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1.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-9, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Optimizing patient discharge after surgery has been shown to impact patient recovery and hospital/physician workflow and to reduce healthcare costs. In the current study, the authors sought to identify risk factors for nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy by using a national spine registry. METHODS: The Quality Outcomes Database cervical module was queried for patients who had undergone surgery for cervical myelopathy between 2016 and 2018. Nonroutine discharge was defined as discharge to postacute care (rehabilitation), nonacute care, or another acute care hospital. A multivariable logistic regression predictive model was created using an array of demographic, clinical, operative, and patient-reported outcome characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 1114 patients identified, 11.2% (n = 125) had a nonroutine discharge. On univariate analysis, patients with a nonroutine discharge were more likely to be older (age ≥ 65 years, 70.4% vs 35.8%, p < 0.001), African American (24.8% vs 13.9%, p = 0.007), and on Medicare (75.2% vs 35.1%, p < 0.001). Among the patients younger than 65 years of age, those who had a nonroutine discharge were more likely to be unemployed (70.3% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001). Overall, patients with a nonroutine discharge were more likely to present with a motor deficit (73.6% vs 58.7%, p = 0.001) and more likely to have nonindependent ambulation (50.4% vs 14.0%, p < 0.001) at presentation. On multivariable logistic regression, factors associated with higher odds of a nonroutine discharge included African American race (vs White, OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.38-5.51, p = 0.004), Medicare coverage (vs private insurance, OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.00-4.65, p = 0.04), nonindependent ambulation at presentation (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.17-4.02, p = 0.01), baseline modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association severe myelopathy score (0-11 vs moderate 12-14, OR 2, 95% CI 1.07-3.73, p = 0.01), and posterior surgical approach (OR 11.6, 95% CI 2.12-48, p = 0.004). Factors associated with lower odds of a nonroutine discharge included fewer operated levels (1 vs 2-3 levels, OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.96, p = 0.009) and a higher quality of life at baseline (EQ-5D score, OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.73, p = 0.001). On predictor importance analysis, baseline quality of life (EQ-5D score) was identified as the most important predictor (Wald χ2 = 9.8, p = 0.001) of a nonroutine discharge; however, after grouping variables into distinct categories, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (age, race, gender, insurance status, employment status) were identified as the most significant drivers of nonroutine discharge (28.4% of total predictor importance). CONCLUSIONS: The study results indicate that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics including age, race, gender, insurance, and employment may be the most significant drivers of a nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy.

2.
J Neurooncol ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973145

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of spinal meningiomas are grade I tumors, as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) classification making atypical (grade II) or anaplastic (grade III) tumors extremely rare lesions to encounter in clinical practice. Here, we present our institutional experience of management of grade II and III spinal meningiomas. METHODS: Following IRB approval, we queried all available institutional electronic medical records for patients undergoing surgical resection of pathology-proven spinal meningiomas, with further review of patients with grade II and III. Variables of interest included age, sex, histological type, tumor size, symptoms at baseline, treatment characteristics, symptom resolution at the last follow-up, recurrence, NF-2 status, concurrent intracranial meningioma, and mortality. Kaplan Meier curves were constructed to study time to progression/recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 188 patients undergoing surgical resection of spinal meningioma between 1988 and 2018 were identified. Among those, 172 (91.5%) patients had grade I meningioma and 16 (8.5%) patients had high grade meningiomas [grade II (15) and III (1)]. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 8.0 years (5.1-13.0), mortality and recurrence rates were 18.8% (n = 3) and 47.1% (n = 8), respectively. In univariate analysis, adjuvant radiotherapy and thoracic segment involvement were associated with lower rates of recurrence while male sex was associated with a higher rate of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed variations in clinical outcomes for patients with high grade spinal meningiomas, especially the recurrence. Adjuvant radiotherapy and thoracic segment involvement was associated with lower rates of recurrence while recurrence ocurred at a higher rate in males.

