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2.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528115

RESUMO

In malignant hypertension, far more severe kidney injury occurs than in the "benign" form of the disease. The role of high blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is well recognized, but the pathogenesis of the renal injury of malignant hypertension (MH) remains incompletely understood. Using the rat model of two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension in which some but not all animals develop MH, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression by RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional changes in the kidney cortex specific for MH. Differential gene expression was assessed in three groups: MH, non-malignant hypertension (NMH), and normotensive, sham-operated controls. To distinguish MH from NMH, we considered two factors: weight loss and typical renovascular lesions. Mean blood pressure measured intraarterially was elevated in MH (220 ± 6.5 mmHg) as well as in NMH (192 ± 6.4 mmHg), compared to controls (119 ± 1.7 mmHg, p < 0.05). Eight hundred eighty-six genes were exclusively regulated in MH only. Principal component analysis revealed a separated clustering of the three groups. The data pointed to an upregulation of many inflammatory mechanisms in MH including pathways which previously attracted relatively little attention in the setting of hypertensive kidney injury: Transcripts from all three complement activation pathways were upregulated in MH compared to NMH but not in NMH compared with controls; immunohistochemistry confirmed complement deposition in MH exclusively. The expression of chemokines attracting neutrophil granulocytes (CXCL6) and infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive cells were increased only in MH rats. The data suggest that these pathways, especially complement deposition, may contribute to kidney injury under MH. KEY MESSAGES: The most severe hypertension-induced kidney injury occurs in malignant hypertension. In a rat model of malignant hypertension, we assessed transcriptional responses in the kidney exposed to high blood pressure. A broad stimulation of inflammatory mechanisms was observed, but a few specific pathways were activated only in the malignant form of the disease, notably activation of the complement cascades. Complement inhibitors may alleviate the thrombotic microangiopathy of malignant hypertension even in the absence of primary complement abnormalities.

3.
Dis Model Mech ; 14(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423816

RESUMO

Susceptibility to doxorubicin-induced nephropathy (DIN), a toxic model for the induction of proteinuria in mice, is related to the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C6418T of the Prkdc gene encoding for the DNA-repair enzyme DNA-PKcs. In addition, plasminogen (Plg) has been reported to play a role in glomerular damage. Here, we investigated the interdependence of both factors for the development of DIN. Genotyping confirmed the SNP of the Prkdc gene in C57BL/6 (PrkdcC6418/C6418) and 129S1/SvImJ (PrkdcT6418/T6418) mice. Intercross of heterozygous 129SB6F1 mice led to 129SB6F2 hybrids with Mendelian inheritance of the SNP. After doxorubicin injection, only homozygous F2 mice with PrkdcT6418/T6418 developed proteinuria. Genetic deficiency of Plg (Plg-/-) in otherwise susceptible 129S1/SvImJ mice led to resistance to DIN. Immunohistochemistry revealed glomerular binding of Plg in Plg+/+ mice after doxorubicin injection involving histone H2B as Plg receptor. In doxorubicin-resistant C57BL/6 mice, Plg binding was absent. In conclusion, susceptibility to DIN in 129S1/SvImJ mice is determined by a hierarchical two-hit process requiring the C6418T SNP in the Prkdc gene and subsequent glomerular binding of Plg. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

4.
Pathologe ; 42(5): 509-523, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany pancreas transplants are performed in only a few selected and specialized centres, usually combined with a kidney transplant. Knowlegde of the indications for and techniques of transplantation as well as of the histopathological assessment for rejection in pancreas and duodenal biopsies is not very widespread. AIM: To give an overview of the development and status quo in pancreas-kidney-transplantation in Germany summarizing the experience of the largest German pancreas transplant centre and to give a résumé of the results of histological diagnoses of biopsy specimens submitted between 06/2017 and 12/2020. Moreover, a detailed description and illustration of histological findings is included. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A thorough literature search for aspects of the history, technique and indication for pancreas transplantation was performed and discussed in the context of the local experience and technical particularities specific for the transplant centre in Bochum. The occurrence of complications was compared with international reports. Results of pancreas and duodenal biopsies submitted to Erlangen between 06/2017 and 12/2020 for histological evaluation, which were evaluated according to the Banff classification, were summarized. For a better understanding key histological findings of pancreas rejection and differential diagnoses were illustrated and discussed. RESULTS: A total of 93 pancreas transplant specimens and 3 duodenal biopsies were included. 34.4% of pancreas specimens did not contain representative material for a diagnosis. In the remaining 61 biopsies 24.6% showed no rejection, 62.3% were diagnosed with acute T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) and 8.2% with signs suspicious of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Acute acinary epithelial injury was seen in 59%, pancreatitis in 8.2% and allograft fibrosis was reported in as many as 54.1%. Calcineurin-inhibitor toxicity was discussed in only 4.9%. CONCLUSION: Pancreas-kidney-transplantation and standardized histological assessment of the transplanted pancreas or rarely duodenum with reporting according to the updated Banff classification of pancreas transplants or previous reports of duodenal rejection are important mainstays in the management of patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Pâncreas , Biópsia , Rejeição de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4402, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285231

