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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877587

RESUMO

AIMS: The definition of sarcopenia based on appendicular lean mass/height (2) (ALM/height (2) ) is often used, although it can underestimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in overweight/obese patients with heart failure. Therefore, new methods have been proposed to overcome this limitation. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia by three methods and compare body composition in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 168 male patients with heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction <40%). Sixty-six patients (39.3%) were identified with sarcopenia by at least one method. The lower 20th percentile defined as the cut-off point for sarcopenia was 7.03 kg/m2 , -2.32 and 0.76 for Baumgartner's (20.8%), Newman's (21.4%), and Studenski's methods (21.4%), respectively. Patients with body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2 were more likely to be identified by Baumgartner's than Studenski's method (P < 0.001). However, in patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 , Studenski's and Newman's methods were more likely to detect sarcopenia than Baumgartner's method (both P < 0.005). Patients were further divided into three subgroups: (i) patients classified in all indexes (n = 8), (ii) patients classified in Baumgartner's (sarcopenic; n = 27), and (iii) patients classified in both Newman's and Studenski's methods (sarcopenic obesity; n = 31). Comparing body composition among groups, all sarcopenic groups presented lower total lean mass compared with non-sarcopenic patients, whereas sarcopenic obese patients had higher total lean mass than lean sarcopenic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of sarcopenia in overweight/obese patients is similar to lean sarcopenic patients when other methods are considered. In patients with higher BMI, Studenski's method seems to be more feasible to detect sarcopenia.

2.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4 (Supl)): 393-399, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047325

RESUMO

A testosterona, hormônio masculino com efeitos androgênicos e anabólicos, também exerce efeito sobre o leito vascular. Este hormônio promove vasodilatação através da liberação de óxido nítrico e modulação dos canais de cálcio que impacta a função endotelial. Em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e insuficiência cardíaca (IC), reduções nas concentrações de testosterona total (<300 ng/dL) estão relacionadas com maior mortalidade e severidade dessas doenças. Em pacientes com DAC, a reposição de testosterona (RT) tem relação com melhora do tônus vascular coronário e melhora do limiar de isquemia. Em pacientes com IC, os efeitos parecem estar mais relacionados à melhora da capacidade funcional, aumento na distância percorrida em testes funcionais, maior VO2máx, menor razão VE/VCO2, e melhora adicional da sensibilidade barorreflexa. No entanto, embora os efeitos da testosterona sobre o aumento de massa muscular e força muscular estejam bem estabelecidos na literatura, os efeitos dessa substância no sistema cardiovascular precisam ser elucidados. O aumento das concentrações de antígeno prostático específico da próstata tem sido constantemente discutido quando a RT é proposta no tratamento de pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares. Por se tratar de um hormônio com grande potencial anabólico, os efeitos do uso de quantidades suprafisiológicas de testosterona e seus análogos sobre as alterações cardiovasculares em jovens atletas têm sido estudados. Portanto, o objetivo dessa revisão é abordar os efeitos benéficos da RT em homens com hipogonadismo com DAC e IC, e mostrar os riscos relacionados com a prática indiscriminada do uso de anabolizantes em jovens sem deficiência de testosterona


Testosterone, the male hormone with androgenic and anabolic effects, also has an effect on the vascular bed. This hormone promotes vasodilation by releasing nitric oxide and calcium channel modulation that impacts endothelial function. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), reductions in total testosterone concentrations (<300 ng/dL) are related to higher mortality and severity of these diseases. In patients with CAD, testosterone replacement (TR) is related to improved coronary vascular tone and improved ischemia threshold. In HF patients, the effects seem be more related to improved functional capacity, increased distance covered in functional tests, higher VO2max, lower LV/VCO2 ratio, and further improvement of baroreflex sensitivity. However, although the effects of testosterone on muscle mass gain and muscle strength are well established in the literature, the effects of testosterone on the cardiovascular system need to be elucidated. Increased prostate-specific prostate antigen concentrations have been constantly discussed when TR is proposed in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. Because it is a hormone with great anabolic potential, the effects of supraphysiological amounts of testosterone and its analogues on cardiovascular disorders in young athletes have been studied. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the beneficial effects of TR in men with hypogonadism with CAD and HF, and to show the risks related to anabolic steroids abuse in young people without testosterone deficiency


