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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504652

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen causing infections in humans with various degrees of severity, with pneumonia being one of the most severe infections. In as much as staphylococcal pneumonia is a disease driven in large part by alpha-hemolysin (Hla) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), we evaluated whether active immunization with attenuated forms of Hla (HlaH35L/H48L) alone, PVL components (LukS-PVT28F/K97A/S209A and LukF-PVK102A) alone, or combination of all three toxoids could prevent lethal challenge in a rabbit model of necrotizing pneumonia caused by the USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Rabbits vaccinated with Hla toxoid alone or PVL components alone were only partially protected against lethal pneumonia, whereas those vaccinated with all three toxoids had 100% protection against lethality. Vaccine-mediated protection correlated with induction of polyclonal antibody response that neutralized not only alpha-hemolysin and PVL, but also other related toxins, produced by USA300 and other epidemic MRSA clones.

2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207937

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections cause high mortality and morbidity in humans. Being central to its pathogenesis, S. aureus thwarts the host defense by secreting a myriad of virulence factors, including bicomponent, pore-forming leukotoxins. While all vaccine development efforts that aimed at achieving opsonophagocytic killing have failed, targeting virulence by toxoid vaccines represents a novel approach to preventing mortality and morbidity that are caused by SA. The recently discovered leukotoxin LukAB kills human phagocytes and monocytes and it is present in all known S. aureus clinical isolates. While using a structure-guided approach, we generated a library of mutations that targeted functional domains within the LukAB heterodimer to identify attenuated toxoids as potential vaccine candidates. The mutants were evaluated based on expression, solubility, yield, biophysical properties, cytotoxicity, and immunogenicity, and several fully attenuated LukAB toxoids that were capable of eliciting high neutralizing antibody titers were identified. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the lead toxoid candidate provided potent neutralization of LukAB. While the neutralization of LukAB alone was not sufficient to fully suppress leukotoxicity in supernatants of S. aureus USA300 isolates, a combination of antibodies against LukAB, α-toxin, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin completely neutralized the cytotoxicity of these strains. These data strongly support the inclusion of LukAB toxoids in a multivalent toxoid vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus disease.

3.
Viruses ; 11(5)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052499

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) disease can result in a range of symptoms anywhere from virtually asymptomatic to severe hemorrhagic fever during acute infection. Additionally, spans of asymptomatic persistence in recovering survivors is possible, during which transmission of the virus may occur. In acute infection, substantial cytokine storm and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis take place, resulting in uncontrolled, systemic inflammation in affected individuals. Recently, studies have demonstrated the presence of EBOV proteins VP40, glycoprotein (GP), and nucleoprotein (NP) packaged into extracellular vesicles (EVs) during infection. EVs containing EBOV proteins have been shown to induce apoptosis in recipient immune cells, as well as contain pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this manuscript, we review the current field of knowledge on EBOV EVs including the mechanisms of their biogenesis, their cargo and their effects in recipient cells. Furthermore, we discuss some of the effects that may be induced by EBOV EVs that have not yet been characterized and highlight the remaining questions and future directions.

4.
J Mol Biol ; 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928493

RESUMO

To develop an antibody (Ab) therapeutic against staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a potential incapacitating bioterrorism agent and a major cause of food poisoning, we developed a "class T" anti-SEB neutralizing Ab (GC132) targeting an epitope on SEB distinct from that of previously developed "class M" Abs. A systematic engineering approach was applied to affinity-mature Ab GC132 to yield an optimized therapeutic candidate (GC132a) with sub-nanomolar binding affinity. Mapping of the binding interface by hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry revealed that the class T epitope on SEB overlapped with the T-cell receptor binding site, whereas other evidence suggested that the class M epitope overlapped with the binding site for the major histocompatibility complex. In the IgG format, GC132a showed ~50-fold more potent toxin-neutralizing efficacy than the best class M Ab in vitro, and fully protected mice from lethal challenge in a toxic shock post-exposure model. We also engineered bispecific Abs (bsAbs) that bound tetravalently by utilizing two class M binding sites and two class T binding sites. The bsAbs displayed enhanced toxin neutralization efficacy compared with the respective monospecific Ab subunits as well as a mixture of the two, indicating that enhanced efficacy was due to heterotypic tetravalent binding to two non-overlapping epitopes on SEB. Together, these results suggest that class T anti-SEB Ab GC132a is an excellent candidate for clinical development and for bsAb engineering.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3279, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824769

