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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38910428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is one of the main concerns of public health, and the whole world is trying to overcome such a challenge by finding novel therapeutic modalities and approaches. This study has applied the sequence hybridization approach to the original sequence of two cathelicidin natural parent peptides (BMAP-28 and LL-37) to design a novel HLM peptide with broad antimicrobial activity. METHODS: The physicochemical characteristics of the newly designed peptide were determined. As well, the new peptide's antimicrobial activity [Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bacterial Eradication Concentration (MBEC), and antibiofilm activity] was tested on two control (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia Coli ATCC 25922) and two resistant [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC BAA41, New Delhi metallo-beta- lactamase-1 Escherichia coli ATCC BAA-2452) bacterial strains. Furthermore, synergistic studies have been applied to HLM-hybridized peptides with five conventional antibiotics by checkerboard assays. Also, the toxicity of HLM-hybridized peptide was studied on Vero cell lines to obtain the IC50 value. Besides the percentage of hemolysis action, the peptide was tested in freshly heparinized blood. RESULTS: The MIC values for the HLM peptide were obtained as 20, 10, 20, and 20 µM, respectively. Also, the results showed no hemolysis action, with low to slightly moderate toxicity action against mammalian cells, with an IC50 value of 10.06. The Biomatik corporate labs, where HLM was manufactured, determined the stability results of the product by Mass Spectrophotometry (MS) and High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods. The HLM-hybridized peptide exhibited a range of synergistic to additive antimicrobial activities upon combination with five commercially available different antibiotics. It has demonstrated the biofilm-killing effects in the same concentration required to eradicate the control strains. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that HLM-hybridized peptide displayed a broad-spectrum activity toward different bacterial strains in planktonic and biofilm forms. It showed synergistic or additive antimicrobial activity upon combining with commercially available different antibiotics.

2.
Contraception ; : 110515, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess Jordanian community pharmacists' awareness, perception, and roles concerning emergency contraceptives provision. STUDY DESIGN: We administered a structured questionnaire to community pharmacists in Jordan using convenience sampling. The questionnaire included sections on demographic information, knowledge about emergency contraceptives, perception towards emergency contraceptive, and prior experience in emergency contraceptives provision. RESULTS: A total of 299 community pharmacists responded to the study. Most pharmacists had a Pharm D/BPharm degree (94.6%) and worked in independent community pharmacies (75.6%). While pharmacists demonstrated relatively high knowledge scores regarding emergency contraception, with a median score of 10 out of 14, misconceptions persisted, particularly regarding the mechanism of action and side effects of emergency contraception. Pharmacists expressed mixed perceptions regarding emergency contraception, with a significant proportion advocating for prescription-only access (76.6%) and expressing ethical reservations (48.2%). Only 38.1% reported prior experience in emergency contraceptives provision. Regression analyses revealed that attendance at emergency contraceptives-focused workshops significantly increased the likelihood of pharmacists providing emergency contraceptives (Adjusted Odds Ratio=2.569, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Jordanian community pharmacists exhibit readiness to provide emergency contraceptives, but persistent misconceptions and regulatory barriers hinder optimal provision. Targeted educational interventions, particularly through workshops, are crucial in enhancing pharmacists' knowledge and promoting emergency contraceptives provision. IMPLICATIONS: Responding pharmacists often reported the misconception that emergency contraceptives can cause abortion. Also, some pharmacists expressed religious or moral objections to prescribing oral emergency contraceptives. Thus, this study underscores the importance of receiving comprehensive training on ethical and religious considerations in healthcare practice.

