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Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292750


PURPOSE: Little is known about the effects of leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms on lipid changes during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of leptin and leptin receptor genes and the lipid concentrations during pregnancy; and to test whether dietary intake is a mediator in these associations. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 154 pregnant women was followed up in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil during the following gestational periods: 5-13th, 20-26th and 30-36th weeks. HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) were measured by the enzymatic colorimetric method, and LDL-C was calculated. DNA was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method, and leptin (G2548A, rs7799039) and leptin receptor SNPs (Q223R; rs1137101 and K109R; rs1137100) were genotyped using real-time PCR. Statistical analyses included linear mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Women with the AA genotype of G2548A polymorphism reported a higher fat and total energy intake and had a higher increase in TG concentration during pregnancy than women with AG or GG genotype. The association between G2548A SNP and TG concentrations was not attenuated by adjusting for total lipid (g) and energy (kcal) intake. We did not observe significant associations between the Q223R and K109R SNPs and the lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Women homozygous for the A allele of the leptin SNP (G2548A) had a higher increase in TG concentrations per gestational week compared with women with the AG or GG genotype. This is an exploratory and hypothesis-generating study, and the results need confirmation in studies with larger sample sizes.'

J Acad Nutr Diet ; 119(9): 1439-1451, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053516


BACKGROUND: Dietary intake may be associated with neonatal outcomes, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary pattern (DP). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between prepregnancy DPs and perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study during pregnancy (baseline between 5 and 13 gestational week and three follow-up visits: 20 to 26 gestational weeks, 30 to 36 gestational weeks, and 30 to 40 days postpartum, respectively). Diet was assessed in the first trimester using a food frequency questionnaire and having prepregnancy as the time frame. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Two hundred fifty-three pregnant women met the following eligibility criteria (20 to 40 years of age, 5 to 13 weeks of gestation at baseline, free of chronic [except obesity] or infectious diseases, and with a singleton pregnancy). The final sample was composed of 193 pregnant women attending a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2009 to 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type of delivery, large for gestational age (LGA), birth length (BL)>90th percentile, Apgar score<7 at 1 minute, and preterm birth. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Reduced rank regression was used to identify prepregnancy DPs that explain the following response variables: fiber density (daily dietary fiber intake in grams, divided by total daily energy intake in kilocalories), dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat. Statistical analyses included multiple logistic regression models. The following covariates were defined as confounders based on a unique Direct Acyclic Graph for each outcome: maternal age, current smoker, alcohol consumption, years of education, and first-trimester leisure physical activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of normal delivery was 56.7%. LGA occurred in 16%, BL>90th percentile in 24.3%, Apgar score<7 at 1 minute in 14.2%, and preterm birth in 9.5% of the study population. Three DPs were identified: "fast food and candies" was associated with higher odds of LGA (odds ratio [OR]=4.38, 95% CI: 1.32 to 14.48) and BL>90th percentile (OR=4.81, 95% CI: 1.77 to 13.07); "beans, bread, and fat" was inversely associated with Apgar score<7 at 1 minute (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.70); and "vegetables and dairy" was inversely associated with preterm birth (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.97). There was no association between adherence to DPs and type of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to fast food and candies prepregnancy DP increased the odds of LGA birth, while a higher adherence to vegetables and dairy DP decreased the odds of preterm birth.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873290


Background: Periodontitis is a common oral inflammation, which is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium are inversely associated with occurrence and progression of periodontitis. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a multi-component intervention, including provision of milk powder supplemented with calcium and vitamin D and periodontal therapy (PT), for improving maternal periodontal health and metabolic and inflammatory profiles of low-income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis. Methods: The IMPROVE trial is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design with a parallel process evaluation. Pregnant women with periodontitis, aged 18-40 years and with < 20 gestational weeks (n = 120) were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups: (1) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (2) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (3) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT after delivery and (4) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT after delivery. Dentists and participants are blinded to fortification. Acceptability of study design, recruitment strategy, random allocation, data collection procedures, recruitment rate, adherence and attrition rate will be evaluated. Data on serum levels of vitamin D, calcium and inflammatory biomarkers; clinical periodontal measurements; anthropometric measurements; and socio-demographic questionnaires are collected at baseline, third trimester and 6-8 weeks postpartum. Qualitative data are collected using focus group, for analysis of favourable factors and barriers related to study adherence. Discussion: Oral health and mineral/vitamin supplementation are much overlooked in the public prenatal assistance in Brazil and of scarcity of clinical trials addressing these issues in low and middle-income countries,. To fill this gap the present study was designed to assess the feasibility of a RCT on acceptability of a multi-component intervention combining conventional periodontal treatment and consumption of milk fortified with calcium-vitamin D for improving periodontal conditions and maternal metabolic and inflammation status, among Brazilian low-income pregnant women with periodontitis. Thus, we hope that this relatively low-cost and safe multicomponent intervention can help reduce inflammation, improve maternal periodontal health and metabolic profile and consequently prevent negative gestational outcomes. Trial registration: NCT, NCT03148483. Registered on May 11, 2017.