3.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT-guided biopsy is a commonly used diagnostic procedure for spinal lesions. This meta-analysis aims to investigate its diagnostic performance and complications, as well as factors influencing outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies reporting outcomes of CT-guided biopsies for spinal lesions. Diagnostic yield (ie, the rate of procedures resulting in a specific pathological diagnosis) and diagnostic accuracy (ie, the rate of procedures resulting in the correct diagnosis) were the primary outcomes of interest. Complications following biopsy procedures were also included. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies with 3917 patients undergoing 4181 procedures were included. Diagnostic yield per procedure was 91% (95% CI 88% to 94%) among 3598 procedures. The most common reason for non-diagnostic biopsies was inadequacy of sample. No difference in diagnostic yield between different locations and between lytic, sclerotic, and mixed lesions was found. Diagnostic yield did not differ between procedures using ≤13G and ≥14G needles. Diagnostic accuracy per procedure was 86% (95% CI 82% to 89%) among 3054 procedures. Diagnostic accuracy among 2426 procedures that yielded a diagnosis was 94% (95% CI 92% to 96%). Complication rate was 1% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.9%) among 3357 procedures. Transient pain and minor hematoma were the most common complications encountered. CONCLUSION: In our meta-analysis of 39 studies reporting diagnostic performance and complications of CT-guided biopsy, we found a diagnostic yield of 91% and diagnostic accuracy of 86% with a complication rate of 1%. Diagnostic yield did not differ between different locations, between lytic, sclerotic and mixed lesions, and between wide- and thin-bore needles.

5.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 201: 106438, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management following spine surgery remains a challenge. The significant use of opioids may lead to opioid-related adverse events. These complications can increase perioperative morbidity and rapidly expend health care resources by developing chronic pain. Although intraoperative pain control for surgery has been studied in the literature, a thorough assessment of the effect in spine surgery is rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to examine the outcomes of intraoperative intravenous lidocaine and intrawound or epidural bupivacaine use in spine surgery. METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted for studies on the use of lidocaine and bupivacaine in spine surgery for all years available. Only articles in English language were included. Postoperative opioid consumption, VAS score, nausea/vomiting, and length of hospital stay comprised the outcomes of interest. Pooled descriptive statistics with Risk Ratios (RR), Mean Differences (MD) and 95 % confidence interval were used to synthesize the outcomes for each medication. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies (n = 579) were included in the analysis. Comparison of the opioid consumption revealed a significant mean difference between lidocaine and bupivacaine (MD: -12.25, and MD: -0.4, respectively, p = 0.01), favoring lidocaine. With regard to postoperative VAS, the pooled effect of both groups decreased postoperative pain (MD: -0.61 (95 % CI: -1.14, -0.08)), with a more significant effect in the lidocaine group (MD: -0.84, (95 % CI: -1.21, -0.48)). There was no significant effect in length of stay, and postoperative nausea/vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present meta-analysis indicate that lidocaine and bupivacaine use may decrease postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Lidocaine had a stronger effect on the reduction of opioid consumption compared to bupivacaine.

6.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 79(5): 1026.e1-1026.e8, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study fills the vacancy of litigation research related to trigeminal neuralgia management, giving health care providers the information needed to understand the potential litigious outcomes that follow treatment methods. METHODS: We queried the Westlaw database to identify litigation cases related to trigeminal neuralgia management. Key variables extracted included medical complaints, trial outcomes, and demographics. Continuous variables were compared between cases in favor of defendant and cases in favor of plaintiff using t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. Categorial variables were compared using χ2 or Fisher exact test. RESULTS: About 49 cases met the inclusion criteria-for those cases surgical complications (42.9%) were cited as the most common reasons for malpractice claims. Cranial nerve deficits (34.7%) were the most frequent postoperative complaints. Verdicts ruled in favor of the plaintiff in 26.5% of cases with a mean payout of $1,982,428.46. Dentists were included in the most cases, 63.3%, and the average payout was $415,908, whereas neurosurgeons were involved in 20.4% of cases with an average payout of $618,775. Cases with verdicts in favor of the plaintiff were more likely to be older than cases with verdicts in favor of the defendant (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Over one-half of cases resulted in verdicts in favor of the defendant with surgical complications cited as the most common reason for litigation. Dentistry was the most common individual clinical specialty for defendants, whereas neurosurgery contributed to the largest average payout based on specialty (for n > 1). Cranial nerve deficits were the most common plaintiff postoperative complaints. These analyses may help doctor teams involved in management of trigeminal neuralgia to have a more informed discussion with the patient at every visit so that such litigations may be avoided.

