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BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 562, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764400


BACKGROUND: A low cost and accurate method for detecting high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is important to permit HPV testing for cervical cancer prevention. We used a commercially available HPV method (H13, Hybribio) which was documented to function accurately in a reduced volume of cervical specimen to determine the most prevalent HPV types and the distribution of HPV infections in over 1795 cancer-free women in Guatemala undergoing primary screening for cervical cancer by cytology. METHODS: HR-HPV detection was attempted in cervical samples from 1795 cancer-free women receiving Pap smears using the Hybribio™ real-time PCR assay of 13 HR types. The test includes a globin gene internal control. HPV positive samples were sequenced to determine viral type. Age-specific prevalence of HPV was also assessed in the study population. RESULTS: A total of 13% (226/1717) of women tested HPV+, with 78 samples (4.3%) failing to amplify the internal control. The highest prevalence was found in younger women (< 30 years, 22%) and older ones (≥60 years, 15%). The six most common HR-HPV types among the 148 HPV+ typed were HPV16 (22%), HPV18 (11%), HPV39 (11%), HPV58 (10%), HPV52 (8%), and HPV45 (8%). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of cancer free women in Guatemala, HPV16 was the most prevalent HR type in Guatemala and the age-specific prevalence curve peaked in younger ages. Women in the 30-59-year age groups had a prevalence of HR-HPV of 8%, however, larger studies to better describe the epidemiology of HPV in Guatemala are needed.

Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Colo do Útero/virologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
Clin Cancer Res ; 21(23): 5360-70, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26080840


PURPOSE: Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality for women living in poverty, causing more than 28,000 deaths annually in Latin America and 266,000 worldwide. To better understand the molecular basis of the disease, we ascertained blood and tumor samples from Guatemala and Venezuela and performed genomic characterization. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed human papillomavirus (HPV) typing and identified somatically mutated genes using exome and ultra-deep targeted sequencing with confirmation in samples from Mexico. Copy number changes were also assessed in the exome sequence. RESULTS: Cervical cancer cases in Guatemala and Venezuela have an average age of diagnosis of 50 years and 5.6 children. Analysis of 675 tumors revealed activation of PIK3CA and other PI3K/AKT pathway genes in 31% of squamous carcinomas and 24% of adeno- and adenosquamous tumors, predominantly at two sites (E542K, E545K) in the helical domain of the PIK3CA gene. This distribution of PIK3CA mutations is distinct from most other cancer types and does not result in the in vitro phosphorylation of AKT. Somatic mutations were more frequent in squamous carcinomas diagnosed after the age of 50 years. Frequent gain of chromosome 3q was found, and low PIK3CA mutation fractions in many tumors suggest that PI3K mutation can be a late event in tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: PI3K pathway mutation is important to cervical carcinogenesis in Latin America. Therapeutic agents that directly target PI3K could play a role in the therapy of this common malignancy.

Genoma Humano , Genômica , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alphapapillomavirus/classificação , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Venezuela/epidemiologia