Br J Nutr ; 121(1): 42-54, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588902


This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of vitamin D status with glycaemia, insulin, homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin and leptin. A prospective cohort with 181 healthy, pregnant Brazilian women was followed at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th gestational weeks. In this cohort, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) plasma concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Vitamin D status was categorised as sufficient or insufficient using the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines (≥75/<75 nmol/l) and the Institute of Medicine (≥50/<50 nmol/l) thresholds. Linear mixed-effect regression models were employed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and each outcome, considering interaction terms between vitamin D status and gestational age (P<0·1). At baseline, 70·7 % of pregnant women had 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/l and 16 % had levels <50 nmol/l. Women with sufficient vitamin D status at baseline, using both thresholds, presented lower glycaemia than those with insufficient 25(OH)D. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/l showed lower insulin (ß=-0·12; 95 % CI -0·251, 0·009; P=0·069) and adiponectin (ß=-0·070; 95 % CI -0·150, 0·010; P=0·085) concentrations throughout pregnancy than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l at baseline presented significantly higher leptin concentrations than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/l (ß=-0·253; 95 % CI -0·044, 0·550; P=0·095). The baseline status of vitamin D influences the biomarkers involved in glucose metabolism. Vitamin D-sufficient women at baseline had higher increases in insulin and adiponectin changes throughout gestation than those who were insufficient.

Adipocinas/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126176


No studies showing that food consumption is a modifier of the association of variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with body weight have involved a Brazilian population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modifying effect of dietary intake on the association between the LEPR gene and excess weight. In this study, 1211 children and adolescents aged 4⁻11 years were assessed. Participants were genotyped for 112 single-nucleotide variants of the LEPR gene. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and dietary data were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to study the associations of interest. Of the participants, 13.4% were overweight/obese. The risk allele (G) of the rs1137100 variant was associated with excess weight in individuals with fat consumption below the median (odds ratio OR = 1.92; 95% confidence interval CI = 1.18⁻3.14), with daily frequency of consumption of drink/artificial juice (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26⁻3.68) and refined cereals (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.31⁻3.62) above the median. The risk allele (G) of variant rs1177681 was also associated with excess weight (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.65⁻4.57) in subjects with a daily frequency of refined cereal consumption above the median. The association between LEPR and excess weight can be modulated by the type and distribution of dietary fatty acids, sugary drinks, and refined cereals.

Peso Corporal , Sobrepeso/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Alelos , Bebidas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
Appetite ; 105: 164-71, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27233369


OBJECTIVE: To estimate food intake changes from pre-conception to gestational period according to the degree of food processing. METHODS: Prospective cohort conducted in a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro with Brazilian pregnant women (n = 189). A food frequency questionnaire was applied at the first (5(th)-13(th)) and third (30(th)-36(th)) gestational trimesters. The food items were classified according to characteristics of food processing in four groups: unprocessed/minimally processed foods; sugar/fat; processed foods and ultra-processed foods. The variation of food intake according to the degree of processing between the pre-conception and gestational period was compared using paired Student's t-test. Linear regression models were performed to estimate the association of mother's characteristics on the variation of food group contribution to the total energy intake between periods. RESULTS: Total energy intake was 2415 (SD = 813) in the pre-conception and 2379 (750) kcal in the gestational period. We excluded women who had implausible total energy intake (<600 and >6000 kcal/day). The contribution of unprocessed/minimally processed food group to total energy intake during pregnancy when compared to the pre-conception period was higher [50.5 (14.1) vs. 48.8 (12.4), p-value = 0.048], while the caloric share of ultra-processed food group was lower [41.3 (14.6) vs. 43.1 (12.5), p-value = 0.032]. We observed a negative association of age (p-value = 0.009) and a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI (p-value = 0.060) with the variation of ultra-processed food intake. CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-processed food intake decreased, while minimally/unprocessed food intake slightly increased from the pre-conception to gestational period. These results indicate potential for a larger improvement in the women's diet quality and that nutritional counseling interventions in pregnant women are still needed.

Manipulação de Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Cooperação do Paciente , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Magreza/etnologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto Jovem