7.
World Neurosurg ; 149: 249-264.e1, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expandable cages have been increasingly used in cervical and lumbar reconstructions; however, there is a paucity in the literature on how they compare with traditional nonexpandable cages in the cervical spine. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis, comparing the clinical and radiologic outcomes of expandable versus nonexpandable corpectomy cage use in the cervical spine. METHODS: A database search identified studies detailing the outcomes of expandable and nonexpandable titanium cage use in the cervical spine. These studies were screened using the PRISMA protocol. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used with a 95% confidence interval. Two analyses were carried out for each outcome: one including all studies and the other including only studies reporting on exclusively 1-level and 2-level cases. RESULTS: Forty-one studies were included. The mean change in segmental lordosis was significantly greater in expandable cages (all, 6.72 vs. 3.69°, P < 0.001; 1-level and 2-level, 6.81° vs. 4.31°, P < 0.001). The mean change in cervical lordosis was also significantly greater in expandable cages (all, 5.71° vs. 3.11°, P = 0.027; 1-level and 2-level, 5.71° vs. 2.07°, P = 0.002). No significant difference was found between the complication rates (all, P = 0.43; 1-level and 2-level, P = 0.94); however, the proportion of revisions was significantly greater in expandable cages (all, 0.06 vs. 0.02, P = 0.03; 1-level and 2-level, 0.08 vs. 0.01, P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The use of expandable cages may carry a modest improvement in radiologic outcomes compared with nonexpandable cages in the cervical spine; however, they may also lead to a higher rate of revisions based on our analyses.

8.
Neurospine ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494555

RESUMO

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) pose an immense challenge from a clinical perspective as current treatments and interventions have been found to provide marginal improvements in clinical outcome (with varying degrees of success) particularly in areas of motor and autonomic function. In this review, the pathogenesis of SCI will be described, particularly as it relates to the necroptotic pathway which has been implicated in limiting recovery of SCI via its roles in neuronal cell death, glial scarring, inflammation, and axonal demyelination and degeneration. Major mediators of the necroptotic pathway including RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL will be described in detail regarding their role in facilitating necroptosis. Additionally, due to the rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory markers, the onset of necroptosis can begin within hours following SCI, thus developing therapeutics that readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and inhibit necroptosis during these critical periods of inflammation are imperative in preventing irreversible damage. As such, current therapeutic interventions regarding SCI and targeting of the necroptotic pathway will be explored as will discussion of potential future therapeutics that show promise in minimizing long-term or permanent damage to the spinal cord following severe injury.

