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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A single, severe traumatic brain injury can result in chronic sleep disturbances that can persist several years after the incident. In contrast, it is unclear whether there are sleep disturbances after a sports-related concussion (SRC). Considering growing evidence of links between sleep disturbance and neurodegeneration, this review examined the potential links between diagnosed SRCs and sleep disturbances to provide guidance for future studies. METHODS: The scoping review undertook a systematic search of key online databases (Scopus, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, and Web of Science) using predetermined search terms for any articles that examined sleep after concussion. A screening criterion using agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria was utilized to ensure inclusion of relevant articles. DESIGN: This scoping review is guided by the PRSIMA Scoping Review report. RESULTS: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, reporting on 896 adults who had experienced an SRC. Comparison with 1327 non-SRC adults occurred in 8 studies. Nine studies subjectively examined sleep, of which all but one study reported sleep disturbances after an SRC. Three studies objectively measured sleep, with 2 studies indicating large coefficients of variation of sleep duration, suggesting a range of sleep responses after an SRC. The only study to examine overnight polysomnography showed no differences in sleep metrics between those with and without an SRC. No studies examined interventions to improve sleep outcomes in people with concussion. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review indicates preliminary evidence of sleep disturbances following an SRC. The heterogeneity of methodology used in the included studies makes consensus on the results difficult. Given the mediating role of sleep in neurodegenerative disorders, further research is needed to identify physiological correlates and pathological mechanisms of sleep disturbances in SRC-related neurodegeneration and whether interventions for sleep problems improve recovery from concussion and reduce the risk of SRC-related neurodegeneration.

2.
J Sleep Res ; 29(3): e12872, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144389

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the association between shift work disorder and mental health in hospital-based nurses. Staff completed an online survey comprising demographic questions, the Shift Work Disorder Questionnaire, Patient Health-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder-7 scale. Sick leave data were collected from archival records from the Human Resources Department. Two hundred and two nurses (95% female; age M = 35.28 years ± SD = 12) participated (42% of eligible staff). Those at high risk of shift work disorder had higher depression (M = 7.54 ± SD = 4.28 vs. M = 3.78 ± SD = 3.24; p < 0.001) and anxiety (M = 5.66 ± SD = 3.82 vs. M = 2.83 ± SD = 3.33, p < 0.001) compared to those at low risk. Linear regression models showed that being at high risk of shift work disorder was the most significant predictor of depression, explaining 18.8% of the variance in depression (R2  = 0.188, adjusted R2  = 0.184, F(1, 200) = 46.20, p < 0.001). Shift work disorder combined with the number of night shifts and alcoholic drinks on non-work days accounted for 49.7% of the variance in anxiety scores (R2  = 0.497, adjusted R2  = 0.453, F(3, 35) = 11.51, p < 0.001). Mean sick leave in those with high risk of shift work disorder was 136.17 hr (SD = 113.11) versus 103.98 hr (SD = 94.46) in others (p = 0.057). Depression and years of shift work accounted for 18.9% of the variance in sick leave taken (R2  = 0.189, adjusted R2  = 0.180, F(2, 175) = 20.36, p < 0.001). Shift work disorder is strongly associated with depression and anxiety, providing a potential target to improve mental health in shift workers. Depression, in turn, is a significant contributing factor to sick leave.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/psicologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia
3.
Sleep Med Rev ; 41: 3-38, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576408

RESUMO

Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that is associated with a multitude of health consequences. Particularly, insomnia has been associated with cardiovascular disease and its precursors, such as hypertension and blood pressure (BP) non-dipping. The present systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence on the concurrent and prospective associations between insomnia and hypertension and/or BP. Using electronic search engines (PubMed, SCOPUS, PsycINFO), 5,618 articles published from January 1970 to December 2017 were identified, and 64 met the inclusion criteria (26 to 162,121 participants; age range: 18-100; 46.4% male). Insomnia was based on diagnostic or non-diagnostic criteria. Hypertension was based on self-or physician-reports, antihypertensive medication use, and/or measured BP. Findings indicate that when insomnia is frequent, chronic, and/or accompanied with short sleep duration or objective markers of arousal, there is a strong association with hypertension/BP. Based on limited studies, hypertension did not significantly predict future insomnia in middle-aged adults, but did in older adults. Based on a majority of case-control studies, no differences in BP were found between participants with and without insomnia. Further research is needed to identify putative pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the link between insomnia and hypertension. The impact of insomnia therapy on BP should also be further examined in the future.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 112: 77-83, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324264

