envolvidos numa relação de compromisso. Uma vez que a análise fatorial confirmatória não apoiou a estrutura original da escala, conduziu-se uma análise exploratória. Resultados Extraiu-se uma versão da escala com 12 itens, que integra duas dimensões: uma pessoal e outra social. O modelo fatorial composto por esta estrutura bidimensional revelou um ajustamento adequado aos dados, após a análise fatorial confirmatória. A análise confirmatória multigrupos indicou invariância entre os gêneros. A validade concorrente e discriminante e a consistência interna foram estimadas e apresentaram valores adequados. Conclusões A versão final, com 12 itens, da BAAS avalia com acuidade as crenças acerca da aparência corporal e pode ser utilizada em diferentes contextos de investigação.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Testes Psicológicos , Percepção Social , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Psicometria , Pensamento , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Sex Res ; 55(9): 1155-1166, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028439

RESUMO

Researchers have demonstrated that several dimensions of sexual functioning (e.g., sexual desire, arousal, orgasm) are associated with the sexual satisfaction of individuals in a committed mixed-sex (male-female) relationship. We extended this research by comparing a dyadic model that included both own (i.e., actor effect) and partner (i.e., partner effect) domains of sexual functioning to an individual model that included only actor effects. Participants were 124 mixed-sex couples who completed online measures of sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Data analysis using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the dyadic model had a better fit than the individual model. Women's sexual desire and orgasm and men's erectile functioning were significant positive predictors of both own and partner's sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of taking a dyadic approach to research and clinical work related to sexual satisfaction.


Assuntos
Coito/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Autorrevelação , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Span. j. psychol ; 21: e31.1-e31.10, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189113

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the risks and opportunities associated with Facebook usage and to explore the moderating role of psychosocial (mal)adjustment, nationality and age in these relationships. This correlational study involved a sample of 452 Brazilian and 500 Portuguese youths, aged between 14 and 20 years. Results showed that these youths spent a daily average of 61-120 minutes on Facebook, three to four times per week, displaying a positive attitude towards its use. These characteristics were most notable in the Brazilian youths [t(950) = 5.64, p < .001; t(950) = -5.07, p < .001; and t(950) = - 6.85, p < .001, respectively]. The Portuguese youths ran more risks than the Brazilians [t(950) = 6.36, p < .001], but both youths equally enjoyed the opportunities. In the case of the Portuguese youths, the risks and opportunities were moderated by the frequency of use, in other words "the higher the usage, the more risks and opportunities" (β = -.235 p < .001and β = -.167, p < .001, respectively). The psychosocial adjustment indicators did not moderate the effects of Facebook usage habits in risks and opportunities. The less psychosocially adjusted youths were those who ran more risks and also made the most of the opportunities. The results are discussed in light of the role of psychological, socio-cultural and developmental factors


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Assunção de Riscos , Ajustamento Social , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Portugal/etnologia
9.
J Health Commun ; 22(12): 942-950, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131722

RESUMO

Health messages framed to be congruent with people's motivational orientation have been shown to be generally effective in promoting health behavior change, but some inconsistencies have been found. This study tested whether the perceived quality of a health message moderated the congruency effect in the domain of fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Undergraduate participants (N = 109) read a health message promoting FV intake in which the frame (gain vs. loss) was either congruent or incongruent with their approach/avoidance motivational orientation. Perceived message quality and intention to increase FV intake were assessed after message exposure, and self-reported FV intake was assessed one week later. A significant interaction between congruency and perceived message quality was found on both intention and FV intake. When messages were congruent, higher intentions and FV intake were observed when perceived message quality was high, but the reverse pattern was observed when perceived message quality was low. The findings support the potential utility of using congruently-framed messages to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, while also underscoring the necessity of using high-quality messages in order for congruency to influence health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Frutas , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Verduras , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Motivação , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sex Med ; 14(4): 613-623, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past research on cognitive models of sexual functioning has focused on sexual beliefs as an important vulnerability factor for sexual dysfunction. However, the existing measurements of sexual beliefs are lengthy and entangle beliefs about sexual functioning with moral beliefs and ideas about sexuality. Furthermore, they have female and male versions, which does not allow for sex comparisons or dyadic research with heterosexual couples. AIM: To describe the development and validation of the Beliefs About Sexual Functioning Scale (BASEF), which assesses beliefs about sexual functioning in men and women. METHODS: This study included two cross-sectional online studies with adults in heterosexual dyadic committed and exclusive relationships. In study 1 (sample A, n = 274, mean age = 32.27 years; sample B, n = 114, mean age = 30.6 years), the factorial validity of the BASEF was analyzed through an exploratory factor analysis with an initial poll of 51 items, followed by a test of its structure in a confirmatory factor analysis. In study 2 (n = 426, mean age = 31.5 years), the factorial equivalence of the BASEF was tested across sexes and its association with total scores of sexual functioning was analyzed. OUTCOME: The main outcome was a new instrument for measurement of beliefs about sexual functioning. RESULTS: In study 1, 15 items indicating 5 factors were retained. The structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, establishing its factorial validity with the five factors aggregated in a second-order latent variable. In study 2, the equivalence of the BASEF was demonstrated across sexes and its association with theoretically related measurements, the International Index of Erectile Function and the Female Sexual Function Index, was supported. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This new measurement could be useful to evaluate clients and design interventions that take into account similarity and discrepancy in sexual beliefs in couples, such as those interventions framed in cognitive and systemic clinical models. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This study presents a new measurement of beliefs about sexual functioning suited to address an equivalent set of beliefs for men and women. In future studies, the scale will be useful to compare the unique role of these same beliefs in the sexual outcomes of men and women. One major limitation is the lack of examination of the BASEF criterion validity with a clinical sample. CONCLUSIONS: Results are indicative of a brief, valid, and reliable sex-invariant measurement of beliefs about sexual functioning that enables testing of cognitive models of sexual functioning in men and women in clinical and research settings. Pascoal PM, Alvarez M-J, Pereira CR, Nobre P. Development and Initial Validation of the Beliefs About Sexual Functioning Scale: A Gender Invariant Measure. J Sex Med 2017;14:613-623.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 44(6): 523-530, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27430870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of using an intra-oral camera (IOC) during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis, outlined by evidence and a theory-based framework. METHODS: A group of 78 adult patients with gingivitis receiving an SPT was randomized into two groups: IOC and control. Bleeding on Marginal Probing (BOMP), self-reported dental hygiene behaviors, and psychological determinants of behavior change (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and planning) and IOC opinion were evaluated 1 week before or during the appointment and 4 months later. Repeated-measures anova was used to compare groups over time. RESULTS: Almost all the patients brushed their teeth daily, while 78% either never or hardly ever used dental floss. The IOC group showed significant improvements in BOMP index (P < 0.001), self-reported flossing (P < 0.05), and self-efficacy (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The use of IOC significantly improves clinical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of periodontal health 4 months after treatment.