3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302287, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pharmacist plays an essential role in identifying and managing drug-related problems. The aim of this research was to assess the costs avoided by clinical pharmacist interventions to resolve drug-related problems. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Clinical pharmacists identified drug-related problems and interventions to address them in consecutive outpatients visiting internal medicine clinics at major teaching and public hospitals in Jordan from September 2012 to December 2013. The costs avoided by each intervention to address drug-related problems were collected from the literature. The collected data were used to calculate the overall cost saved and avoided by the interventions implemented to address the identified drug-related problems, adopting a Jordanian healthcare system perspective. RESULTS: A total of 2747 patients were enrolled in the study. Diagnostic interventions, such as the need for additional diagnostic testing, were employed in 95.07% of the 13935 intervention to address the drug-related problem "Miscellaneous" which was the most frequent drug-related problems. Other common drug-related problems categories included inappropriate knowledge (n = 6972), inappropriate adherence (4447), efficacy-related drug-related problem (3395) and unnecessary drug therapy (1082). The total cost avoided over the research period was JOD 1418720 per month and total cost saved over the study period was JOD 17250.204. Drug-related problems were associated the number of prescription medications (odds ratio = 1.105; 95% confidence interval = 1.069-1.142), prescribed gastrointestinal drugs (3.485; 2.86-4.247), prescribed antimicrobials (3.326; 1.084-10.205), and prescribed musculoskeletal drugs (1.385; 1.011-1.852). CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that pharmacists have provided cognitive input to rationalize and optimize the medication use and prevent errors, that led to the reported projected avoided and saved expenditures via various interventions to address drug-related problems. This highlights the added economic impact to the clinical impact of drug-related problems on patients and the healthcare system. The high prevalence and cost of drug-related problems offer strong rationale for pharmacists to provide more vigilant intervention to improve patient outcomes while maintaining cost effectiveness.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Jordânia , Farmacêuticos/economia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/economia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Idoso , Adulto , Redução de Custos
4.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 17: 2133-2145, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736536

RESUMO

Background: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) is suboptimal because of the disease's life-threatening nature, the requirement for long-term lifestyle modifications, and the treatment regimens following MI. This study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its associated factors in MI patients. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on patients with MI who attended the outpatient cardiology clinic at a major teaching hospital in Jordan. The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL of the study participants. Quantile regression analysis was conducted to identify the variables associated with HRQOL. Results: The study included 333 patients with a history of MI, with a median age of 58 (57-60). The median of the total EQ-5D score was 0.65 (0.216-0.805). Regression results revealed that male patients (Coefficient= 0.110, 95%Cl (0.022-0.197), P=0.014) and not being diagnosed with diabetes (Coefficient= 0.154, 95%Cl (0.042-0.266), P=0.007) were associated with increased HRQOL. On the other hand, low income (Coefficient= -0.115, 95%Cl (-0.203 - -0.026), P=0.011), not receiving DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl Peptidase -4) inhibitors (Coefficient= -0.321 95%Cl (-0.462 - -0.180), P<0.001), and having low (Coefficient= -0.271, 95%Cl (-0.395 - -0.147), P<0.001) or moderate (Coefficient= -0.123, 95%Cl (-0.202 - -0.044), P=0.002) medication adherence was associated with decreased HRQOL. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated diminished HRQOL among patients with MI, highlighting the necessity of tailoring interventions to tackle medication adherence barriers in this population. Personalized interventions such as educational programs, counseling, and reminders that consider each patient's needs and circumstances can greatly enhance medication adherence and, thus, the HRQOL of MI patients. Individuals with lower income levels, female patients, and those with diabetes should be the specific targets of these interventions.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791108