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is morphologically characterized by a synchronized plasma membrane rupture of cells in a specific section of a nephron, referred to as acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Whereas the involvement of necroptosis is well characterized, genetic evidence supporting the contribution of ferroptosis is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (Fsp1) or the targeted manipulation of the active center of the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4cys/-) sensitize kidneys to tubular ferroptosis, resulting in a unique morphological pattern of tubular necrosis. Given the unmet medical need to clinically inhibit AKI, we generated a combined small molecule inhibitor (Nec-1f) that simultaneously targets receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and ferroptosis in cell lines, in freshly isolated primary kidney tubules and in mouse models of cardiac transplantation and of AKI and improved survival in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Based on genetic and pharmacological evidence, we conclude that GPX4 dysfunction hypersensitizes mice to ATN during AKI. Additionally, we introduce Nec-1f, a solid inhibitor of RIPK1 and weak inhibitor of ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HT29 , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/etiologia , Necrose/patologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia
6.
Pflugers Arch ; 473(10): 1617-1629, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232378

RESUMO

Previous data suggest that renal afferent nerve activity is increased in hypertension exerting sympathoexcitatory effects. Hence, we wanted to test the hypothesis that in renovascular hypertension, the activity of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with afferent projections from the kidneys is augmented depending on the degree of intrarenal inflammation. For comparison, a nonhypertensive model of mesangioproliferative nephritis was investigated. Renovascular hypertension (2-kidney, 1-clip [2K1C]) was induced by unilateral clipping of the left renal artery and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (anti-Thy1.1) by IV injection of a 1.75-mg/kg BW OX-7 antibody. Neuronal labeling (dicarbocyanine dye [DiI]) in all rats allowed identification of renal afferent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. A current clamp was used to characterize neurons as tonic (sustained action potential [AP] firing) or phasic (1-4 AP) upon stimulation by current injection. All kidneys were investigated using standard morphological techniques. DRG neurons exhibited less often tonic response if in vivo axonal input from clipped kidneys was received (30.4% vs. 61.2% control, p < 0.05). However, if the nerves to the left clipped kidneys were cut 7 days prior to investigation, the number of tonic renal neurons completely recovered to well above control levels. Interestingly, electrophysiological properties of neurons that had in vivo axons from the right non-clipped kidneys were not distinguishable from controls. Renal DRG neurons from nephritic rats also showed less often tonic activity upon current injection (43.4% vs. 64.8% control, p < 0.05). Putative sympathoexcitatory and impaired sympathoinhibitory renal afferent nerve fibers probably contribute to increased sympathetic activity in 2K1C hypertension.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15464, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326417

RESUMO

In renal transplantation, complement is involved in ischemia reperfusion injury, graft rejection and dysfunction. However, it is still unclear how induction of complement and its activation are initiated. Using allograft biopsies of a well-characterized cohort of 28 renal transplant patients with no rejection (Ctrl), delayed graft function (DGF), acute T-cell-mediated (TCMR) or antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) we analyzed differences in complement reaction. For that mRNA was isolated from FFPE sections, quantified with a multiplex gene expression panel and correlated with transplant conditions and follow-up of patients. Additionally, inflammatory cells were quantified by multiplex immunohistochemistry. In allograft biopsies with TCMR and ABMR gene expression of C1QB was 2-4 fold elevated compared to Ctrl. In TCMR biopsies, mRNA counts of several complement-related genes including C1S, C3, CFB and complement regulators CFH, CR1 and SERPING1 were significantly increased compared to Ctrl. Interestingly, expression levels of about 75% of the analyzed complement related genes correlated with cold ischemia time (CIT) and markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study suggest an important role of complement in transplant pathology which seems to be at least in part triggered by CIT. Multiplex mRNA analysis might be a useful method to refine diagnosis and explore new pathways involved in rejection.