Assuntos
Testosterona , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Sistema Cardiovascular , Exercício , Vasos Coronários , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica , Hormônios , Hipogonadismo
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(6): 739-746, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011203

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Resting sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired parasympathetic reactivation after exercise have been described in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the association of these autonomic changes in patients with HF and sarcopenia is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of autonomic modulation on sarcopenia in male patients with HF. Methods: We enrolled 116 male patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%. All patients underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Maximal heart rate was recorded and delta heart rate recovery (∆HRR) was assessed at 1st and 2nd minutes after exercise. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition and sarcopenia was defined by the sum of appendicular lean muscle mass (ALM) divided by height in meters squared and handgrip strength. Results: Sarcopenia was identified in 33 patients (28%). Patients with sarcopenia had higher MSNA than those without (47 [41-52] vs. 40 [34-48] bursts/min, p = 0.028). Sarcopenic patients showed lower ∆HRR at 1st (15 [10-21] vs. 22 [16-30] beats/min, p < 0.001) and 2nd min (25 [19-39] vs. 35 [24-48] beats/min, p = 0.017) than non-sarcopenic. There was a positive correlation between ALM and ∆HRR at 1st (r = 0.26, p = 0.008) and 2nd min (r = 0.25, p = 0.012). We observed a negative correlation between ALM and MSNA (r = -0.29, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Sympatho-vagal imbalance seems to be associated with sarcopenia in male patients with HF. These results highlight the importance of a therapeutic approach in patients with muscle wasting and increased peripheral sympathetic outflow.


Resumo Fundamento: Hiperatividade simpática de repouso e uma reativação parassimpática diminuída pós-exercício têm sido descritas em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). No entanto, a associação dessas alterações autonômicas em pacientes com IC sarcopênicos ainda não são conhecidas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto da modulação autonômica sobre sarcopenia em pacientes com IC do sexo masculino. Métodos: Foram estudados 116 pacientes com IC e fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda inferior a 40%. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao teste de exercício cardiopulmonar máximo. A frequência cardíaca máxima foi registrada, e o delta de recuperação da frequência cardíaca (∆RFC) foi avaliado no primeiro e no segundo minuto após o exercício. A atividade nervosa simpática muscular (ANSM) foi registrada por microneurografia. A Absorciometria Radiológica de Dupla Energia foi usada para medir composição cpororal, e a sarcopenia definida como a soma da massa muscular apendicular (MMA) dividida pela altura em metros ao quadrado e força da mão. Resultados: A sarcopenia foi identificada em 33 pacientes (28%). Os pacientes com sarcopenia apresentaram maior ANSM que aqueles sem sarcopenia - 47 (41-52) vs. 40 (34-48) impulsos (bursts)/min, p = 0,028). Pacientes sarcopênicos apresentaram ∆RFC mais baixo no primeiro [15 (10-21) vs. 22 (16-30) batimentos/min, p < 0,001) e no segundo [25 (19-39) vs. 35 (24-48) batimentos/min, p = 0,017) minuto que pacientes não sarcopênicos. Observou-se uma correlação positiva entre a MMA e a ANSM (r = -0,29; p = 0,003). Conclusão: Um desequilíbrio simpático-vagal parece estar associado com sarcopenia em pacientes com IC do sexo masculino. Esses resultados destacam a importância de uma abordagem terapêutica em pacientes com perda muscular e fluxo simpático periférico aumentado.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(6): 739-746, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resting sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired parasympathetic reactivation after exercise have been described in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the association of these autonomic changes in patients with HF and sarcopenia is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of autonomic modulation on sarcopenia in male patients with HF. METHODS: We enrolled 116 male patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%. All patients underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Maximal heart rate was recorded and delta heart rate recovery (∆HRR) was assessed at 1st and 2nd minutes after exercise. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition and sarcopenia was defined by the sum of appendicular lean muscle mass (ALM) divided by height in meters squared and handgrip strength. RESULTS: Sarcopenia was identified in 33 patients (28%). Patients with sarcopenia had higher MSNA than those without (47 [41-52] vs. 40 [34-48] bursts/min, p = 0.028). Sarcopenic patients showed lower ∆HRR at 1st (15 [10-21] vs. 22 [16-30] beats/min, p < 0.001) and 2nd min (25 [19-39] vs. 35 [24-48] beats/min, p = 0.017) than non-sarcopenic. There was a positive correlation between ALM and ∆HRR at 1st (r = 0.26, p = 0.008) and 2nd min (r = 0.25, p = 0.012). We observed a negative correlation between ALM and MSNA (r = -0.29, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Sympatho-vagal imbalance seems to be associated with sarcopenia in male patients with HF. These results highlight the importance of a therapeutic approach in patients with muscle wasting and increased peripheral sympathetic outflow.