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a significant global contributor to mortality, predominantly affecting males aged 65 and above. The field of omics has recently gained traction due to its capacity to provide profound insights into the biochemical mechanisms underlying conditions like prostate cancer. This involves the identification and quantification of low-molecular-weight metabolites and proteins acting as crucial biochemical signals for early detection, therapy assessment, and target identification. A spectrum of analytical methods is employed to discern and measure these molecules, revealing their altered biological pathways within diseased contexts. Metabolomics and proteomics generate refined data subjected to detailed statistical analysis through sophisticated software, yielding substantive insights. This review aims to underscore the major contributions of multi-omics to PCa research, covering its core principles, its role in tumor biology characterization, biomarker discovery, prognostic studies, various analytical technologies such as mass spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, data processing, and recent clinical applications made possible by an integrative "omics" approach. This approach seeks to address the challenges associated with current PCa treatments. Hence, our research endeavors to demonstrate the valuable applications of these potent tools in investigations, offering significant potential for understanding the complex biochemical environment of prostate cancer and advancing tailored therapeutic approaches for further development.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Metabolômica , Neoplasias da Próstata , Proteômica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Análise de Dados , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) leads to changes in pulmonary vascular architecture, hypertrophy of the right ventricle, and heart failure. Sildenafil is a drug that can modulate PH by inducing smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation. AIMS: To investigate the ability of sildenafil to alleviate the monocritaline (MCT)-induced PH in rats and to estimate the role and its effect on the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels. METHODS: 28 adult male rats were divided randomly into four groups: Group A (control group; n=7). Group B (MCT-treated group; n=7) was given a single dose of MCT 60 mg/kg subcutaneously. Group C (The reversal group; n=7) received a single dose of MCT 60 mg/kg subcutaneously for three weeks and then sildenafil at 50 mg/kg/day, given daily for another three weeks. Group D (The prevention group; n=7) simultaneously received a single dose of MCT 60 mg/kg subcutaneously and sildenafil daily at 50 mg/kg for three weeks. RESULTS: The animals in the prevention group showed a significant decrease in ANP levels compared to the reversal and MCT-treated groups. This decrease was associated with a significant reduction in the Fulton index ratio in the prevention group compared to the reversal group. The nitric oxide levels were also significantly higher in the reversal group than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Preventive sildenafil treatment was associated with a significant decrease in ANP levels and reduced MCT-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

7.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 55, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into healthcare has raised significant ethical concerns. In pharmacy practice, AI offers promising advances but also poses ethical challenges. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in countries from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region on 501 pharmacy professionals. A 12-item online questionnaire assessed ethical concerns related to the adoption of AI in pharmacy practice. Demographic factors associated with ethical concerns were analyzed via SPSS v.27 software using appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS: Participants expressed concerns about patient data privacy (58.9%), cybersecurity threats (58.9%), potential job displacement (62.9%), and lack of legal regulation (67.0%). Tech-savviness and basic AI understanding were correlated with higher concern scores (p < 0.001). Ethical implications include the need for informed consent, beneficence, justice, and transparency in the use of AI. CONCLUSION: The findings emphasize the importance of ethical guidelines, education, and patient autonomy in adopting AI. Collaboration, data privacy, and equitable access are crucial to the responsible use of AI in pharmacy practice.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Inteligência Artificial/ética , Oriente Médio , Inquéritos e Questionários , África do Norte , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Confidencialidade/ética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Beneficência , Farmacêuticos/ética , Segurança Computacional , Adulto Jovem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Justiça Social , Privacidade
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706525

RESUMO

Background: Psychosocial stress, a common feature in modern societies, impairs cognitive functions. It is suggested that stress hormones and elevated excitatory amino acids during stress are responsible for stress-induced cognitive deficits. Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, increased oxidative stress, and alteration of synaptic plasticity biomarkers are also possible contributors to the negative impact of stress on learning and memory. Sildenafil citrate is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor and the first oral therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. It has been shown that sildenafil improves learning and memory and possesses antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that administering sildenafil to stressed rats prevents the cognitive deficit induced by chronic psychosocial stress. Methods: Psychosocial stress was generated using the intruder model. Sildenafil 3 mg/kg/day was administered intraperitoneally to animals. Behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using the radial arm water maze. Then, the hippocampal BDNF level and several antioxidant markers were assessed. Results: This study revealed that chronic psychosocial stress impaired short-term but not long-term memory. The administration of sildenafil prevented this short-term memory impairment. Chronic psychosocial stress markedly reduced the level of hippocampal BDNF (P˂0.05), and this reduction in BDNF was normalized by sildenafil treatment. In addition, neither chronic psychosocial stress nor sildenafil significantly altered the activity of measured oxidative parameters (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Chronic psychosocial stress induces short-term memory impairment. The administration of sildenafil citrate prevented this impairment, possibly by normalizing the level of BDNF.