8.
Proteomes ; 9(3)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287333

RESUMO

Non-invasive urinary peptide biomarkers are able to detect and predict chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moreover, specific urinary peptides enable discrimination of different CKD etiologies and offer an interesting alternative to invasive kidney biopsy, which cannot always be performed. The aim of this study was to define a urinary peptide classifier using mass spectrometry technology to predict the degree of renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) in CKD patients. The urinary peptide profiles of 435 patients enrolled in this study were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry (CE-MS). Urine samples were collected on the day of the diagnostic kidney biopsy. The proteomics data were divided into a training (n = 200) and a test (n = 235) cohort. The fibrosis group was defined as IFTA ≥ 15% and no fibrosis as IFTA < 10%. Statistical comparison of the mass spectrometry data enabled identification of 29 urinary peptides with differential occurrence in samples with and without fibrosis. Several collagen fragments and peptide fragments of fetuin-A and others were combined into a peptidomic classifier. The classifier separated fibrosis from non-fibrosis patients in an independent test set (n = 186) with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.779 to 0.889). A significant correlation of IFTA and FPP_BH29 scores could be observed Rho = 0.5, p < 0.0001. We identified a peptidomic classifier for renal fibrosis containing 29 peptide fragments corresponding to 13 different proteins. Urinary proteomics analysis can serve as a non-invasive tool to evaluate the degree of renal fibrosis, in contrast to kidney biopsy, which allows repeated measurements during the disease course.

9.
Amyloid ; 28(3): 199-208, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060395

RESUMO

Amyloidosis is a disease group caused by pathological aggregation and deposition of peptides in diverse tissue sites. Apart from the fibril protein, amyloid deposits frequently enclose non-fibrillar constituents. In routine diagnostics, we noticed the presence of complement 9 (C9) in amyloid. Based on this observation, we systematically explored the occurrence of C9 in amyloid. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), caspase 3 and complement 3 (C3) served as controls. From the Amyloid Registry Kiel, we retrieved 118 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples, including eight different amyloid- and 18 different tissue types. The expression patterns were assessed immunohistochemically in relation to amyloid deposits. A literature search on proteomic data was performed. Amyloid deposits stained for C9 and apoE in 117 (99.2%) and 112 of 118 (94.9%) cases, respectively. A homogeneous immunostaining of the entire amyloid deposits was found in 75.4% (C9) and 61.9% (apoE) of the cases. Caspase 3 and C3 were present only in 22 (19.3%) of 114 and 20 (36%) of 55 assessable cases, respectively. Caspase 3 and C3 immunostaining rarely covered substantial areas of the amyloid deposits. The literature search on proteomic data confirmed the frequent detection of apoE and the occurrence of C9 and C3 in amyloid deposits. No data were found regarding caspase 3. Our findings demonstrate the ubiquitous, spatial and specific enrichment of C9 in amyloid deposits irrespective of amyloid-, organ- or tissue type. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that amyloidosis might activate the complement cascade, which could lead to the formation of the membrane attack complex and cell death.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(16): 7631-7641, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156149

RESUMO

Under healthy conditions, foot processes of neighbouring podocytes are interdigitating and connected by an electron-dense slit diaphragm. Besides slit diaphragm proteins, typical adherens junction proteins are also found to be expressed at this cell-cell junction. It is therefore considered as a highly specialized type of adherens junction. During podocyte injury, podocyte foot processes lose their characteristic 3D structure and the filtration slits typical meandering structure gets linearized. It is still under debate how this change of structure leads to the phenomenon of proteinuria. Using super-resolution 3D-structured illumination microscopy, we observed a spatially restricted up-regulation of the tight junction protein claudin-5 (CLDN5) in areas where podocyte processes of patients suffering from minimal change disease (MCD), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) as well as in murine nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis and uninephrectomy DOCA-salt hypertension models, were locally injured. CLDN5/nephrin ratios in human glomerulopathies and NTS-treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls. In patients, the CLDN5/nephrin ratio is significantly correlated with the filtration slit density as a foot process effacement marker, confirming a direct association of local CLDN5 up-regulation in injured foot processes. Moreover, CLDN5 up-regulation was observed in some areas of high filtration slit density, suggesting that CLND5 up-regulation preceded the changes of foot processes. Therefore, CLDN5 could serve as a biomarker predicting early foot process effacement.