5.
Atherosclerosis ; 283: 100-105, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). AAS abuse leads to a remarkable decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma concentration, which could be a key factor in the atherosclerotic process. Moreover, not only the concentration of HDL, but also its functionality, plays a pivotal role in CAD. We tested the functionality of HDL by cholesterol efflux and antioxidant capacity. We also evaluated the prevalence of CAD in AAS users. METHODS: Twenty strength-trained AAS users (AASU) age 29 ±â€¯5 yr, 20 age-matched strength-trained AAS nonusers (AASNU), and 10 sedentary controls (SC) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Functionality of HDL was evaluated by 14C-cholesterol efflux and the ability of HDL in inhibiting LDL oxidation. Coronary artery was evaluated with coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: Cholesterol efflux was lower in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (20 vs. 23 vs. 24%, respectively, p < 0.001). However, the lag time for LDL oxidation was higher in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (41 vs 13 vs 11 min, respectively, p < 0.001). We found at least 2 coronary arteries with plaques in 25% of AASU. None of the AASNU and SC had plaques. The time of AAS use was negatively associated with cholesterol efflux. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that AAS abuse impairs the cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL. Long-term AAS use seems to be correlated with lower cholesterol efflux and early subclinical CAD in this population.

6.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(3): 422-429, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387184

RESUMO

Disturbed shear rate (SR), characterized by increased retrograde and oscillatory SR in the brachial artery, is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Young subjects do not have disturbed SR; however, elderly subjects do, which seems to be associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse in young is associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). We hypothesized that AAS users might have disturbed SR. We tested the association between retrograde and oscillatory SR with MSNA. In addition, we measured the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). We evaluated 10 male AAS users, age 27 ± 4 years, and 10 age-matched AAS nonusers, age 29 ± 5 years. At rest, retrograde and oscillatory SR were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, MSNA was measured with microneurography, and hs-CRP was measured in blood sample. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also assessed. AAS users had higher retrograde SR (24.42 ± 17.25 vs 9.15 ± 6.62 s- 1 , P = 0.01), oscillatory SR (0.22 ± 0.13 vs 0.09 ± 0.07 au P = 0.01), and MSNA (42 ± 9 vs 32 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.018) than nonusers. MSNA (bursts/100 heart beats) was correlated with retrograde SR (r = 0.50, P = 0.050) and oscillatory SR (r = 0.51, P = 0.042). AAS users had higher hs-CRP [1.17 (0.44-3.63) vs 0.29 (0.17-0.70) mg/L, P = 0.015] and decreased FMD (6.42 ± 2.07 vs 8.28% ± 1.53%, P = 0.035) than nonusers. In conclusion, AAS abuse is associated with retrograde and oscillatory SR which were associated with augmented sympathetic outflow. In addition, AAS seems to lead to inflammation characterized by increased hs-CRP. These alterations may have the potential of increasing the early risk of atherosclerotic disease in young AAS users.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Aterosclerose , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Oscilometria , Fatores de Risco , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Adulto Jovem
7.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(3): 596-602, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040222

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and lower forearm blood flow (FBF) were observed in young men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the response of MSNA and FBF in AAS users triggered by muscle mechanoreflex and central command has never been tested. In addition, we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses during these maneuvers. METHODS: Nineteen AAS users (AASU) 31 ± 6 yr of age and 18 AAS nonusers (AASNU) 29 ± 4 yr of age were recruited. All participants were involved in strength training. AAS use was determined using a urine test (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry). MSNA was measured using the microneurography technique. FBF was measured by using venous occlusion plethysmography. BP was measured using an automatic oscillometric device. HR was recorded continuously through ECG. Isometric handgrip exercise was performed at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction for 3 min, and mental stress was elicited by the Stroop color-word test for 4 min. RESULTS: The MSNA and FBF responses during exercise were similar between AASU and AASNU, with a trend toward higher MSNA (bursts per minute; P = 0.084) and lower forearm vascular conductance (FVC; units; P = 0.084) in AASU than in AASNU. During mental stress, AASU showed a significantly higher MSNA (P < 0.05) and lower FBF (P < 0.05) compared with AASNU. During both maneuvers, HR and BP increased linearly in both groups; however, AASU showed a significantly higher HR compared with AASNU. CONCLUSIONS: During muscle mechanoreflex activation (isometric exercise), AASU have normal MSNA and FBF responses, whereas during central command (mental stress) stimulation, AASU have exacerbated MSNA and blunted vasodilation. Therefore, mental stress seems to exacerbate neurovascular control throughout stress reaction situations in AASU.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica , Estresse Psicológico , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Força da Mão , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Vasodilatação
8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 4(3): 341-350, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28772037