9.
Res Sq ; 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746156

RESUMO

Background: The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) into pharmacy education and practice holds the potential to advance learning experiences and prepare future pharmacists for evolving healthcare practice. However, it also raises ethical considerations that need to be addressed carefully. This study aimed to explore pharmacy students' attitudes regarding AI integration into pharmacy education and practice. Methods: A cross-sectional design was employed, utilizing a validated online questionnaire administered to 702 pharmacy students from diverse demographic backgrounds. The questionnaire gathered data on participants' attitudes and concerns regarding AI integration, as well as demographic information and factors influencing their attitudes. Results: Most participants were female students (72.8%), from public universities (55.6%) and not working (64.2%). Participants expressed a generally negative attitude toward AI integration, citing concerns and barriers such as patient data privacy (62.0%), susceptibility to hacking (56.2%), potential job displacement (69.3%), cost limitations (66.8%), access (69.1%) and the absence of regulations (48.1% agree), training (70.4%), physicians' reluctance (65.1%) and patient apprehension (70.8%). Factors including country of residence, academic year, cumulative GPA, work status, technology literacy, and AI understanding significantly influenced participants' attitudes (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights the need for comprehensive AI education in pharmacy curricula including related ethical concerns. Addressing students' concerns is crucial to ensuring ethical, equitable, and beneficial AI integration in pharmacy education and practice.

10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304357, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the confidence, attitude, and scientific research practices of undergraduate students of different health profession specialties. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, an online-based questionnaire was distributed as a Google Form via groups and pages of medical universities available on social media sites such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter to the second- to sixth-year students of different health profession specialties in different universities across the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the period from October through December 2023 using the convenience sampling technique. The questionnaire included four parts that assessed socio-demographics and custom-designed research-related questions (6 items), perceived confidence (8 items), attitudes (14 items), and the practice in the context of scientific research and its implementation (9 items). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the variables associated with the study outcomes, including confidence, attitudes, and practice levels. RESULTS: The study included 522 undergraduate students. The participants reported low confidence, a negative attitude, and low scientific research practice. Regression results revealed that individuals without prior research experiences were less likely to have high confidence and practice compared to those with previous research experience (OR = 0.634, 95% CI: 0.426-0.945, p = 0.025; and OR = 0.139, 95%Cl: 0.090-0.216, P<0.001, respectively). Additionally, participants who reported difficulty in differentiating between various literature resources were less likely to have high confidence and practice compared to those who reported the ability to differentiate (OR = 0.627, 95% CI: 0.42-0.935, p = 0.022, and OR = 0.370, 95%Cl: 0.237-0.579, p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, individuals who had not taught research methods in their undergraduate studies were less likely to have high practice (OR = 0.505, 95%Cl: 0.309-0.823, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Undergraduates of different medical specialties in the UAE demonstrated acceptable levels of confidence and attitude toward scientific research, with several areas for practice improvement. Education and training courses focusing on various aspects of scientific research should be incorporated into the medical curricula in order to enhance students' confidence and practice of scientific research.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica , Atitude
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(17): e38004, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669369

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates a digital manufacturing technique of a removable orthodontic appliance from an intraoral scan. An intraoral scan was made for the maxillary and mandibular arches. 3Shape Orthodontics Appliance Designer produced the virtual Hawley retainer, consisting of alloy components (Adam Clasps and Fitted Labial bow) and a base plate. The base plate design was modified to adapt to inserting the alloy components, which were combined using cold-cured acrylic. The finished Hawley retainer was assessed intraorally. The described technique emphasizes the design specifications of digitally designed and manufactured removable orthodontic appliances. A combination of additive and subtractive techniques was successfully employed to manufacture the alloy components and base plate. This novel method provides an alternative approach to manufacturing removable appliances with computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies. The described process offers a precursor to digital manufacturing of other developed designs of dental appliances.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Impressão Tridimensional , Humanos , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Polímeros , Benzofenonas , Polietilenotereftalatos , Cetonas , Ligas , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis
12.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-13, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38620051