11.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 55(S4): 48-67, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Podocyte differentiation is essential for proper blood filtration in the kidney. It is well known that transcription factors play an essential role to maintain the differentiation of podocytes. The present study is focused on the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Tcf21 (Pod1) which is essential for the development of podocytes in vivo. Since parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are still under debate to be progenitor cells which can differentiate into podocytes, we wanted to find out whether the expression of Tcf21 induces a transition of PECs into podocytes. METHODS: We transfected PECs with Tcf21-GFP and analyzed the expression of PEC- and podocyte-specific markers. Furthermore, we performed ChIP-Seq analysis to identify new putative interaction partners and target genes of Tcf21. RESULTS: By gene arrays analysis, we found that podocytes express high levels of Tcf21 in vivo in contrast to cultured podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in vitro. After the expression of Tcf21 in PECs, we observed a downregulation of specific PEC markers like caveolin­1, ß-catenin and Pax2. Additionally, we found that the upregulation of Tcf21 induced multi-lobulation of cell nuclei, budding and a formation of micronuclei (MBM). Furthermore, a high number of PECs showed a tetraploid set of chromosomes. By qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis, we revealed that the transcription factor YY1 is downregulated by Tcf21. Interestingly, co-expression of YY1 and Tcf21 rescues MBM and reduced tetraploidy. By ChIP-Seq analysis, we identified a genome-wide Tcf21-binding site (CAGCTG), which matched the CANNTG sequence, a common E-box binding motif used by bHLH transcription factors. Using this technique, we identified additional Tcf21 targets genes that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle (e.g. Mdm2, Cdc45, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D2), on the stability of microtubules (e.g. Mapt) as well as chromosome segregation. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we demonstrate that Tcf21 inhibits the expression of PEC-specific markers and of the transcription factor YY1, induces MBM as well as regulates the cell cycle suggesting that Tcf21 might be important for PEC differentiation into podocyte-like cells.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Podócitos/citologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Transdiferenciação Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Podócitos/metabolismo , Transfecção
12.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(3): 362-376, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complement deposition is prevalent in kidney biopsies of patients with arterial hypertension and hypertensive nephropathy, but an association of hypertension and complement deposition or involvement of complement in the pathogenesis of hypertensive nephropathy has not been shown to date. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed complement C1q and C3c deposition in a rat model of overload and hypertension by subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) and in archival human renal biopsies from 217 patients with known hypertension and 91 control patients with no history of hypertension using semiquantitative scoring of C1q and C3c immunohistochemistry and correlation with parameters of renal function. To address whether complement was only passively deposited or actively expressed by renal cells, C1q and C3 mRNA expression were additionally analyzed. RESULTS: Glomerular C1q and C3c complement deposition were significantly higher in kidneys of hypertensive SNX rats and hypertensive compared to nonhypertensive patients. Mean arterial blood pressure (BP) in SNX rats correlated well with the amount of glomerular C1q and C3c deposition and with left ventricular weight, as an indirect parameter of high BP. Quantitative mRNA analysis showed that C3 was not only deposited but also actively produced by glomerular cells of hypertensive SNX rats and in human renal biopsies. Of note, in patients CKD-stage correlated significantly with the intensity of glomerular C3c staining, but not with that of C1q. CONCLUSION: Renal complement deposition correlated with experimental hypertension as well as the presence of hypertension in a variety of renal diseases. To answer the question, if and how exactly renal complement is causative for the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension in men, further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Complemento C1q/análise , Complemento C3c/análise , Hipertensão/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Rim/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Nefropatias/complicações , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 657894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135891