RESUMO

Superantigens (SAgs) play a major role in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus and are associated with several diseases, including food poisoning, bacterial arthritis, and toxic shock syndrome. Monoclonal antibodies to these SAgs, primarily TSST-1, SEB and SEA have been shown to provide protection in animal studies and to reduce clinical severity in bacteremic patients. Here we quantify the pre-existing antibodies against SAgs in many human plasma and IVIG samples and demonstrate that in a major portion of the population these antibody titers are suboptimal and IVIG therapy only incrementally elevates the anti-SAg titers. Our in vitro neutralization studies show that a combination of antibodies against SEA, SEB,and TSST-1 can provide broad neutralization of staphylococcal SAgs. We report a single fusion protein (TBA225) consisting of the toxoid versions of TSST-1, SEB and SEA and demonstrate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a mouse model of toxic shock. Antibodies raised against this fusion vaccine provide broad neutralization of purified SAgs and culture supernatants of multiple clinically relevant S. aureus strains. Our data strongly supports the use of this fusion protein as a component of an anti-virulence based multivalent toxoid vaccine against S. aureus disease.

6.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 26(3): 204-212, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833785

RESUMO

The structural features that govern broad-spectrum activity of broadly neutralizing anti-ebolavirus antibodies (Abs) outside of the internal fusion loop epitope are currently unknown. Here we describe the structure of a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal Ab (mAb), ADI-15946, which was identified in a human survivor of the 2013-2016 outbreak. The crystal structure of ADI-15946 in complex with cleaved Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GPCL) reveals that binding of the mAb structurally mimics the conserved interaction between the EBOV GP core and its glycan cap ß17-ß18 loop to inhibit infection. Both endosomal proteolysis of EBOV GP and binding of mAb FVM09 displace this loop, thereby increasing exposure of ADI-15946's conserved epitope and enhancing neutralization. Our work also mapped the paratope of ADI-15946, thereby explaining reduced activity against Sudan virus, which enabled rational, structure-guided engineering to enhance binding and neutralization of Sudan virus while retaining the parental activity against EBOV and Bundibugyo virus.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782986

RESUMO

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a protein exotoxin found on the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus that is the source for multiple pathologies in humans. When purified and concentrated in aerosol form, SEB can cause an acute and often fatal intoxication and thus is considered a biological threat agent. There are currently no vaccines or treatments approved for human use. Studies with rodent models of SEB intoxication show that antibody therapy may be a promising treatment strategy; however, many have used antibodies only prophylactically or well before any clinical signs of intoxication are apparent. We assessed and compared the protective efficacies of two monoclonal antibodies, Ig121 and c19F1, when administered after aerosol exposure in a uniformly lethal nonhuman primate model of SEB intoxication. Rhesus macaques were challenged using small-particle aerosols of SEB and then were infused intravenously with a single dose of either Ig121 or c19F1 (10 mg/kg of body weight) at either 0.5, 2, or 4 h postexposure. Onset of clinical signs and hematological and cytokine response in untreated controls confirmed the acute onset and potency of the toxin used in the challenge. All animals administered either Ig121 or c19F1 survived SEB challenge, whereas the untreated controls succumbed to SEB intoxication 30 to 48 h postexposure. These results represent the successful therapeutic in vivo protection by two investigational drugs against SEB in a severe nonhuman primate disease model and punctuate the therapeutic value of monoclonal antibodies when faced with treatment options for SEB-induced toxicity in a postexposure setting.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 105, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631063