RESUMO

This study investigated parental attitudes toward childhood vaccination in Jordan, focusing on acceptance, concerns, and perceptions. A cross-sectional survey conducted from January to February 2024 included 939 parents. Findings indicated that 85.4% (n = 802) of respondents received the COVID-19 vaccine, while only 25% (n = 229) vaccinated their children. Concerns regarding vaccine safety and efficacy were prevalent, with 63.9% (n = 600) expressing worries about side effects and 46.9% (n = 440) trusting immunization programs. Post-pandemic, 34% (n = 319) reported a more negative attitude. Logistic regression showed parents not vaccinating their children against COVID-19 were significantly less likely to exhibit positive attitudes toward childhood vaccination (OR = 0.412, p < 0.001). Older participants were more inclined toward negativity post-pandemic (OR = 1.031, p = 0.007). In conclusion, parental attitudes shifted post-COVID-19, reflecting hesitancy and decreased trust. Addressing concerns and restoring confidence are crucial, especially for children's health. Education through healthcare providers and dispelling social media misinformation are essential. Implementing strategies to enhance post-pandemic vaccine acceptance is imperative for preventing outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37823, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608047

RESUMO

The delayed presentation of cancer patients to healthcare facilities for diagnosis is a pressing issue, as late-stage cancer cases are often more challenging to treat effectively. In low-resource settings, such as those with limited access to healthcare facilities, the impact of inadequate awareness of cancer signs and symptoms can be particularly severe. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate public knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms and risk factors in the context of Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted among participants from all settings. Data was obtained from an Arabic version of the cancer awareness measure (CAM), which was answered online. It described demographic data and knowledge of cancer prevalence, age-related risk, signs, symptoms, and risk factors in recall and recognition-type questions. Participants (n = 1998) completed the questionnaire with a Median age of 35 and an interquartile range of 24. About half (n = 1070) thought that cancer is unrelated to age. Most participants identified breast cancer as the most common cancer among women (81%). Awareness of cancer signs/symptoms significantly differed in the level of knowledge in favor of females. The symptom "unexplained weight loss" was most commonly recognized (66.3%) and "persistent difficulty swallowing" the least (42.6%). As for risk factors, "smoking" was the most identified (76.9%) and "eating less than 5 portions of fruits and vegetables a day" was the least (19%), and "doing <30 minutes of moderate physical activity 5 times a week" as a close second least (19.95%). Females identified "smoking," "passive smoking," "HPV infection," and "having a close relative with cancer" as risk factors significantly more than males. Those with good economic status were more aware that smoking is a cancer risk factor by 1.51 times compared to those with poor economic status. To enhance early diagnosis and presentation in Jordan, there is a need for increased public awareness of the signs, symptoms, and risk factors of cancer. One effective strategy to achieve this goal is to conduct targeted public campaigns that cater to different population groups, such as the youth, to improve their understanding and ensure that the message resonates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Países em Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 40(5): 745-752, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies have revealed that sex can predict differences in multiple aspects of atrial fibrillation (AF). These differences are underreported in the Middle East. This study aims to describe sex-specific differences in risk factors, symptomatology, management, and outcomes in Middle Eastern patients with AF. METHODS: The JoFib (Jordan-Atrial-Fibrillation) study is an observational, prospective, multicenter, nationwide registry in AF. Comparisons were made between female and male patients using Pearson chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Multivariable regression models were constructed to investigate whether the female sex was predictive of any AF-related outcomes (all-cause death, cardiovascular death, ischemic stroke or systemic embolism [IS/SE], major bleeding, and clinically relevant non-major bleeding). RESULTS: Of 2,020 patients with AF, 54% (n = 1091) were females. Females with AF were older (median age 71 vs. 69, p <.001), but had less heart failure (20.9% vs. 27.2%, p = .001) and coronary artery disease (7.5% vs. 14.7%, p <.001). Females with AF were more symptomatic (74.7% vs. 66.5%, p <.001) and frequently received anticoagulant therapy (84.4% vs. 78.9%, p = .001). Rhythm control was pursued less frequently in females (23.4% vs. 27.3%, p = .04). All studied outcomes occurred with similar frequencies in females and males, and sex was not significantly predictive of any outcome. CONCLUSION: Females with AF are more symptomatic, yet they are treated less with rhythm control. Despite higher risk, females have similar risk-adjusted all-cause cardiovascular death and stroke rates compared to males. Future studies should explore how treatments and interventions can influence quality-of-life and cardiovascular outcomes in females with AF.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema de Registros , Caracteres Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Fatores de Risco
15.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 20(6): 134-145, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Including pharmacists in collaborative mental healthcare models has yielded positive results. Establishing processes to enhance pharmacists' mental health care capabilities is crucial for addressing the increasing burden and improving access to mental health services. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated community pharmacists' mental health competencies and analyzed associated factors using a rigorous international framework. Additionally, it sought to identify pharmacists' training needs and support requirements as the first stop in creating a roadmap for enhancing mental healthcare through community pharmacies. METHODS: A large-scale national study employing a mixed-methods approach was conducted with community pharmacists in United Arab Emirates. Semi-structured individual interviews and a cross-sectional survey were conducted. Pharmacists' core competencies were assessed using the Core Mental Health Competencies Framework for all Pharmacy Professionals. Generalized linear models were utilized to identify predictors of pharmacists' competency levels. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: In total 650 community pharmacists completed the survey (93.7% response rate). Eight pharmacists participated in semi-structured interviews. Nearly two-thirds (63.7%) received general communication skills training, while training in motivational interviewing (44.7%), shared decision-making (37.2%), and mental illness stereotyping/stigma (23.9%) were less common. Pharmacists reported lower perceived competence in their relationship with multidisciplinary teams (M = 3.02, SD = 0.89), stigma recognition (M = 3.02, SD = 1.04), and identifying mental health crises and aiding in the person's safety (M = 3.01, SD = 1.05). Poor communication skills (p < 0.001) and working in pharmacies that do not stock psychotropic medications (p = 0.023) were associated with lower perceived competence. Qualitative analysis identified training needs in various domains, including attitudes, values, and beliefs about mental health; relationships with multidisciplinary teams; communication skills; pharmaceutical knowledge; and personal and service development. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health-related training is needed for community pharmacists. Addressing these needs through an intentional roadmap approach will enable pharmacists to better engage with patients with mental illness and increase access to care.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Saúde Mental , Farmacêuticos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Educação em Farmácia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 22(1): 1-14, Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231378

