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1.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(2): 423-431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of a nurse-led risk factor modification (RFM) program for improving weight loss and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) care among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: We now report its impact on arrhythmia outcomes in a subgroup of patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: Participating patients with obesity and/or need for OSA management (high risk per Berlin Questionnaire or untreated OSA) underwent in-person consultation and monthly telephone calls with the nurse for up to 1 year. Arrhythmias were assessed by office ECGs and ≥2 wearable monitors. Outcomes, defined as Arrhythmia control (0-6 self-terminating recurrences, with ≤1 cardioversion for nonparoxysmal AF) and Freedom from arrhythmias (no recurrences on or off antiarrhythmic drugs), were compared at 1 year between patients undergoing catheter ablation who enrolled and declined RFM. RESULTS: Between 1 November 2016 and 1 April 2018, 195 patients enrolled and 196 declined RFM (body mass index, 35.1 ± 6.7 vs 34.3 ± 6.3 kg/m2 ; 50% vs 50% paroxysmal AF; P = NS). At 1 year, enrolled patients demonstrated significant weight loss (4.7% ± 5.3% vs 0.3% ± 4.4% in declined patients; P < .0001) and improved OSA care (78% [n = 43] of patients diagnosed with OSA began treatment). However, outcomes were similar between enrolled and declined patients undergoing ablation (arrhythmia control in 80% [n = 48] vs 79% [n = 38]; freedom from arrhythmia in 58% [n = 35] vs 71% [n = 34]; P = NS). CONCLUSION: Despite improving weight loss and OSA care, our nurse-led RFM program did not impact 1-year arrhythmia outcomes in patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation.

2.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(8): 1348-1354, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The AspireAssist is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved endoluminal device indicated for treatment of class II and III obesity. OBJECTIVES: We earlier reported 1-year results of the PATHWAY study. Here, we report 4-year outcomes. SETTING: United States-based, 10-center, randomized controlled trial involving 171 participants with the treatment arm receiving Aspiration Therapy (AT) plus Lifestyle Therapy and the control arm receiving Lifestyle Therapy (2:1 randomization). METHODS: AT participants were permitted to continue in the study for an additional year up to a maximum of 5 years providing they maintained at least 10% total weight loss (TWL) from baseline at each year end. For AT participants who continued the study, 5 medical monitoring visits were provided at weeks 60, 68, 76, 90, and 104 and thereafter once every 13 weeks up to week 260. Exclusion criteria were a history of eating disorder or evidence of eating disorder on a validated questionnaire. Follow-up weight, quality of life, and co-morbidities were compared with the baseline levels. In addition, rates of serious adverse event, persistent fistula, withdrawal, and A-tube replacement were reported. All analyses were performed using a per-protocol analysis. RESULTS: Of the 82 AT participants who completed 1 year, 58 continued to this phase of the trial. Mean baseline body mass index of these 58 patients was 41.6 ± 4.5 kg/m2. At the end of first year (at the beginning of the follow-up study), these 58 patients had a body mass index of 34.1 ± 5.4 kg/m2 and had achieved an 18.3 ± 8.0% TWL. On a per protocol basis, patients experienced 14.2%, 15.3%, 16.6%, and 18.7% TWL at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (P < .01 for all). Forty of 58 patients (69%) achieved at least 10% TWL at 4 years or at time of study withdrawal. Improvements in quality of life scores and select cardiometabolic parameters were also maintained through 4 years. There were 2 serious adverse events reported in the second through fourth years, both of which resolved with removal or replacement of the A tube. Two persistent fistulas required surgical repair, representing approximately 2% of all tube removals. There were no clinically significant metabolic or electrolytes disorders observed, nor any evidence for development of any eating disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this midterm study have shown that AT is a safe, effective, and durable weight loss alternative for people with class II and III obesity and who are willing to commit to using the therapy and adhere to adjustments in eating behavior.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(23): e010414, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571593

RESUMO

Background Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea ( OSA ) are associated with atrial fibrillation ( AF ), yet these conditions remain inadequately treated. We report on the feasibility and efficacy of a nurse-led risk factor modification program utilizing a pragmatic approach to address obesity and OSA in AF patients. Methods and Results AF patients with obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and/or the need for OSA management (high risk per Berlin Questionnaire or untreated OSA ) were voluntarily enrolled for risk factor modification, which comprised patient education, lifestyle modification, coordination with specialists, and longitudinal management. Weight loss and OSA treatment were monitored by monthly follow-up calls and/or continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP ) unit downloads. Quality of life and arrhythmia symptoms were assessed with the SF -36 and AF Severity Scale at baseline and at 6 months. From November 1, 2016 to October 31, 2017, 252 patients (age 63±11 years; 71% male; 57% paroxysmal AF ) were enrolled, 189 for obesity and 93 for OSA . Obese patients who enrolled lost significantly greater percent body weight than those who declined (3% versus 0.3%; P<0.05). Among 93 patients enrolled for OSA , 70 completed sleep studies, OSA was confirmed in 50, and the majority (76%) started CPAP therapy. All components of quality of life and arrhythmia symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 6 months among enrolled patients. Conclusions A nurse-led risk factor modification program is a potentially sustainable and generalizable model that can improve weight loss and OSA in AF patients, translating into improved quality of life and arrhythmia symptoms.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/enfermagem , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/enfermagem , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/enfermagem , Programas de Redução de Peso
4.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 20(4): 18, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511882