RESUMO

The 2013-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic demonstrated the grave consequences of filovirus epidemics in the absence of effective therapeutics. Besides EBOV, two additional ebolaviruses, Sudan (SUDV) and Bundibugyo (BDBV) viruses, as well as multiple variants of Marburg virus (MARV), have also caused high fatality epidemics. Current experimental EBOV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are ineffective against SUDV, BDBV, or MARV. Here, we report that a cocktail of two broadly neutralizing ebolavirus mAbs, FVM04 and CA45, protects nonhuman primates (NHPs) against EBOV and SUDV infection when delivered four days post infection. This cocktail when supplemented by the anti-MARV mAb MR191 exhibited 100% efficacy in MARV-infected NHPs. These findings provide a solid foundation for clinical development of broadly protective immunotherapeutics for use in future filovirus epidemics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/imunologia , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Primatas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/terapia , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Marburgvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Marburgvirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/terapia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(9)2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231498

RESUMO

Cytolytic pore-forming toxins including alpha hemolysin (Hla) and bicomponent leukotoxins play an important role in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus. These toxins kill the polymorphonuclear phagocytes (PMNs), disrupt epithelial and endothelial barriers, and lyse erythrocytes to provide iron for bacterial growth. The expression of these toxins is regulated by the two-component sensing systems Sae and Agr. Here, we report that a point mutation (L18P) in SaeS, the histidine kinase sensor of the Sae system, renders the S. aureus Newman hemolytic activity fully independent of Hla and drastically increases the PMN lytic activity. Furthermore, this Hla-independent activity, unlike Hla itself, can lyse human erythrocytes. The Hla-independent activity towards human erythrocytes was also evident in USA300, however, under strict agr control. Gene knockout studies revealed that this Hla-independent Sae-regulated activity was entirely dependent on gamma hemolysin A subunit (HlgA). In contrast, hemolytic activity of Newman towards human erythrocytes from HlgAB resistant donors was completely dependent on agr. The culture supernatant from Newman S. aureus could be neutralized by antisera against two vaccine candidates based on LukS and LukF subunits of Panton-Valentine leukocidin but not by an anti-Hla neutralizing antibody. These findings display the complex involvement of Sae and Agr systems in regulating the virulence of S. aureus and have important implications for vaccine and immunotherapeutics development for S. aureus disease in humans.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S365-S387, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169850

RESUMO

Background: Ebola virus (EBOV) mainly targets myeloid cells; however, extensive death of T cells is often observed in lethal infections. We have previously shown that EBOV VP40 in exosomes causes recipient immune cell death. Methods: Using VP40-producing clones, we analyzed donor cell cycle, extracellular vesicle (EV) biogenesis, and recipient immune cell death. Transcription of cyclin D1 and nuclear localization of VP40 were examined via kinase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Extracellular vesicle contents were characterized by mass spectrometry, cytokine array, and western blot. Biosafety level-4 facilities were used for wild-type Ebola virus infection studies. Results: VP40 EVs induced apoptosis in recipient T cells and monocytes. VP40 clones were accelerated in growth due to cyclin D1 upregulation, and nuclear VP40 was found bound to the cyclin D1 promoter. Accelerated cell cycling was related to EV biogenesis, resulting in fewer but larger EVs. VP40 EV contents were enriched in ribonucleic acid-binding proteins and cytokines (interleukin-15, transforming growth factor-ß1, and interferon-γ). Finally, EBOV-infected cell and animal EVs contained VP40, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein. Conclusions: Nuclear VP40 upregulates cyclin D1 levels, resulting in dysregulated cell cycle and EV biogenesis. Packaging of cytokines and EBOV proteins into EVs from infected cells may be responsible for the decimation of immune cells during EBOV pathogenesis.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3934, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258051

RESUMO

The severity of the 2014-2016 ebolavirus outbreak in West Africa expedited clinical development of therapeutics and vaccines though the countermeasures on hand were largely monospecific and lacked efficacy against other ebolavirus species that previously emerged. Recent studies indicate that ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) fusion loops are targets for cross-protective antibodies. Here we report the 3.72 Å resolution crystal structure of one such cross-protective antibody, CA45, bound to the ectodomain of Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. The CA45 epitope spans multiple faces of the fusion loop stem, across both GP1 and GP2 subunits, with ~68% of residues identical across > 99.5% of known ebolavirus isolates. Extensive antibody interactions within a pan-ebolavirus small-molecule inhibitor binding cavity on GP define this cavity as a novel site of immune vulnerability. The structure elucidates broad ebolavirus neutralization through a highly conserved epitope on GP and further enables rational design and development of broadly protective vaccines and therapeutics.