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of self-medication practices among students by conducting a bibliometric analysis of the available scientific literature. This research highlights the importance of promoting safe and responsible healthcare behaviors among students. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in the Scopus database to retrieve all peer-reviewed English articles and reviews published from 1968 onwards. The retrieved documents were analyzed to identify publication trends, citation counts, top journals, geographical distribution, and emerging research themes. Results: The findings indicate a significant increase in published literature about student self-medication over the past fifteen years. However, it was observed that the citation count for these documents was lower than expected, suggesting a need for increased attention toward this critical topic. The analysis also identified several hot topics in student self-medication, including the misuse of over-the-counter medications, dietary supplements, and psychoactive substances. The inappropriate use of antibiotics and the self-medication of mental health issues, such as anxiety and depression, were also identified as significant problems. Conclusions and recommendations: Self-medication among students is a complex and critical issue that requires immediate attention. This study highlights the urgent need for greater awareness and education regarding responsible self-medication practices among students. New policies, interventions, and strategies should be developed to address malpractices, misconceptions, and harmful practices related to self-medication. Educational institutions and health authorities should play a crucial role in providing students with mental health resources and support services... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Automedicação , Cuidados Médicos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Suplementos Nutricionais , Antibacterianos , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade , Depressão
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective synthetic chemotherapeutic drug used for cancer treatment. Vitamin B12 has been shown to possess anti-genotoxic activity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 on chromosomal damage induced by cisplatin. METHODS: The level of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) were measured in cultured human blood lymphocytes treated with cisplatin and/or vitamin B12. RESULTS: The results showed a significantly elevated frequency of CAs and SCEs of cisplatin-treated cultures compared to the control (P < 0.05). The CAs and SCEs induced by cisplatin were significantly lowered by pretreatment of cell cultures with vitamin B12. In addition, cisplatin caused a slight reduction in the mitotic index (MI), while vitamin B12 did not modulate the effect of cisplatin on MI. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 can protect human lymphocytes against genotoxicity associated with cisplatin.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322818

