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1.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 39(6): 373-380, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397769

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a restrictive cardiomyopathy associated with low functional capacity and high mortality rates. Exercise training has been proved to be a nonpharmacological treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise rehabilitation in EMF patients. METHODS: Twenty-two EMF patients, functional classes II and III (New York Heart Association [NYHA]), were randomized to the control (C-EMF) or exercise rehabilitation (Rehab-EMF) group. Patients in the Rehab-EMF group underwent 4 mo of exercise rehabilitation, whereas patients in the C-EMF group were instructed to maintain their usual daily routine. Peak oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2), cardiac function, and quality of life were evaluated. All assessments were performed at baseline and after 4 mo. RESULTS: After 4 mo of rehabilitation, peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 increased in the Rehab-EMF group (17.4 ± 3.0 to 19.7 ± 4.4 mL/kg/min, P < .001), whereas the C-EMF group showed no difference (15.3 ± 3.0 to 15.0 ± 2.0 mL/kg/min, P = .87). Also, post-intervention, peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 in the Rehab-EMF group was greater than that in the C-EMF group (P < .001). Furthermore, the Rehab-EMF group, when compared to the C-EMF group, showed an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (102.1 ± 64.6 to 136.2 ± 75.8 mL vs 114.4 ± 55.0 to 100.4 ± 49.9 mL, P < .001, respectively) and decrease in left atrial diastolic volume (69.0 ± 33.0 to 34.9 ± 15.0 mL vs 44.6 ± 21.0 to 45.6 ± 23.0 mL, P < .001, respectively). Quality-of-life scores also improved in the Rehab-EMF group, whereas the C-EMF group showed no change (45 ± 23 to 27 ± 15 vs 47 ± 15 to 45 ± 17, P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Exercise rehabilitation is a nonpharmacological intervention that improves functional capacity, cardiac volumes, and quality of life in EMF patients after endocardial resection surgery. In addition, exercise rehabilitation should be prescribed to EMF patients to improve their clinical condition.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(3): 426-435, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: We demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have reduced muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In addition, exercise training increased muscle metaboreflex control in heart failure patients. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would increase muscle metaboreflex control of MSNA in patients with OSA. METHODS: Forty-one patients with OSA were randomized into the following two groups: 1) nontrained (OSANT, n = 21) and 2) trained (OSAT, n = 20). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was assessed by microneurography technique, muscle blood flow (FBF) by venous occlusion plethysmography, heart rate by electrocardiography, and blood pressure with an automated oscillometric device. All physiological variables were simultaneously assessed at rest, during isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction, and during posthandgrip muscle ischemia (PHMI). Muscle metaboreflex sensitivity was calculated as the difference in MSNA between PHMI and the rest period. Patients in the OSAT group underwent 72 sessions of moderate exercise training, whereas patients in the OSANT group were clinical follow-up for 6 months. RESULTS: The OSANT and OSAT groups were similar in anthropometric, neurovascular, hemodynamic and sleep parameters. Exercise training reduced the baseline MSNA (34 ± 2 bursts per minute vs 25 ± 2 bursts per minute; P < 0.05) and increased the baseline FBF (2.1 ± 0.2 mL·min per 100 g vs 2.4 ± 0.2 mL·min per 100 g; P < 0.05). Exercise training significantly reduced MSNA levels and increased FBF responses during isometric exercise. Exercise training significantly increased MSNA responses during PHMI (Δ6.5 ± 1 vs -1.7 ± 1 bursts per minute, P < 0.01). No significant changes in FBF or hemodynamic parameters in OSANT patients were found. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training increases muscle metaboreflex sensitivity in patients with OSA. This autonomic change associated with increased muscle blood flow may contribute to the increase in exercise performance in this set of patients.