12.
Cell ; 174(4): 938-952.e13, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096313

RESUMO

Antibodies are promising post-exposure therapies against emerging viruses, but which antibody features and in vitro assays best forecast protection are unclear. Our international consortium systematically evaluated antibodies against Ebola virus (EBOV) using multidisciplinary assays. For each antibody, we evaluated epitopes recognized on the viral surface glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP), readouts of multiple neutralization assays, fraction of virions left un-neutralized, glycan structures, phagocytic and natural killer cell functions elicited, and in vivo protection in a mouse challenge model. Neutralization and induction of multiple immune effector functions (IEFs) correlated most strongly with protection. Neutralization predominantly occurred via epitopes maintained on endosomally cleaved GP, whereas maximal IEF mapped to epitopes farthest from the viral membrane. Unexpectedly, sGP cross-reactivity did not significantly influence in vivo protection. This comprehensive dataset provides a rubric to evaluate novel antibodies and vaccine responses and a roadmap for therapeutic development for EBOV and related viruses.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S553-S564, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939318

RESUMO

Background: Several vaccine platforms have been successfully evaluated for prevention of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) in nonhuman primates and humans. Despite remarkable efficacy by multiple vaccines, the immunological correlates of protection against EVD are incompletely understood. Methods: We systematically evaluated the antibody response to various EBOV proteins in 79 nonhuman primates vaccinated with various EBOV vaccine platforms. We evaluated the serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G titers against EBOV glycoprotein (GP), the ability of the vaccine-induced antibodies to bind GP at acidic pH or to displace ZMapp, and virus neutralization titers. The correlation of these outcomes with survival from EVD was evaluated by appropriate statistical methods. Results: Irrespective of the vaccine platform, protection from EVD strongly correlated with anti-GP IgG titers. The GP-directed antibody levels required for protection in animals vaccinated with virus-like particles (VLPs) lacking nucleoprotein (NP) was significantly higher than animals immunized with NP-containing VLPs or adenovirus-expressed GP, platforms that induce strong T-cell responses. Furthermore, protective immune responses correlated with anti-GP antibody binding strength at acidic pH, neutralization of GP-expressing pseudovirions, and the ability to displace ZMapp components from GP. Conclusions: These findings suggest key quantitative and qualitative attributes of antibody response to EVD vaccines as potential correlates of protection.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S603-S611, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955852

RESUMO

Background: Filoviruses including Ebola, Sudan, and other species are emerging zoonotic pathogens representing a significant public health concern with high outbreak potential, and they remain a potential bioterrorism-related threat. We have developed a despeciated equine Ebola polyclonal antibody (E-EIG) postexposure treatment against Ebola virus (EBOV) and evaluated its efficacy in the guinea pig model of EBOV infection. Methods: Guinea pigs were infected with guinea pig-adapted EBOV (Mayinga strain) and treated with various dose levels of E-EIG (20-100 mg/kg) twice daily for 6 days starting at 24 h postinfection. The E-EIG was also assessed for neutralization activity against related filoviruses including EBOV strains Mayinga, Kikwit, and Makona and the Bundibugyo and Taï Forest ebolavirus species. Results: Treatment with E-EIG conferred 83% to 100% protection in guinea pigs. The results demonstrated a comparable neutralization activity (range, 1:512-1:896) of E-EIG against all tested strains, suggesting the potential for cross-protection with the polyclonal antibody therapeutic. Conclusions: This study showed that equine-derived polyclonal antibodies are efficacious against lethal EBOV disease in a relevant animal model. Furthermore, the studies support the utility of the equine antibody platform for the rapid production of a therapeutic product in the event of an outbreak by a filovirus or other zoonotic pathogen.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(6): 1308-1310, 2018 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641293
17.
J Biol Chem ; 293(16): 6201-6211, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500195