Assuntos
Gengivite/psicologia , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Fotografia Dentária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gengivite/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Índice Periodontal , Fotografia Dentária/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Appetite ; 96: 416-425, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26455312

RESUMO

Health messages are a commonly used way to promote changes in dietary habits but their efficacy could be enhanced by strategies such as the way in which the presented arguments are framed. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of framed messages (gain vs. loss) on behavioural intention and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, comparing predictions based on prominent theoretical perspectives on message framing (function of the health behaviour and recipients' motivational orientation) and by further exploring the role of baseline intentions as a potential moderator of the framing effects. Undergraduate students (N = 180) completed the three assessment points in time. At baseline, individual moderators (motivational orientation and intentions) and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. One week later, participants were randomly assigned to the loss or gain-framed message and indicated their intentions for FV intake the following week. A week later, FV intake over the previous week was assessed. The gain-frame was not conducive, per se, to higher intentions or behaviour. Having intention as the outcome, only baseline intentions moderated the effects of message frame. When considering FV intake as the outcome, both motivational orientation and baseline intentions moderated the effects of message frame, with the loss-frame promoting higher FV intake among individuals who were prevention-oriented and had higher baseline intentions. Findings suggest that the success of framed messages for FV intake depends upon the recipient's characteristics, such as motivational orientation, baseline intentions, and cultural background, with implications for health communication interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Frutas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Verduras , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Distribuição Aleatória , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychol Health ; 30(12): 1410-32, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of matching health messages promoting fruit and vegetable intake to the Health Action Process Approach stages of change. DESIGN: In a randomised controlled trial, 205 undergraduate students (non-intenders n = 123; intenders n = 82) were exposed to one of three health messages, targeted at non-intenders, intenders and controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three longitudinal assessments of stage, fruit and vegetable intake, and social-cognitive determinants were obtained. RESULTS: Stage-specific effects of the interventions were confirmed. For self-efficacy, a stage by health message crossover interaction emerged, with both non-intenders and intenders in the matched conditions scoring higher in self-efficacy. Furthermore, in line with predictions, non-intenders in the matched condition showed higher risk perception, outcome expectancies, intention, and stage progression immediately after message exposure, and lower levels of action planning and coping planning a week later in the mismatched condition, but for these outcomes no differences across conditions were obtained among intenders. Multiple mediation analyses confirmed the facilitating role of self-efficacy and behavioural intention among non-intenders. CONCLUSIONS: Stages should be considered when designing health messages, although more interactive interventions for intenders and extended measurement time frames may be required.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Frutas , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Verduras , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Educ Behav ; 42(1): 92-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24986915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Motivation is not sufficient to actually use condoms, as self-regulatory processes are needed to translate motivation into action. Buying condoms and carrying them constitute preparatory behaviors that may serve as proximal predictors of action. Whether or not such preparatory behaviors operate as mediators between intention and action within a broader behavior change framework has been examined. METHOD: A sample of 150 heterosexual men between ages 18 and 25 years responded at three points in time to a computer-based survey that assessed behavior as well as social-cognitive antecedents. A structural equation model was specified that included preparatory behaviors and self-efficacy as mediators at Time 2. RESULTS: Preparatory behaviors were the most proximal predictors of condom use, and they were, themselves, predicted by self-efficacy and intention. The latter was partly determined by positive emotional outcome expectancies. CONCLUSION: To bridge the intention-behavior gap, preparatory behaviors play a mediating role, and they represent a side of planning that constitutes the most proximal predictor of condom use.