RESUMO

AIMS: Autonomic dysfunction determines the advance of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and is related to poor outcomes. However, this autonomic imbalance is unknown in patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) even though they have similar symptoms and poor quality of life as DCM patients have. The aim of this study was to evaluate if autonomic and neurovascular controls were altered in RCM patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen RCM patients, 10 DCM patients, and 10 healthy subjects were evaluated. Heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Peripheral sympathetic activity [muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)] by microneurography and cardiac sympathetic activity by power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was evaluated by the sequence method and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Both cardiomyopathy groups had higher MSNA frequency (P < 0.001) and MSNA incidence (P < 0.001), higher cardiac sympathovagal balance (P < 0.02), reduced BRS for increase (P = 0.002) and for decrease in BP (P = 0.002), and lower forearm blood flow (P < 0.001) compared with healthy subjects. We found an inverse correlation between BRS for increase and decrease in BP and peripheral sympathetic activity (r = -0.609, P = 0.001 and r = -0.648, P < 0.001, respectively) and between BRS for increase and decrease in BP and cardiac sympathetic activity (r = -0.503, P = 0.03 and r = -0.487, P = 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The RCM patients had cardiac and peripheral autonomic dysfunctions associated with peripheral vasoconstriction. Nonetheless, the presence of normal ejection fraction underestimates the evolution of the disease and makes clinical treatment difficult. These alterations could lead to a similar cardiovascular risk as that observed in DCM patients.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 91(5): 575-86, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether combined testosterone replacement and exercise training (ET) therapies would potentiate the beneficial effects of isolated therapies on neurovascular control and muscle wasting in patients with heart failure (HF) with testosterone deficiency. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 10, 2010, through July 25, 2013, 39 male patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class III, total testosterone level less than 249 ng/dL (to convert to nmol/L, multiply by .03467), and free testosterone level less than 131 pmol/L were randomized to training (4-month cycloergometer training), testosterone (intramuscular injection of testosterone undecylate for 4 months), and training + testosterone groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was measured using microneurography, forearm blood flow using plethysmography, body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and functional capacity using cardiopulmonary test. Skeletal muscle biopsy was performed in the vastus lateralis. RESULTS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased in ET groups (training, P<.01; training + testosterone, P<.01), whereas no changes were observed in the testosterone group (P=.89). Forearm blood flow was similar in all groups. Lean mass increased in ET groups (training, P<.01; training + testosterone, P<.01), whereas lean mass decreased in the testosterone group (P<.01). The response of cross-sectional area of type I (P<.01) and type II (P<.05) fibers increased in the training + testosterone group as compared with the isolated testosterone group. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence for a superior effect of combined ET and testosterone replacement therapies on muscle sympathetic nerve activity, muscle wasting, and functional capacity in patients with HF with testosterone deficiency.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Análise de Variância , Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Androgênios/deficiência , Androgênios/fisiologia , Biópsia , Composição Corporal , Brasil , Terapia Combinada , Teste de Esforço , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Pletismografia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Músculo Quadríceps/metabolismo , Músculo Quadríceps/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Testosterona/deficiência , Testosterona/fisiologia
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(3): 256-264, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-761506

RESUMO

Background:Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown.Objective:We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF.Methods:Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients.Results:Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001).Conclusion:These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.


