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1.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 648-653, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among workers of the three public higher education institutions of Porto, Portugal, up to July 2020. METHODS: A rapid point-of-care test for specific IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 was offered to all workers (SD Biosensor STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo and STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Combo). Testing was performed and a questionnaire was completed by 4592 workers on a voluntary basis from 21 May to 31 July 2020. We computed the apparent IgM, IgG, and combined IgM or IgG prevalence, along with the true prevalence and 95% credible intervals (95% CrI) using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: We found an apparent prevalence of 3.1% for IgM, 1.0% for IgG and 3.9% for either. The estimated true prevalence was 2.0% (95% CrI 0.1% to 4.3%) for IgM, 0.6% (95% CrI 0.0% to 1.3%) for IgG, and 2.5% (95% CrI 0.1% to 5.3%) for IgM or IgG. A SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis was reported by 21 (0.5%) workers; and of these, 90.5% had a reactive IgG result. Seroprevalence was higher among those reporting contacts with confirmed cases, having been quarantined, having a previous molecular negative test or having had symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence among workers from the three public higher education institutions of Porto after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to national estimates for the same age working population. However, the estimated true seroprevalence was approximately five times higher than the reported SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a molecular test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Work ; 68(3): 563-576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond the health-enhancing effects, work also has the potential of causing or worsening different health conditions in the same individual. However, research on within-worker aggregation of work-related health problems is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the history and aggregation of work-related health problems in a population-based sample of women. METHODS: A total of 4330 women were asked whether they had ever had "a physical or mental health problem that was caused or made worse by your work". The aggregation of work-related health problems was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis. RESULTS: Five groups were identified. Factor 1 included all items on musculoskeletal disorders - lower socioeconomic position, higher BMI, smokers and history of occupational accidents. Factor 2 included mental disorders together with headache and/or eyestrain - higher socioeconomic position. Factor 3 included the other disorders item with some loading from digestive disorders - older and public sector workers. Factor 4 included respiratory disorders - lower socioeconomic position and history of occupational accidents. Factor 5 included hearing and ear problems - blue-collar workers. CONCLUSION: There was a relevant aggregation of work-related health problems, which may inform the selection of specific components for interventions that aim to improve women's work-related health.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Acidentes de Trabalho , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; : 1-11, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034256

RESUMO

Purpose. This study investigated self-reported occupational injuries among mothers in a large birth cohort study and the relation of their characteristics to different injury outcomes: occurrence, severity, temporal proximity and recurrence. Methods. We asked 4338 women whether they had been in 'an accident at work, even if it did not require medical treatment', and the number of accidents throughout their working life, type of injury and whether it occurred within the last 12 months. Results. Over one-fifth (21.8%) of working-age mothers reported having at least one occupational injury throughout their working life. Wounds and superficial injuries were the most frequently reported types of occupational injuries (11.0%), followed by dislocated bones and joints, sprains and strains (10.7%). Women who reported a history of occupational injuries also had a higher likelihood of reporting a work-related health problem (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.27, 3.07]) and of having a partner who also reported an occupational injury throughout their working life (adjusted OR = 1.86; 95% CI [1.33, 2.62]). Associations remained fairly stable across all outcomes. Conclusions. Our findings point towards a broadened understanding of occupational injury consequences and research focusing on family-level factors that account for the embeddedness of workers in households.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437153

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to describe bone formation and resorption markers in generally healthy prepubertal children using total alkaline phosphatase (tALP), osteocalcin (OC) and ß-isomerized C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (ß-CTx) serum concentrations and to estimate markers' correlations with anthropometric growth (height, weight, body mass index and trajectories of weight gain) as well as bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (aBMD). METHODS: We assessed 395 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI cohort with tALP, OC and ß-CTx concentrations determined from a fasting venous blood sample and BMC/aBMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Gender-specific reference intervals for tALP, OC and ß-CTx in 7-year-old children were established by calculating the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Pearson and partial correlation coefficients (controlling for sex, age, body size and season) between bone markers and growth measures were computed. RESULTS: tALP increased with height (rpartial controlled for sex = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.17, 0.35), was higher in overweight than in healthy weight children, and in children who gained weight above average during infancy. No correlations were found between OC or ß-CTx and growth. In girls, OC was slightly correlated with subtotal BMC (rpartial = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.08, 0.35), subtotal aBMD (rpartial = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06, 0.33) and lumbar spine aBMD (rpartial = 0.23, 95%CI: 0.09, 0.36). tALP and ß-CTx were not correlated with any of the DXA-derived bone measures. CONCLUSION: This study contributed to the description of bone turnover at 7 years of age and suggested that bone metabolism markers measured in a single point in time have limited ability to describe anthropometric growth and overall bone status in generally healthy prepubertal children.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocalcina/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência
5.
Bone ; 127: 287-295, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify sensitive periods for the effect of early life growth on childhood bone mass we compared the associations between weight and length/height velocities from birth to age six and bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (aBMD) at 7 years of age. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1853 participants from the Generation XXI birth cohort scanned with a whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry system. Velocities of growth in weight and length/height were obtained through linear spline multilevel models on the basis of data collected during routine health examinations. Using linear regression we computed associations of birth weight, birth length, five weight velocities ("early neonatal": 0-10 days, "early infancy": 10 days-3 months, "late infancy": 3-12 months, "early childhood": 1-3 years, and "later childhood": 3-6 years) and four length/height velocities ("early infancy": 0-3 months, "late infancy": 3-12 months, "early childhood": 1-3 years, and "later childhood": 3-6 years) with outcomes BMC, aBMD, height and height-adjusted BMC at age seven. Confounding by maternal and child characteristics was addressed and effects of growth velocities were adjusted to preceding growth. RESULTS: Weight and length/height velocities up to the age of six were associated with increased bone mass, areal density and height at 7 years with the strongest associations observed for growth in early childhood. In this age period, after concurrent height and confounder adjustment, one standard deviation (SD) increase in weight velocity was associated with higher BMC z-scores: 0.27 (95%CI: 0.22, 0.32) in girls and 0.24 (95%CI: 0.19, 0.29) in boys. Height velocity was also associated with greater height-adjusted BMC z-score: 0.12 (95%CI: 0.07, 0.17) per SD in girls and 0.11 (95%CI: 0.06, 0.16) in boys. The pattern of associations was similar, albeit attenuated, after adjusting for preceding growth. CONCLUSION: Growth in second and third years of life may represent a sensitive period for the effect of growth on childhood bone mass, partly through their effect on concurrent body size.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Adulto , Antropometria , Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843403