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of humoral immune activation in ABMR using a MHC-mismatched rat kidney transplant model. We applied low dose cyclosporine A (loCNI) to allow donor-specific antibody (DSA) formation and rejection and high dose cyclosporine A (hiCNI) for non-rejection. DSA and leukocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. Germinal centers (GC), T follicular helper cells (Tfh), plasma cells and interleukin-21 (IL-21) expression were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of important costimulatory molecules and cytokines was measured by qRT-PCR. Allograft rejection was evaluated by a nephropathologist. We found that DSA formation correlated with GC frequency and expansion, and that GC size was linked to the number of activated Tfh. In hiCNI, GC and activated Tfh were virtually absent, resulting in fewer plasma cells and no DSA or ABMR. Expression of B cell activating T cell cytokine IL-21 was substantially inhibited in hiCNI, but not in loCNI. In addition, hiCNI showed lower expression of ICOS ligand and IL-6, which stimulate Tfh differentiation and maintenance. Overall, Tfh:B cell crosstalk was controlled only by hiCNI treatment, preventing the development of DSA and ABMR. Additional strategies targeting Tfh:B cell interactions are needed for preventing alloantibody formation and ABMR.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Comunicação Celular , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibrose , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Imunidade Humoral , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
14.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(3): 331-341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and the renal sympathetic nervous system exert a strong influence on renal sodium and water excretion. We tested the hypothesis that already low doses of an Ang II inhibitor (candesartan) will result in similar effects on tubular sodium and water reabsorption in congestive heart failure (CHF) as seen after renal denervation (DNX). METHODS: Measurement of arterial blood pressure, heart rate (HR), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), urine volume, and urinary sodium. To assess neural control of volume homeostasis, 21 days after the induction of CHF via myocardial infarction rats underwent volume expansion (0.9% NaCL; 10% body weight) to decrease RSNA. CHF rat and controls with or without DNX or pretreated with the Ang II type-1 receptor antagonist candesartan (0.5 ug i.v.) were studied. RESULTS: CHF rats excreted only 68 + 10.2% of the volume load (10% body weight) in 90 min. CHF rats pretreated with candesartan or after DNX excreted from 92 to 103% like controls. Decreases of RSNA induced by volume expansion were impaired in CHF rats but unaffected by candesartan pointing to an intrarenal drug effect. GFR and RPF were not significantly different in controls or CHF. CONCLUSION: The prominent function of increased RSNA - retaining salt and water - could no longer be observed after renal Ang II receptor blockade in CHF rats.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/inervação , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Denervação , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sódio/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
15.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 193, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney biopsy registries all over the world benefit research, teaching and health policy. Comparison, aggregation and exchange of data is however greatly dependent on how registration and coding of kidney biopsy diagnoses are performed. This paper gives an overview over kidney biopsy registries, explores how these registries code kidney disease and identifies needs for improvement of coding practice. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken to identify biopsy registries for medical kidney diseases. These data were supplemented with information from personal contacts and from registry websites. A questionnaire was sent to all identified registries, investigating age of registries, scope, method of coding, possible mapping to international terminologies as well as self-reported problems and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Sixteen regional or national kidney biopsy registries were identified, of which 11 were older than 10 years. Most registries were located either in Europe (10/16) or in Asia (4/16). Registries most often use a proprietary coding system (12/16). Only a few of these coding systems were mapped to SNOMED CT (1), older SNOMED versions (2) or ERA-EDTA PRD (3). Lack of maintenance and updates of the coding system was the most commonly reported problem. CONCLUSIONS: There were large gaps in the global coverage of kidney biopsy registries. Limited use of international coding systems among existing registries hampers interoperability and exchange of data. The study underlines that the use of a common and uniform coding system is necessary to fully realize the potential of kidney biopsy registries.

16.
Transpl Int ; 34(7): 1226-1238, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904183

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a major obstacle to long-term kidney transplantation. AMR is mostly caused by donor specific HLA antibodies, which can arise before or any time after transplantation. Incomplete donor HLA typing and unavailability of donor DNA regularly preclude the assessment of donor-specificity of circulating anti-HLA antibodies. In our centre, this problem arises in approximately 20% of all post-transplant HLA-antibody assessments. We demonstrate that this diagnostic challenge can be resolved by establishing donor renal tubular cell cultures from recipient´s urine as a source of high-quality donor DNA. DNA was then verified for genetic origin and purity by fluorescence in situ hybridization and short tandem repeat analysis. Two representative cases highlight the diagnostic value of this approach which is corroborated by analysis of ten additional patients. The latter were randomly sampled from routine clinical care patients with available donor DNA as controls. In all 12 cases, we were able to perform full HLA typing of the respective donors confirmed by cross-comparison to results from the stored 10 donor DNAs. We propose that this noninvasive diagnostic approach for HLA typing in kidney transplant patients is valuable to determine donor specificity of HLA antibodies, which is important in clinical assessment of suspected AMR.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Antígenos HLA , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Isoanticorpos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
17.
FASEB J ; 35(5): e21560, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860543