9.
J Neurooncol ; 152(2): 299-311, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481148

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been increasingly employed to treat patients with intracranial metastasis, both as a salvage treatment after failed whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and as an initial treatment. "Several studies have shown that SRS may be as effective as WBRT with the added benefit of preserving neuro-cognition". However, some patients may have local failure following SRS for intracranial metastasis, defined as increase in total lesion volume by 25% after at least 3 months of follow up. METHODS: The SRS registry, established by the Neuro point alliance (NPA) under the auspices of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), was queried for patients with intracranial metastasis receiving SRS at the participating sites. Demographic, clinical symptoms, tumor, and treatment characteristics as well as follow up status were summarized for the cohort. A multivariable explanatory cox- regression was performed to evaluate the impact of each of the factors on time to local failure.at last follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 441 patients with 1255 intracranial metastatic lesions undergoing SRS were identified. The most common primary cancer histology was non-small cell lung cancer (43.8%, n = 193). More than half of the cohort had more than 1 metastatic lesion (2-3 lesions: 29.5%, n = 130; more than 3 lesions: 25.2% (n = 111). The average duration of follow-up for the cohort was found to be 8.4 months (SD = 7.61). The mean clinical treatment volume (CTV), after adding together the volume of each lesion for each patient was 5.39 cc (SD = 7.6) at baseline. A total of 20.2% (n = 89) had local failure (increase in volume by > 25%) with a mean time to progression of 7.719 months (SD = 6.09). The progression free survival (PFS) for the cohort at 3, 6 and 12 months were found to be 94.9%, 84.3%, and 69.4%, respectively. On multivariable cox regression analysis, factors associated with increased hazard of local failure included male gender (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.03-2.66, p = 0.037), chemotherapy at or before SRS (HR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.41-4.05, p = 0.001), WBRT at or before SRS (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.16- 4.22, p = 0.017), while surgical resection (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0. 97, p = 0.04) and immunotherapy (0.34, 95% CI 0.16-0.50, p = 0.014) were associated with lower hazard of local failure. CONCLUSION: Factors found to be predictive of local failure included higher RPA score and those receiving chemotherapy, while patients undergoing surgical resection and those with occipital lobe lesions were less likely to experience local failure. Our analyses not only corroborate those previously reported but also demonstrate the utility of a multi-institutional registry to advance real-world SRS research for patients with intracranial metastatic lesions.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 148: 118-126, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative vascular injuries in the cervical spine are rare, but carry significant morbidity and mortality when they do occur. There is a need to better characterize the risk of vertebral artery injury (VAI) after posterior C1-C2 fusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of VAI in patients undergoing posterior C1-C2 cervical fusion. METHODS: An electronic database search was performed to identify studies that reported rates of VAI following posterior cervical fusion at C1-C2 level. Patient-specific risk factors, surgical indication, surgical technique, and other data were collected for each study. Forest plots were created to outline the pooled ratios of VAI in the literature. RESULTS: Eleven studies with 773 patients were identified. Mean age of patients was 48.47 years (range, 6-78 years), and most patients were female (61.7%, n = 399). Trauma was the most frequent indication for surgery (18.8%, n = 146), followed by inflammatory processes affecting the vertebrae (13.2%, n = 102). The rate of VAI per patient was 2% (95% confidence interval = 1%-4%) among 773 patients, while injury rate per screw was 1% (95% confidence interval = 0%-2%) among 2238 screws placed. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of VAI after C1-C2 posterior cervical fusion was found to be 2% for each operated patient and 1% for each screw placed.

11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 201: 106429, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective lumbar fusion is a commonly employed procedure for degenerative lumbar spine disease. With healthcare costs rising reimbursement for procedures may be restricted by payers. Additionally, patients may undergo elective fusion once deductibles are covered, typically in the fourth quarter in a given year. The objective of this study was to analyze the trends in utilization for posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) earlier in the year (Q1-Q3) as compared to the end of the year(Q4). Variations in this proposed trend by insurance type were also studied as a primary outcome. METHODS: We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014 for patients diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease (DDD). Outcomes of interest included utilization and frequency of PLF. RESULTS: 221,466 patients hospitalized with Lumbar DDD between 2012 and 2014 were identified. Of these, 67,343(30.4 %) underwent a PLF procedure. The likelihood of lumbar fusion in patients hospitalized with DDD was significantly higher in the 4th quarter, compared to 1st quarter (OR1.13, p < 0.001). Marginal effect analysis indicated that Medicare patients were 1.0 % more likely to undergo PLF in quarter 4 compared to quarters 1-3 (p = 0.003), while privately insured patients were 2.5 % more likely to undergo PLF in quarter 4 compared to quarters 1-3(p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that utilization of PLF is higher at the end of the year relative to the beginning, especially for patients with private insurance. This may be due to deductibles that have previously been paid off, lowering out-of-pocket expenses.