RESUMO

Residing in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods may pose substantial physiological stress, which can then lead to higher allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological wear and tear that precedes disease. The aim of the present study was to map the current evidence about the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and AL. A scoping review approach was chosen to provide an overview of the type, quantity, and extent of research available. The review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science) and a standardized protocol. Fourteen studies were identified. Studies were predominantly from the USA, cross-sectional, focused on adults, and involved different races and ethnic groups. A wide range of measures of AL were identified: the mode of the number of biomarkers per study was eight but with large variability (range: 6⁻24). Most studies (n = 12) reported a significant association between neighborhood deprivation and AL. Behaviors and environmental stressors seem to mediate this relationship and associations appear more pronounced among Blacks, men, and individuals with poor social support. Such conclusions have important public health implications as they enforce the idea that neighborhood environment should be improved to prevent physiological dysregulation and consequent chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Alostase , Áreas de Pobreza , Características de Residência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estresse Fisiológico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
7.
Workplace Health Saf ; 65(5): 188-196, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28061740

RESUMO

Bullying is defined as systematic exposure to humiliation as well as hostile and violent behaviors against one or more individuals. These behaviors are a serious, growing problem, which affects a significant proportion of health care professionals. To support the hospital's risk management policy, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bullying in this institution and identify the determinants of bullying. Bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Portuguese version (NAQ-R), a self-administered tool. The questionnaire was made available in digital format on the hospital's internal network (Intranet) and in hard copy; questionnaires were returned via nonidentified internal mail addressed to the occupational health unit or deposited in suggestion boxes located throughout the hospital. Multiple questionnaire delivery methods guaranteed data anonymity and confidentiality. The prevalence of bullying in this hospital was 8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [6.2, 10.2]). Reported bullying was predominantly vertical and more frequently occurring among nurses, clerical staff, and health care assistants (12.5%, 7.6%, 6.4%, respectively; p = .005). After adjusting for gender, age, occupation, type of contract, and work schedule, only type of contract was significantly associated with bullying in the workplace; the risk of bullying was twice as high among government employees compared to workers with indefinite duration employment contracts ( p = .038). This study identified a high prevalence of bullying among health professionals; hence a program to prevent and control this phenomenon was implemented in this institution.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/classificação , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Dev Cell ; 29(6): 716-28, 2014 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24930722

RESUMO

Internal organs are asymmetrically positioned inside the body. Embryonic motile cilia play an essential role in this process by generating a directional fluid flow inside the vertebrate left-right organizer. Detailed characterization of how fluid flow dynamics modulates laterality is lacking. We used zebrafish genetics to experimentally generate a range of flow dynamics. By following the development of each embryo, we show that fluid flow in the left-right organizer is asymmetric and provides a good predictor of organ laterality. This was tested in mosaic organizers composed of motile and immotile cilia generated by dnah7 knockdowns. In parallel, we used simulations of fluid dynamics to analyze our experimental data. These revealed that fluid flow generated by 30 or more cilia predicts 90% situs solitus, similar to experimental observations. We conclude that cilia number, dorsal anterior motile cilia clustering, and left flow are critical to situs solitus via robust asymmetric charon expression.


Assuntos
Cílios/fisiologia , Dineínas/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Lateralidade Funcional , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Imunofluorescência , Trato Gastrointestinal/citologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Coração/fisiologia , Hibridização In Situ , Modelos Teóricos , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
9.
Breast ; 22(3): 244-53, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23478201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of variation in breast cancer mortality in Europe (1980-2010), using a model-based approach. METHODS: Mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization database and mixed models were used to describe the time trends in the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR). Model-based clustering was used to identify clusters of countries with homogeneous variation in ASMR. RESULTS: Three patterns were identified. Patterns 1 and 2 are characterized by stable or slightly increasing trends in ASMR in the first half of the period analysed, and a clear decline is observed thereafter; in pattern 1 the median of the ASMR is higher, and the highest rates were achieved sooner. Pattern 3 is characterised by a rapid increase in mortality until 1999, declining slowly thereafter. CONCLUSION: This study provides a general model for the description and interpretation of the variation in breast cancer mortality in Europe, based in three main patterns.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto Jovem
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