RESUMO

Purpose: In neonatal intensive care units, applying sucrose solution for analgesia is now a routine treatment for mild procedural pain. Studies of animal and human infants provide clear evidence of benefits in the short term, but few studies have investigated the long term benefits. Thus, we determined whether sucrose could ameliorate painful stimulation during infancy in Sprague-Dawley rats and also explored the long-term effects of repeated sucrose administration during infancy. Female and male rats were included to investigate sex-related differences. Methods: Rat pups were stimulated either with painful or tactile stimuli for the first 14 days of their lives. Pups were pretreated either with sucrose or not treated before stimulation. Behavioral tests were conducted during adolescence and adulthood. Hotplate, rotarod, open field, elevated plus maze, and radial arm water maze tests were employed to assess the behavioral consequences of early life manipulations and treatments. Results: Painful stimulation during infancy increased the sensitivity to pain later in life, and sucrose did not remedy this effect. Motility, coordination, anxiety, and cognition tests in adulthood obtained mixed results. Pain during infancy appeared to increase anxiety during adulthood. Learning and memory in adulthood were affected by pain during infancy, and sucrose had a negative effect even in the absence of pain. No sex-related differences were observed in any of the behavioral tests by employing this model of neonatal pain. Conclusion: Painful stimulation during infancy resulted in deficiencies in some behavioral tests later in life. Sucrose pretreatment did not mitigate these shortcomings and it actually resulted in negative outcomes.

19.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 17(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399410

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key regulator for balancing oxygen in the cells. It is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of target genes involved in oxygen homeostasis in response to hypoxia. Recently, research has demonstrated the multiple roles of HIF-1 in the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cancer. It is a crucial mediator of the hypoxic response and regulator of oxygen metabolism, thus contributing to tumor development and progression. Studies showed that the expression of the HIF-1α subunit is significantly upregulated in cancer cells and promotes tumor survival by multiple mechanisms. In addition, HIF-1 has potential contributing roles in cancer progression, including cell division, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Moreover, HIF-1 has a role in regulating cellular metabolic pathways, particularly the anaerobic metabolism of glucose. Given its significant and potential roles in cancer development and progression, it has been an intriguing therapeutic target for cancer research. Several compounds targeting HIF-1-associated processes are now being used to treat different types of cancer. This review outlines emerging therapeutic strategies that target HIF-1 as well as the relevance and regulation of the HIF-1 pathways in cancer. Moreover, it addresses the employment of nanotechnology in developing these promising strategies.

20.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 20(4): 411-418, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies internationally have found that a high treatment burden is associated with several long-term conditions and poor quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To translate, culturally adapt, and provide evidence of reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Multimorbidity Treatment Burden Questionnaire for use among Arabic-speaking adults with multimorbidity. METHODS: Standard guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures were followed. The original 10-item MTBQ was translated into Arabic by professional translators using forward-backward translation. An expert group, including the creator of the MTBQ, participated in the cultural adaptation and content validity, followed by cognitive interviewing and pilot testing. The questionnaire was then tested on 177 Arabic-speaking patients with multimorbidity recruited from community pharmacies in the United Arab Emirates. The distribution of responses, dimensionality, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity were examined. RESULTS: The content validity of the MTBQ-A was good (Content Validity Index = 0.94), and cognitive interviews found that the items were well understood. The scale showed positive skewness and high floor effects. Factor analysis supported a two-dimensional structure (factor loadings >0.4): factor one was named "Self-management and social support," and factor two was named "Burden of visiting health care services and health care professionals". The questionnaire had good internal consistency (α = 0.83). As predicted, a higher MTBQ score in both factors was associated with poor health-related quality of life in all dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression (p values < 0.05); and negatively correlated with self-efficacy in taking medication (p < 0.01) and in learning about medication (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The Arabic MTBQ is a valid and reliable measure of treatment burden with good construct validity and internal consistency. This easy-to-understand questionnaire can be used to assess the perceived treatment burden among Arabic-speaking patients with multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Humanos , Multimorbidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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