RESUMO

This study assessed the impact of an education program on knowledge of sleepiness and driving behaviour in young adult drivers and their performance and behaviour during simulated night driving. Thirty-four participants (18-26 years old) were randomized to receive either a four-week education program about sleep and driving or a control condition. A series of questionnaires were administered to assess knowledge of factors affecting sleep and driving before and after the four-week education program. Participants also completed a two hour driving simulator task at 1am after 17 h of extended wakefulness to assess the impact on driving behaviour. There was an increase in circadian rhythm knowledge in the intervention group following the education program. Self-reported risky behaviour increased in the control group with no changes in other aspects of sleep knowledge. There were no significant differences in proportion of intervention and control participants who had microsleeps (p ≤ .096), stopped driving due to sleepiness (p = .107), recorded objective episodes of drowsiness (p = .455), and crashed (p = .761), although there was a trend towards more control participants having microsleeps and stopping driving. Those in the intervention group reported higher subjective sleepiness at the end of the drive [M = 6.25, SD = 3.83, t(31) = 2.15, p = .05] and were more likely to indicate that they would stop driving [M = 3.08, SD = 1.16, t(31) = 2.24, p = .04]. The education program improved some aspects of driver knowledge about sleep and safety. The results also suggested that the education program lead to an increased awareness of sleepiness. Education about sleep and driving could reduce the risk of drowsy driving and associated road trauma in young drivers, but requires evaluation in a broader sample with assessment of real world driving outcomes.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/educação , Tomada de Decisões , Fadiga , Fases do Sono , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Affect Disord ; 207: 167-174, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia disorder, depression, various anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in adolescents after controlling for age, gender, chronotype, and outcome variable at baseline. METHODS: Data was collected in eight high schools in Adelaide, South Australia, at two time-points approximately 6 months apart. The study was completed by 318 and 255 high school students at baseline and follow-up, respectively, aged 12-18 (M=14.96, SD=1.34) in grades 7-11 at baseline. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess each relationship, the first model controlling for age, gender and chronotype, and the second controlling for outcome variable at baseline. RESULTS: Insomnia symptoms predicted and were predicted by symptoms of each psychiatric disorder in model 1. In model 2, insomnia symptoms predicted symptoms of depression, and vice-versa. Symptoms of insomnia also predicted symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) once SAD, but not vice-versa, in model 2. Symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP) predicted symptoms of insomnia disorder in model 2, but not vice-versa. Insomnia symptoms were no longer related to symptoms of other anxiety disorders in model 2. LIMITATIONS: The use of self-report measures, and potential predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating or preventative factors were not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of insomnia disorder are bidirectionally related to depressive symptoms independent from baseline symptoms, and unidirectionally related to symptoms of OCD and SP where OCD and SP are independent risk-factors of the development of insomnia symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia
6.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 12(8): 1099-103, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306397

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Real life ocular measures of drowsiness use average blink duration, amplitude and velocity of eyelid movements to reflect drowsiness in drivers. However, averaged data may conceal the variability in duration of eyelid closure episodes, and more prolonged episodes that indicate higher levels of drowsiness. The current study aimed to describe the frequency and duration of prolonged eyelid closure episodes during acute sleep deprivation. METHODS: Twenty male professional drivers (mean age ± standard deviation = 41.9 ± 8.3 years) were recruited from the Transport Workers Union newsletter and newspaper advertisements in Melbourne, Australia. Each participant underwent 24 hours of sleep deprivation and completed a simulated driving task (AusEd), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Eyelid closure episodes during the driving task were recorded and analyzed manually from digital video recordings. RESULTS: Eyelid closure episodes increased in frequency and duration with a median of zero s/h of eyelid closure after 3 h increasing to 34 s/h after 23 h awake. Eyelid closure episodes were short and infrequent from 3 to 14 h of wakefulness. After 17 h of sleep deprivation, longer and more frequent eyelid closure episodes began to occur. Episodes lasting from 7 seconds up to 18 seconds developed after 20 h of wakefulness. Length of eyelid closure episodes was moderately to highly correlated with the standard deviation of lateral lane position, braking reaction time, crashes, impaired vigilance, and subjective sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and duration of episodes of prolonged eyelid closure increases during acute sleep deprivation, with very prolonged episodes after 17 hours awake. Automated devices that assess drowsiness using averaged measures of eyelid closure episodes need to be able to detect prolonged eyelid closure episodes that occur during more severe sleep deprivation.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Piscadela/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Austrália , Simulação por Computador , Pálpebras/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sleep Med ; 15(8): 934-41, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24958244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the independent effects of depression and subtypes of anxiety on insomnia, and vice versa, and the independent effect of chronotype on insomnia, depression, and subtypes of anxiety. METHODS: In all, 318 South Australian high school students from grades 7-11 (age range, 12-18years; mean, 14.97±1.34) participated in this cross-sectional study. Validated self-report questionnaires were used to assess insomnia, depression, subtypes of anxiety, and chronotype. RESULTS: After confounder variables were controlled, insomnia predicted depression and panic disorder (PD), whereas insomnia was predicted by depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), separation anxiety (SAD), and social phobia (SP) were not significantly related to insomnia. Eveningness predicted the models in which depression and PD predicted insomnia and vice versa. Eveningness also predicted the models in which insomnia was predicted by OCD, SAD, and SP. CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia independently predicts depression and is predicted by depression and GAD, but not by other forms of anxiety. The independent prediction of insomnia on PD is unlikely to be clinically significant. Chronotype independently predicts and hence is a risk factor for insomnia and depression, but not subtypes of anxiety. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Sleep ; 36(7): 1059-1068, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23814343

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether sleep disturbances are bidirectionally related to anxiety and depression, and thus identify potential risk factors for each problem. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted on 9 studies (8 longitudinal, 1 retrospective) that assessed bidirectionality between a sleep disturbance, and anxiety or depression. Treatment studies were excluded, along with those solely based on clinical samples or cohorts at high risk of suffering from a sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression. Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, and Scopus databases, and reference lists of eligible studies. Publication dates ranged from the beginning of each database to December 2011. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Syntheses of longitudinal studies suggested insomnia and sleep quality were bidirectionally related to anxiety and depression, and depression/anxiety, respectively. Childhood sleep problems significantly predicted higher levels of depression and a combined depression/anxiety variable, but not vice-versa. A one-way relationship was found where anxiety predicted excessive daytime sleepiness, but excessive daytime sleepiness was not associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Definitive conclusions regarding bidirectionality cannot be made for most sleep disturbances due to the small number and heterogeneity of cohort samples used across studies. Nevertheless, best available evidence suggests insomnia is bidirectionally related to anxiety and depression. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. CITATION: Alvaro PK; Roberts RM; Harris JK. A systematic review assessing bidirectionality between sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1059-1068.

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