Assuntos
Cognição , Preservativos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intenção , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Adulto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Portugal , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Health Psychol ; 19(4): 856-70, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24308823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the joint role of coping planning and action control as volitional predictors of changes in the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. DESIGN: In a longitudinal online survey, 203 participants completed assessments at baseline (Time 1), 1 week (Time 2), and 2 weeks later (Time 3). METHODS: Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of three nested models. In Model 1, only intention predicted behaviour; in Model 2, both coping planning and action control were tested as mediators between intention and behaviour; and Model 3 specified coping planning and action control as sequential mediators between intention and behaviour. RESULTS: Model 3 provided the best fit to the data. The mediating role of coping planning and action control between intention and fruit and vegetable intake was confirmed, whereby multiple mediation occurred in a sequential manner, with coping planning preceding action control. CONCLUSIONS: For motivated individuals who are not yet following the recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption, coping planning and action control reflect a psychological mechanism that operates in changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Intention formation might not be enough to change complex health behaviours, such as dietary behaviours. Volitional factors - Such as action planning - Have shown to be important for the translation of intentions into behaviour, particularly for fruit and vegetable intake. Other volitional factors such as coping planning and action control have been less studied as potential mediators between intention and fruit and vegetable intake. What does this study add? This study provides further evidence on the psychological mechanisms of fruit and vegetable intake. Coping planning and action control are shown to act jointly in the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake. A double mediation was found, attesting the translation of intention into fruit and vegetable intake sequentially by coping planning and action control.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Frutas , Verduras , Volição , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Educ Res ; 28(6): 1014-28, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23856178

RESUMO

Theoretically driven health communications are needed to promote fruit and vegetable intake among people at different stages of change. The Health Action Process Approach, a clearly specified model and good predictor of fruit and vegetable intake, was used as a framework to guide a formative research for the development of health messages targeting individuals at either a non-intentional or intentional stage of change. A mixed-method approach was used, combining eight focus groups (n = 45) and a questionnaire (n = 390). Target beliefs for people at both stages were identified under five theoretical constructs (risk perception, outcome expectancies, action planning, coping planning and self-efficacy). Highlighting health problems due to low fruit and vegetable consumption, health benefits, weight reduction and pleasure and enhancing self-efficacy to increase fruit and vegetable intake are the main guidelines for designing messages to non-intenders. For intenders, messages should reassure them of their ability to maintain adequate fruit and vegetable consumption, outline specific plans for increased consumption, identify barriers such as preparation, forgetting or being tired and unwilling to eat fruits and vegetables and suggest strategies to overcome them, such as presenting some practical examples on how to include fruits and vegetables when eating out.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 40(2): 407-17, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21350915

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of contextual and cognitive variables for sexual protection on perceived social relationship factors. University students (108 women and 108 men) read script-based narratives on sexual encounters in which six variables were manipulated in two independent analyses. In the first analysis, four variables were evaluated: relational context (stable, casual), condom use (yes, no), script terminus (beginning, middle or end), and the rater's sex. The dependent variables were interpersonal perception of one of the characters of the narrative, and expectations regarding characteristics and future of the relationship. In the second analysis, two other factors were manipulated only in the "yes" condom conditions: communication strategy (verbal, non-verbal) and condom proponent gender. Our findings corroborated other studies where condom use was viewed as unromantic with less positive characteristics for relationships. Condom proponents, especially male, were perceived as less romantic, particularly when proposing a condom non-verbally at the beginning of the encounter. However, the controlled variables enabled us to propose ways of associating condom use with positive expectations towards the proponent and the relationship itself. Romanticism, expectation of sexual intercourse, emotional proximity, and expectations of condom use in encounters where a condom was proposed increased when suggested by a woman, postponed to the end of the encounter, and verbally mentioned. We encourage women to take the lead in suggesting condom use, thus empowering them since they do not have to wait for the male to make the first move.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Percepção Social , Análise de Variância , Cognição , Preservativos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sex Res ; 45(4): 358-70, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18937127

RESUMO

To identify the inclusion of condom use (N = 360 college students), two sexual scripts (stable and casual relationships) were identified by free-generation methods (Study 1) and used to develop open-ended narratives up to the point before sexual intercourse. Participants completed the narratives to verify whether they spontaneously included references to condom use, and these references were related to self-report of sexual protection (Study 2). Finally, a recognition memory test clarified the typicality of condom use actions in the sexual script-based narratives (Study 3). The results indicated that although moderately referred to when free-generation is used, condom use is much less mentioned when participants complete script-based narratives and is considered a script-atypical action. Thus, we conclude that when behavior is guided by script, protective behaviors will not become mentally accessible and will not be used. Both relationships require intervention in order to increase condom use and make it a sexual routine.


Assuntos
Cognição , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Coito/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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