RESUMO

Glomerular hypertension induces mechanical load to podocytes, often resulting in podocyte detachment and the development of glomerulosclerosis. Although it is well known that podocytes are mechanosensitive, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers are still unknown. Since filamin A, an actin-binding protein, is already described to be a mechanosensor and mechanotransducer, we hypothesized that filamins could be important for the outside-in signaling as well as the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes under mechanical stress. In this study, we demonstrate that filamin A is the main isoform of the filamin family that is expressed in cultured podocytes. Together with filamin B, filamin A was significantly up-regulated during mechanical stretch (3 days, 0.5 Hz, and 5% extension). To study the role of filamin A in cultured podocytes under mechanical stress, filamin A was knocked down (Flna KD) by specific siRNA. Additionally, we established a filamin A knockout podocyte cell line (Flna KO) by CRISPR/Cas9. Knockdown and knockout of filamin A influenced the expression of synaptopodin, a podocyte-specific protein, focal adhesions as well as the morphology of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the cell motility of Flna KO podocytes was significantly increased. Since the knockout of filamin A has had no effect on cell adhesion of podocytes during mechanical stress, we simultaneously knocked down the expression of filamin A and B. Thereby, we observed a significant loss of podocytes during mechanical stress indicating a compensatory mechanism. Analyzing hypertensive mice kidneys as well as biopsies of patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, we found an up-regulation of filamin A in podocytes in contrast to the control. In summary, filamin A and B mediate matrix-actin cytoskeleton interactions which are essential for the adaptation of cultured podocyte to mechanical stress.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Filaminas/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/patologia , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Podócitos/patologia , Estresse Mecânico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adesão Celular , Movimento Celular , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Podócitos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 232(1): e13640, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650216

RESUMO

AIM: The serine protease prostasin (Prss8) is expressed in the distal tubule and stimulates proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in co-expression experiments in vitro. The aim of this study was to explore the role of prostasin in proteolytic ENaC activation in the kidney in vivo. METHODS: We used genetically modified knockin mice carrying a Prss8 mutation abolishing proteolytic activity (Prss8-S238A) or a mutation leading to a zymogen-locked state (Prss8-R44Q). Mice were challenged with low sodium diet and diuretics. Regulation of ENaC activity by Prss8-S238A and Prss8-R44Q was studied in vitro using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. RESULTS: Co-expression of murine ENaC with Prss8-wt or Prss8-S238A in oocytes caused maximal proteolytic ENaC activation, whereas ENaC was activated only partially in oocytes co-expressing Prss8-R44Q. This was paralleled by a reduced proteolytic activity at the cell surface of Prss8-R44Q expressing oocytes. Sodium conservation under low sodium diet was preserved in Prss8-S238A and Prss8-R44Q mice but with higher plasma aldosterone concentrations in Prss8-R44Q mice. Treatment with the ENaC inhibitor triamterene over four days was tolerated in Prss8-wt and Prss8-S238A mice, whereas Prss8-R44Q mice developed salt wasting and severe weight loss associated with hyperkalemia and acidosis consistent with impaired ENaC function and renal failure. CONCLUSION: Unlike proteolytically inactive Prss8-S238A, zymogen-locked Prss8-R44Q produces incomplete proteolytic ENaC activation in vitro and causes a severe renal phenotype in mice treated with the ENaC inhibitor triamterene. This indicates that Prss8 plays a role in proteolytic ENaC activation and renal function independent of its proteolytic activity.


Assuntos
Precursores Enzimáticos , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio , Animais , Camundongos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Triantereno , Xenopus laevis/metabolismo
20.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 49(8): 738-747, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642117

RESUMO

Expression of signaling proteins in bone cells depends on their embryological mesoderm-derived (e.g. tibia) or cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived (e.g. jaw) origin. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein that plays an essential role in the mode of action of bisphosphonates (BP). This study aimed to investigate Cx43 expression and the influence of BP application on mesoderm- and CNC-derived bone. Using a rat model, molar extraction and tibia osteotomy with (Group 4) or without (Group 3) previous BP application was performed. Untreated (Group 1) and animals selectively treated with BPs (Group 2) served as controls. Cx43 expression was immunohistochemically determined 12 and 16 weeks postoperatively via a labeling index. Cx43 expression in CNC-derived bone was significantly higher compared with mesodermal bone. BP application decreased Cx43 expression; however, detected expression levels were still higher in jawbone (Group 2 tibia vs jaw: 5.83 ± 5.06 vs 23.52 ± 6.42; p = 0.007). During bone healing after surgical intervention (Group 3) there were no expression differences between tibia and jawbone. BP treatment prior to surgery resulted in significantly lower Cx43 expression in CNC-derived compared with tibia bone (Group 4 tibia vs jaw: 56.84 ± 15.57 vs 16.40 ± 5.66; p < 0.01). Increased Cx43 expression in jaw compared with tibia bone is in line with their embryological origins. A significant Cx43 suppression in jawbone after BP application and surgery might contribute to the selectively altered osseous turnover and development of MRONJ in CNC-derived bone.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Animais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Conexina 43 , Difosfonatos , Arcada Osseodentária , Ratos , Tíbia
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