Fundamento:A deficiência de testosterona na insuficiência cardíaca (IC) está associada à diminuição da capacidade de exercício e mortalidade, mas o seu impacto sobre as readmissões é incerto. Além disso, sua relação com a ativação simpática é desconhecida.Objetivo:O presente estudo investigou o papel dos níveis de testosterona nas reinternações hospitalares, na mortalidade e na atividade nervosa simpática em pacientes com IC.Métodos:A testosterona total (TT) e a testosterona livre (TL) foram medidas em 110 pacientes do sexo masculino hospitalizados, com fração de ejeção < 45% eclassificação funcional da New York Heart Association (NYHA) IV, qualificados em dois grupos: 66 com baixos níveis de testosterona (BT) e 44 com testosterona normal (TN). Hipogonadismo foi definido como TT < 300 ng/dL e TL < 131 pmol/L. A atividade nervosa simpática muscular (ANSM) foi gravada por microneurografia em uma subpopulação de 27 pacientes.Resultados:O tempo de permanência hospitalar foi maior em pacientes BT em comparação com pacientes TN (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 dias; p = 0,008). Da mesma forma, o risco cumulativo de readmissão no período de um ano foi maior em pacientes BT (44% vs. 22%, p = 0,001). Na análise de uma única variável preditora, a testosterona total (HR = 2,77, IC 95% 1,58-4,85, p = 0,02) previu readmissão hospitalar no prazo de 90 dias. Na análise de uma única variável preditora, testosterona total (HR = 4,65, IC 95% 2,67-8,10, p = 0,009) e readmissão dentro de 90 dias (HR = 3,27, IC 95% 1,23-8,69, p = 0,02) previram aumento de mortalidade. Ativação neuro-humoral, estimada pela ANSM, foi significativamente maior nos pacientes BT em comparação aos do grupo TN (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 disparos/100BC; p < 0,001).Conclusão:Estes resultados sustentam o conceito de que BT é um fator de risco independente para a readmissão hospitalar dentro de 90 dias e para aumento de mortalidade em pacientes com IC. Além disso, observou-se aumento da ANSM em pacientes com baixos níveis de testosterona.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente , Testosterona/deficiência , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Tempo de Internação , Valores de Referência , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Testosterona/análise , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
11.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 105(3): 256-64, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. METHODS: Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. RESULTS: Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67-8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23-8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente , Testosterona/deficiência , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Testosterona/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
12.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 17(supl.A): 21-24, jan.-mar. 2007.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-458216

RESUMO

O uso de esteróides anabolizantes com finalidades terapêuticas é importante para o tratamento de pacientes em fase de recuperação cirúrgica e para o tratamento de atrofias musculares, osteoporose e câncer de mama. Além disso, os esteróides previnem a perda e massa magra, reduzem o aumento de tecido adiposo e estimulam a eritropoiese. Essa experiência, no entanto, fez com que os anabolizantes passassem a ser utilizados com o objetivo de aumentar o desempenho físico como a aparência física são os dois maiores motivos para o uso de esteróides anavolizantes. Essa conduta favorece o uso indiscriminado e abusivo de esteróides, expondo seus usuários a riscos de saúde. Os esteróides anabolizantes são um subgrupo dos andrógenos, derivados da testosterona. Embora essas drogas podem aumentar o desempenho físico e melhorar a composição corporal, doses excessivas podem trazer diversas alterações deletérias, principalmente para o sistema cardiovascular.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Cardiomegalia/complicações , Cardiomegalia/diagnóstico , Sistema Cardiovascular
13.
RBCF, Rev. bras. ciênc. farm. (Impr.) ; 41(4): 467-476, out.-dez. 2005. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-433324

RESUMO

Esteróides androgênicos anabólicos (EAA) são substâncias naturais sintéticas ou semi-sintéticas derivadas da testosterona, utilizadas em atividades esportivas com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho físico pelo aumento de massa e força muscular. Apesar de causarem efeitos tóxicos graves, principalmente sobre os sistemas cardiovascular, hepático e neuro-endócrino, os EAA têm sido amplamente utilizados no âmbito esportivo. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a validação de um método para a determinação de esteróides e/ou seus produtos de biotransformação em amostras de urina por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM). O método baseou-se na hidrólise enzimática de esteróides conjugados, no emprego da extração...


Assuntos
Masculino , Humanos , Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Anabolizantes/toxicidade , Anabolizantes/urina , Doping nos Esportes , Resistência Física , Cromatografia Gasosa , Hidrólise , Espectrometria de Massas , Qualidade da Água
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