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent studies discussing the impact of pharmacologic agents for weight loss on clinical cardiovascular events, as well as cardiometabolic risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacotherapy with current FDA-approved medications for weight loss can significantly improve known risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammatory biomarkers, and the quantity of visceral fat, as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, data regarding the actual reduction in clinical cardiovascular events with the use of weight loss medications is scarce. Pharmacotherapy for weight loss may have additional benefit in optimizing patient's cardiometabolic comorbidities and improving their clinical cardiovascular outcomes, but each drug should be carefully selected based upon individual patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 112(3): 447-457, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27922026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The AspireAssist System (AspireAssist) is an endoscopic weight loss device that is comprised of an endoscopically placed percutaneous gastrostomy tube and an external device to facilitate drainage of about 30% of the calories consumed in a meal, in conjunction with lifestyle (diet and exercise) counseling. METHODS: In this 52-week clinical trial, 207 participants with a body-mass index (BMI) of 35.0-55.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with AspireAssist plus Lifestyle Counseling (n=137; mean BMI was 42.2±5.1 kg/m2) or Lifestyle Counseling alone (n=70; mean BMI was 40.9±3.9 kg/m2). The co-primary end points were mean percent excess weight loss and the proportion of participants who achieved at least a 25% excess weight loss. RESULTS: At 52 weeks, participants in the AspireAssist group, on a modified intent-to-treat basis, had lost a mean (±s.d.) of 31.5±26.7% of their excess body weight (12.1±9.6% total body weight), whereas those in the Lifestyle Counseling group had lost a mean of 9.8±15.5% of their excess body weight (3.5±6.0% total body weight) (P<0.001). A total of 58.6% of participants in the AspireAssist group and 15.3% of participants in the Lifestyle Counseling group lost at least 25% of their excess body weight (P<0.001). The most frequently reported adverse events were abdominal pain and discomfort in the perioperative period and peristomal granulation tissue and peristomal irritation in the postoperative period. Serious adverse events were reported in 3.6% of participants in the AspireAssist group. CONCLUSIONS: The AspireAssist System was associated with greater weight loss than Lifestyle Counseling alone.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Dietoterapia , Drenagem/métodos , Terapia por Exercício , Gastrostomia/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Tecido de Granulação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
6.
Postgrad Med ; 126(1): 139-52, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24393761

RESUMO

Diet plays an integral role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Unfortunately, many patients with T2DM do not have access to a registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator, and rates of physician counseling about diet remain low. This article provides an overview of the current recommendations for the nutritional management of T2DM, which are endorsed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Medical nutrition therapy, which provides a flexible and individualized approach to diet, emphasizes the total number (rather than the type) of carbohydrate consumed. Because fat intake also affects glycemia and cardiovascular risk, a reduction in daily mono- and polyunsaturated fat intake is recommended for most patients with T2DM. Weight loss plays an important adjunct role in treating patients with T2DM, because the majority of individuals with T2DM are overweight or obese. Patient lifestyle modification, which encompasses diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, can be used to facilitate weight loss in conjunction with several different dietary approaches. These include low-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-glycemic index, and Mediterranean diets. Studies have demonstrated that modest weight loss (5%-10% of body weight) is associated with significant improvements in patient measures of glycemic control, lipids, blood pressure, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, a modest weight loss of as little as 4.5 kg can result in reducing the glycated hemoglobin level by approximately 0.5%. Pharmacologic agents, when combined with these approaches, may further augment weight loss. Familiarity with these principles can help physicians provide dietary counseling to their patients with T2DM and obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta , Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/terapia
7.
Gastroenterology ; 139(1): 149-53, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20303351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, but it is not clear whether increased intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content causes the resistance or is a marker. Subjects with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) have high levels of IHTG because of a genetic defect in hepatic export of triglycerides, and provide a unique cohort to study the relationship between steatosis and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: One group of lean subjects with normal IHTG content (2.2% +/- 0.6% of liver volume) (n = 6), and 3 groups of overweight and obese subjects matched for body mass index, were studied: (1) normal IHTG content (3.3% +/- 0.5%; n = 6), (2) high IHTG content (21.4% +/- 2.6%) due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; n = 6), and (3) high IHTG content (18.1% +/- 2.2%) due to FHBL (n = 3). A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure, in conjunction with glucose tracer infusion, was used to determine multiorgan insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Hepatic insulin sensitivity (reciprocal of glucose rate of appearance [micromol x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1)] x insulin [mU/L]) was greatest in the Lean group (2.0 +/- 0.4); it was the same among subjects with FHBL (0.8 +/- 0.1) and the group with normal IHTG content, matched for body mass index (0.7 +/- 0.1), but greater than the NAFLD group (0.3 +/- 0.1) (P < .01). Muscle insulin sensitivity (percent increase in glucose uptake during insulin infusion) was greatest in the Lean group (576% +/- 70%). Muscle insulin sensitivity was similar in subjects with FHBL and those with normal IHTG (319% +/- 77%, 326% +/- 27%, respectively), but greater than the NAFLD group (145% +/- 18%) (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Steatosis is dissociated from insulin resistance in FHBL, which suggests that increased IHTG content is a marker, not a cause, of metabolic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hipobetalipoproteinemia Familiar por Apolipoproteína B/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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