RESUMO

Filoviruses (family Filoviridae) include five ebolaviruses and Marburg virus. These pathogens cause a rapidly progressing and severe viral disease with high mortality rates (generally 30-90%). Outbreaks of filovirus disease are sporadic and, until recently, were limited to less than 500 cases. However, the 2013-2016 epidemic in western Africa, caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), illustrated the potential of filovirus outbreaks to escalate to a much larger scale (over 28,000 suspected cases). mAbs against the envelope glycoprotein represent a promising therapeutic platform for managing filovirus infections. However, mAbs that exhibit neutralization or protective properties against multiple filoviruses are rare. Here we examined a panel of engineered bi- and trispecific antibodies, in which variable domains of mAbs that target epitopes from multiple filoviruses were combined, for their capacity to neutralize viral infection across filovirus species. We found that bispecific combinations targeting EBOV and Sudan virus (another ebolavirus), provide potent cross-neutralization and protection in mice. Furthermore, trispecific combinations, targeting EBOV, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus, exhibited strong neutralization potential against all three viruses. These results provide important insights into multispecific antibody engineering against filoviruses and will inform future immunotherapeutic discoveries.

18.
Cell ; 169(5): 891-904.e15, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525756

RESUMO

While neutralizing antibodies are highly effective against ebolavirus infections, current experimental ebolavirus vaccines primarily elicit species-specific antibody responses. Here, we describe an immunization-elicited macaque antibody (CA45) that clamps the internal fusion loop with the N terminus of the ebolavirus glycoproteins (GPs) and potently neutralizes Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. CA45, alone or in combination with an antibody that blocks receptor binding, provided full protection against all pathogenic ebolaviruses in mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. Analysis of memory B cells from the immunized macaque suggests that elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for ebolaviruses is possible but difficult, potentially due to the rarity of bNAb clones and their precursors. Unexpectedly, germline-reverted CA45, while exhibiting negligible binding to full-length GP, bound a proteolytically remodeled GP with picomolar affinity, suggesting that engineered ebolavirus vaccines could trigger rare bNAb precursors more robustly. These findings have important implications for developing pan-ebolavirus vaccine and immunotherapeutic cocktails.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade , Reações Cruzadas , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Cobaias , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/ultraestrutura , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares
19.
Cell Rep ; 19(2): 413-424, 2017 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402862

RESUMO

Drug combinations are synergistic when their combined efficacy exceeds the sum of the individual actions, but they rarely include ineffective drugs that become effective only in combination. We identified several "enabling pairs" of neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-ebolavirus monoclonal antibodies, whose combination exhibited new functional profiles, including transforming a non-neutralizing antibody to a neutralizer. Sub-neutralizing concentrations of antibodies 2G4 or m8C4 enabled non-neutralizing antibody FVM09 (IC50 >1 µM) to exhibit potent neutralization (IC50 1-10 nM). While FVM09 or m8C4 alone failed to protect Ebola-virus-infected mice, a combination of the two antibodies provided 100% protection. Furthermore, non-neutralizers FVM09 and FVM02 exponentially enhanced the potency of two neutralizing antibodies against both Ebola and Sudan viruses. We identified a hotspot for the binding of these enabling antibody pairs near the interface of the glycan cap and GP2. Enabling cooperativity may be an underappreciated phenomenon for viruses, with implications for the design and development of immunotherapeutics and vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos
20.
DNA Cell Biol ; 36(4): 243-248, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177658

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause a devastating hemorrhagic disease, leading to death in a short period of time. After infection, the resulting EBOV disease results in high levels of circulating cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis in humans and nonhuman primates. The VP40 matrix protein of EBOV is essential for viral assembly and budding from the host cell. Recent data have shown that VP40 exists in the extracellular environment, including in exosomes, and exosomal VP40 can impact the viability of recipient immune cells, including myeloid and T cells, through the regulation of the RNAi and endosomal sorting complexes required for transport pathways. In this study, we discuss the latest findings of the impact of exosomal VP40 on immune cells in vitro and its potential implications for pathogenesis in vivo.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Exossomos/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Apoptose , Transporte Biológico , Endossomos/metabolismo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Interferência de RNA
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