12.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; : 106356, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Safety-net hospitals provide care to a substantial share of disadvantaged patient populations. Whether disparities exist between safety-net hospitals and their counterparts in performing emergent neurosurgical procedures has not yet been examined. OBJECTIVE: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a national all-payer inpatient healthcare database, to determine whether safety-net hospitals provide equitable care after decompressive surgery for acute cauda equina syndrome (CES). METHODS: The NIS from 2002 to 2011 was queried for patients with a diagnosis of acute CES who received decompressive surgery. Hospital safety-net burden was designated as low (LBH), medium (MBH), or high (HBH) based on the proportion of inpatient admissions that were billed as Medicaid, self-pay, or charity care. Etiologies of CES were classified as degenerative, neoplastic, trauma, and infectious. Significance was defined at p < 0.01. RESULTS: A total of 5607 admissions were included in this analysis. HBHs were more likely than LBHs to treat patients who were Black, Hispanic, on Medicaid, or had a traumatic CES etiology (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient, hospital, and clinical factors treatment at an HBH was not associated with greater inpatient adverse events (p = 0.611) or LOS (p = 0.082), but was associated with greater inflation-adjusted admission cost (p = 0.001). DISCUSSION: Emergent decompressive surgery for CES performed at SNHs is associated with greater inpatient costs, but not greater inpatient adverse events or LOS. Differences in workflows at SNHs may be the drivers of these disparities in cost and warrant further investigation.

13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(11): 2370-2381, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a digital surveillance model using Google Trends is feasible for obtaining accurate data on coronavirus disease 2019 and whether accurate predictions can be made regarding new cases. METHODS: Data on total and daily new cases in each US state were collected from January 22, 2020, to April 6, 2020. Information regarding 10 keywords was collected from Google Trends, and correlation analyses were performed for individual states as well as for the United States overall. RESULTS: Among the 10 keywords analyzed from Google Trends, face mask, Lysol, and COVID stimulus check had the strongest correlations when looking at the United States as a whole, with R values of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.79, respectively. Lag and lead Pearson correlations were assessed for every state and all 10 keywords from 16 days before the first case in each state to 16 days after the first case. Strong correlations were seen up to 16 days prior to the first reported cases in some states. CONCLUSION: This study documents the feasibility of syndromic surveillance of internet search terms to monitor new infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019. This information could enable better preparation and planning of health care systems.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Ferramenta de Busca/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208006

RESUMO

Viral infections have been associated with the deleterious damage to nervous system resulting in impairment of the central nervous system (CNS) as late sequalae infections. Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), several studies have reported patients developing adverse neurological signs and symptoms. Like the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, the recent outbreak has undermined the norm of the nervous system. This review will summarize the possible mechanism of neurological manifestations, the clinical presentations of patients with such symptoms secondary to SARS coronaviruses, and the prospective role of neurology and neurosurgery practice in managing these symptoms in the current climate.

15.
Spinal Cord ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139846

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. OBJECTIVES: Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have recently been shown to hold great therapeutic potential for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, majority of the studies have been done using human cells transplanted into the rat with immunosuppression; this may not represent the outcomes that occur in humans. Herein, we present the therapeutic effect of using rat UC-MSCs (rUC-MSC) without immunosuppression in a rat model of SCI. SETTING: Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. METHODS: Twelve female rats were randomly divided into two groups, control, and rUC-MSC group, and then subjected to a T9 moderate contusion SCI. Next, 2 × 106 rUC-MSCs or ringer-lactate solution were injected through the tail vein at 7 days post injury. Rats were assessed for 14 weeks by an open-field Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) motor score as well as postmortem quantification of axonal sparing/regeneration, cavity volume, and glial scar. RESULTS: Animals treated with rUC-MSCs were found to have early and sustained motor improvement (BBB score of 14.6 ± 1.9 compared to 10.1 ± 1.7 in the control group) at 14 weeks post injury (mean difference: 4.55, 95% CI: 2.04 to 7.06; p value < 0.001). Total cavity volume in the injury epicenter was significantly reduced in the rUC-MSC group; control: 33.0% ± 2.1, rUC-MSC: 25.3% ± 3.8 (mean difference: -7.7% (95% CI: -12.3 to -2.98); p value < 0.05). In addition, spinal cords from rats treated with rUC-MSCs were found to have a significantly greater number of myelinated axons, decreased astrogliosis, and reduced glial scar formation compared to control rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that intravenous injection of allogenic UC-MSCs without immunosuppression exert beneficial effects in subacute SCI and thus could be a useful therapy to improve the functional capacity among patients with SCI.