Assuntos
Exercício , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reflexo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 533-540, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887973

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a rare disease, characterized by diastolic dysfunction which leads to reduced peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been proved to be a fundamental tool to identify central and peripheral alterations. However, most studies prioritize peak VO2 as the main variable, leaving aside other important CPET variables that can specify the severity of the disease and guide the clinical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate central and peripheral limitations in symptomatic patients with EMF by different CPET variables. Methods: Twenty-six EMF patients (functional class III, NYHA) were compared with 15 healthy subjects (HS). Functional capacity was evaluated using CPET and diastolic and systolic functions were evaluated by echocardiography. Results: Age and gender were similar between EMF patients and HS. Left ventricular ejection fraction was normal in EMF patients, but decreased compared to HS. Peak heart rate, peak workload, peak VO2, peak oxygen (O2) pulse and peak pulmonary ventilation (VE) were decreased in EMF compared to HS. Also, EMF patients showed increased Δ heart rate /Δ oxygen uptake and Δ oxygen uptake /Δ work rate compared to HS. Conclusion: Determination of the aerobic capacity by noninvasive respiratory gas exchange during incremental exercise provides additional information about the exercise tolerance in patients with EMF. The analysis of different CPET variables is necessary to help us understand more about the central and peripheral alterations cause by both diastolic dysfunction and restrictive pattern.


Resumo Fundamento: A endomiocardiofibrose (EMF) é uma doença rara, caracterizada por disfunção diastólica que leva à redução consumo de oxigênio (VO2) pico. O teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP) tem se mostrado uma ferramenta fundamental na identificação de alterações centrais e periféricas. No entanto, a maioria dos estudos prioriza o VO2 pico como a variável principal, em detrimento de outras importantes variáveis do TECP que poderiam identificar a gravidade da doença e direcionar o tratamento clínico. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar limitações centrais e periféricas em pacientes com EMF sintomáticos por meio de variáveis do TECP. Métodos: Vinte e seis pacientes com EMF (classe funcional III, NYHA) foram comparados com 15 indivíduos controle saudáveis (CS). A capacidade funcional foi avaliada por TECP e funções sistólicas e diastólicas por ecocardiografia. Resultados: A idade e o gênero foram similares entre pacientes com EMF e CS. A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo foi normal em pacientes com EMF, porém diminuída em comparação aos CS. Os picos de frequência cardíaca, carga de trabalho, VO2, pulso de oxigênio (O2) e da ventilação pulmonar (VE) estavam diminuídos em pacientes com EMF em comparação aos CS. Ainda, os pacientes com EMF apresentaram Δ frequência cardíaca /Δ consumo de oxigênio e Δ consumo de oxigênio /Δ taxa de trabalho aumentados em comparação aos CS. Conclusão: A determinação da capacidade aeróbica por troca respiratória não invasiva durante exercício progressivo fornece informações sobre a tolerância ao exercício em pacientes com EMF. É necessária uma análise das diferentes variáveis do TECP para nos ajudar a compreender mais acerca das alterações centrais e periféricas causadas tanto pela disfunção diastólica como pelo padrão restritivo.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(6): 533-540, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a rare disease, characterized by diastolic dysfunction which leads to reduced peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been proved to be a fundamental tool to identify central and peripheral alterations. However, most studies prioritize peak VO2 as the main variable, leaving aside other important CPET variables that can specify the severity of the disease and guide the clinical treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate central and peripheral limitations in symptomatic patients with EMF by different CPET variables. METHODS: Twenty-six EMF patients (functional class III, NYHA) were compared with 15 healthy subjects (HS). Functional capacity was evaluated using CPET and diastolic and systolic functions were evaluated by echocardiography. RESULTS: Age and gender were similar between EMF patients and HS. Left ventricular ejection fraction was normal in EMF patients, but decreased compared to HS. Peak heart rate, peak workload, peak VO2, peak oxygen (O2) pulse and peak pulmonary ventilation (VE) were decreased in EMF compared to HS. Also, EMF patients showed increased Δ heart rate /Δ oxygen uptake and Δ oxygen uptake /Δ work rate compared to HS. CONCLUSION: Determination of the aerobic capacity by noninvasive respiratory gas exchange during incremental exercise provides additional information about the exercise tolerance in patients with EMF. The analysis of different CPET variables is necessary to help us understand more about the central and peripheral alterations cause by both diastolic dysfunction and restrictive pattern.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Endocárdio/cirurgia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/etiologia , Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ecocardiografia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio
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