16.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(5): E22, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among medical practices, surgical fields, including neurosurgery, are at a high risk for medical malpractice litigation. With meningiomas contributing to 10% of the total neurosurgery litigation cases, the aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics, reasons for litigation, and surgical complications commonly reported in these cases. This analysis serves to increase neurosurgeons' awareness of factors associated with medical malpractice litigation. METHODS: The online legal database Westlaw was utilized to query public litigation cases related to the medical management of meningiomas between December 1985 and May 2020. Variables extracted included the following: plaintiff and defendant demographics, litigation category, plaintiff medical complaints, and trial outcomes. The authors compared these characteristics between cases with decisions in favor of the defendant and those with decisions in favor of the plaintiff. RESULTS: A total of 47 cases met the inclusion criteria. Failure to diagnose (68.1%) was the most common type of malpractice claim, and surgical complications (19.1%), motor weakness (33%), and financial loss (33%) were cited as the most common postoperative complaints. Individual specialties that most often required defense due to malpractice claims were radiology (21.7%) and neurosurgery (19.6%). The jury verdict was in favor of the defense in 51.1% of cases and in favor of the plaintiff in 27.7% of cases. A settlement was reached in 19.1% of cases. The mean payout for a verdict in favor of the plaintiff was $3,409,650.22, while the mean payout for settlements was $867,555.56. The greatest average payout for specialties was in neurosurgery at $3,414,400, followed by radiology at $3,192,960. Cases with a verdict in favor of the plaintiff were more likely to involve an internal medicine physician as a defendant (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Over one-half of the cases resulted in a defendant's verdict with failure to diagnose cited as the most common reason for litigation. Radiology and neurosurgery were the most common specialties for legal cases and also had some of the largest average payouts based on specialty. Motor weakness and financial loss were the most common plaintiff postoperative complaints. These findings may inform surgeons on active measures to take, such as increasing focus on diagnostic accuracy and reducing specific postoperative complaints, such as motor weakness, through risk management and prophylactic measures, to reduce unfavorable legal outcomes.

17.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is an increasingly studied tool for preoperative risk stratification, but its prognostic value for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) patients is unclear. We sought to evaluate the association of the 5-item modified Frailty Index (5i-mFI) with 30-day adverse outcomes following ACDF and its predictive performance compared with other common metrics. METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried from 2016-2018 for patients undergoing elective ACDF for degenerative diseases. Outcomes of interest included 30-day complications, extended length of stay (LOS), non-home discharge, and unplanned readmissions. Unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios were calculated. The discriminatory performance of the 5i-mFI compared with age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, and body mass index was computed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: A total of 23,754 patients were identified. On adjusted analysis, an index of 1 was significantly associated with extended LOS, non-home discharge, and unplanned readmissions (P < 0.001, P = 0.023, P = 0.003, respectively), but not complications (all P > 0.05). An index ≥2 was significantly associated with each outcome (all P < 0.001). The 5i-mFI was found to have a significantly higher AUC than body mass index for each outcome, a similar AUC compared with ASA classification and age for complications and unplanned readmissions, and a significantly lower AUC than ASA classification and age for extended LOS and non-home discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The 5i-mFI was found to be significantly associated with 30-day adverse outcomes following ACDF but had similar or lesser predictive performance compared with more universally available and easily implemented metrics, such as ASA classification and age.

18.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 158, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions among adults worldwide. It also presents a challenge among patients undergoing spinal surgery. Use of Teriparatide and bisphosphonates in such patients has been shown to improve outcomes after fusion surgery, including successful fusion, decreased risk of instrumentation failure, and patient-reported outcomes. Herein, we performed a systematic review and indirect meta-analysis of available literature on outcomes of fusion surgery after use of bisphosphonates or Teriparatide. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of all databases (Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus) to identify studies assessing outcomes of spinal fusion among osteoporotic patients after use of Teriparatide or bisphosphonate. Four authors independently screened electronic search results, and all four authors independently performed study selection. Two authors performed independent data extraction and assessed the studies' risk of bias assessment using standardized forms of Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2) and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I). RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included in the final analysis. A total of 13 studies evaluated the difference in fusion rate between bisphosphonates and Teriparatide or control group. Fusion rate was higher for bisphosphonates (effect size (ES) 83%, 95% CI 77-89%) compared with Teriparatide (ES 71%, 95% CI 57-85%), with the p value for heterogeneity between groups without statistical significance (p = 0.123). Five studies assessed the impact of using bisphosphonate or Teriparatide on screw loosening. The rate of screw loosening was higher for bisphosphonates (ES 19%, 95% CI 13-25%) compared with Teriparatide (ES 13%, 95% CI 9-16%) without statistical significance (p = 0.52). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that while both agents may be associated with positive outcomes, bisphosphonates may be associated with a higher fusion rate, while Teriparatide may be associated with lower screw loosening. The decision to treat with either agent should be tailored individually for each patient keeping in consideration the adverse effect and pharmacokinetic profiles.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Teriparatida/efeitos adversos , Vértebras Torácicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past 2 decades, management of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) has evolved significantly. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the national prevalence and management trends of iNPH in the United States using a national database. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample was queried for patients with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis code for iNPH from 2007 to 2017. Trends in prevalence and procedure type were evaluated per 100,000 discharges and as a percentage of discharges, using weighted discharges. Utilization of procedure type across U.S. regions and hospital types was also compared. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2017, 302,460 weighted discharges with any diagnosis code for iNPH, aged ≥60 years, were identified. Prevalence ranged from 0.04% to 0.20% (41/100,000 to 202/100,000) among admitted patients ≥60 years old, giving an average prevalence during the study duration of 0.18% (179/100,000). Of 66,759 weighted discharges with a primary diagnosis code of iNPH undergoing surgical management, ventriculoperitoneal shunt (72.0% of discharges, n = 48,977) was most commonly used; of these, 9.3% (n = 4567) were performed laparoscopically. This result was followed by lumbar peritoneal shunt (15.1% of discharges, n = 10,441). Up to 15.1% (n = 9990) of discharges reported only a lumbar puncture, assumed to be only diagnostic, for screening, or part of serial cerebrospinal fluid removal procedures. Significant discrepancies in procedure utilization were also identified among hospitals in the Western, Southern, Northeast and Midwest regions, as well as between urban and rural hospitals (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We have summarized the national prevalence of iNPH, trends in its management over the previous decade and trends by region and hospital type.

20.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 198: 106244, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor bone health can create challenges in management which are amplified for patients undergoing spinal fusion. Although previously shown to improve outcomes postoperatively, the impact of preoperative teriparatide use on long-term complications remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the complication rates within two years of surgery for osteoporotic and osteopenic patients using teriparatide prior to lumbar fusion procedures. METHODS: Patients with poor bone health undergoing any lumbar fusion surgery at a single institution between 2008 and 2018 were identified and subsequently divided into two groups as teriparatide and non-teriparatide group. Baseline demographics, patient and surgery related factors, and two-year complications were collected through a retrospective chart review. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between teriparatide usage and development of any related postoperative complication. RESULTS: A total of 42 and 114 patients were identified for the teriparatide and non-teriparatide groups, respectively. The median age (IQR) for the teriparatide group was 62 years (55.8-68.8), while the non-teriparatide group had a median (IQR) age of 70 years (64-75.8). Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in terms of individual complications between the groups. However, on adjusted regression analysis, teriparatide use was associated with significantly lower odds of related complications for lumbar fusion patients (p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Teriparatide use prior to lumbar fusion procedures resulted in reduced rate of osteoporosis-related complications within two years postoperatively. Results suggest improved outcomes might be seen in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis when pre-treating with teriparatide.

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