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1.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014799

RESUMO

Back ground: Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are a major cause of emergency department visits requiring hospitalizations leading to considerable burden on global economy. Several factors contribute to the onset of gastrointestinal diseases such as pathogens (parasites, bacteria, virus, toxins etc.), autoimmune disorders and severe inflammation of intestine. OBJECTIVE: One common feature among all these diseases is the dysentery and alteration of gut microbiota composition (gut dysbiosis). Apart from conventional therapies such as antibiotics and ORS supplementation, gut microbiota modulation with probiotic supplementation has emerged as a successful and healthy alternative in mitigating GI diseases. In this review our goal is to discuss the causes of gastrointestinal diseases and the present state of various therapeutic strategies such as probiotics as live biotherapeutics and fecal microbial transplants (FMT's). CONCLUSIONS: Several reports and clinical trials point out to the beneficial effects of probiotics in modulating the gut microbiota and improving the side effects of gastrointestinal diseases. Live biotherapeutics and FMT's could be suitable and successful alternatives to conventional therapies in mitigating the gastrointestinal pathogens.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4601649, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670899

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medication has been utilized by Chinese medical practitioners to treat the varied symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM). Notably, guava leaf has been used to treat diabetes in Asia. Our present study has been designed to analyze the action of guava leaf extract (GLE) at the molecular level in treating DM. A low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce experimental diabetes in animals. Rats were treated with GLE at different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w.). The standard drug glibenclamide (GB) (600 µg/kg b.w.) was used for comparison. The diabetic rats showed a reduced level of insulin, accompanied by exaggerated levels of blood glucose, lipid peroxidation product, and augmented expressions of inflammatory cytokines, and showed reduced levels of antioxidants compared to the control rats. Supplementation with GLE counteracted the consequences of STZ. It suppresses the oxidative stress and inhibits the state of inflammation and the results are almost similar to that of standard drug group (GB group 5). Our present research, therefore, provides useful data concerning guava leaf extract by a thorough assessment in diabetes management. Being a natural product, additional analysis on GLE can shed light on finding effective phytochemicals within the field of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Psidium/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Insulina/sangue , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes , Estreptozocina
3.
3 Biotech ; 8(2): 90, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430352

RESUMO

A novel extracellular enzyme with strong fibrinolytic activity, produced by Bacillus tequilensis, which was isolated from the soil of Zhuhai City (China) was purified and characterized. The enzyme was secreted by cultured B. tequilensis in solid state and purified at a high efficiency using the combination of salting out, ion exchange chromatography, and size exclusion chromatography. The enzyme was estimated to have a molecular weight of approximately 27 kDa, pI of 8.9 ± 0.1, to stable at pH 5.0-12.0 and up to 50 °C; the optimum pH and temperature are 10.5 and 45 °C (2373.59 ± 54.81 U/mg), respectively. The fibrinolytic activity was enhanced by K+, Na+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, and Ba2+ and inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+. Moreover, the activity was slightly enhanced by PMSF and EDTA at low concentrations and inhibited by ß-mercaptoethanol. The N-terminal amino acid sequence is AQSVPYGISQI. The enzyme has a higher enzymatic activity than most other fibrinolytic enzymes. The high thermal stability indicated that it is easy to preserve and could be activated under high-temperature conditions.

4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-22, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370540

RESUMO

Microalgae are rich source of various bioactive molecules such as carotenoids, lipids, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids, etc. and in recent Years carotenoids from algae gained commercial recognition in the global market for food and cosmeceutical applications. However, the production of carotenoids from algae is not yet fully cost effective to compete with synthetic ones. In this context the present review examines the technologies/methods in relation to mass production of algae, cell harvesting for extraction of carotenoids, optimizing extraction methods etc. Research studies from different microalgal species such as Spirulina platensis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Dunaliella salina, Chlorella sps., Nannochloropsis sps., Scenedesmus sps., Chlorococcum sps., Botryococcus braunii and Diatoms in relation to carotenoid content, chemical structure, extraction and processing of carotenoids are discussed. Further these carotenoid pigments, are useful in various health applications and their use in food, feed, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries was briefly touched upon. The commercial value of algal carotenoids has also been discussed in this review. Possible recommendations for future research studies are proposed.

5.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 38(4): 541-558, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936877

RESUMO

The enhanced interest in carotenoid research arises partly because of their application in the food and health industries and partly because of the necessity to find a commercially viable natural source for their mass production. The bottlenecks in finding a natural source of carotenoids which can compete with the synthetic products is the mass production of the organism that produces carotenoids, cell harvesting and extraction methods of carotenoids. The microalga Botryococcus braunii is an interesting organism for its commercial value as a rich source of carotenoids. It contains lutein as major carotenoid which is considered to be one of the beneficial carotenoids in human health applications. The current paper reviews the status of B. braunii as an alternative source of carotenoid production on the commercial scale addressing aspects like cultures of algae, factors that enhance the production and accumulation of carotenoids, cell harvesting methods, and carotenoid extraction. The paper also presents an overview of identification, characterization and structural elucidation of carotenoids from B. braunii and their bioactivity.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomassa , Humanos , Luteína/metabolismo
6.
Curr Pharm Des ; 23(16): 2308-2313, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone (T3) is essential for normal development of children enabling brain development and somatic growth. However, certain individuals are genetically predisposed with insufficient or no thyroid hormones. Such a condition is termed congenital hypothyroidism (CH). OBJECTIVE: In the present review, a brief back ground about congenital hypothyroidism, factors associated with CH leading to thyroid dysgenesis and thyroid dyshormonogenesis is elaborated. Additionally, the guidelines for available treatment options, management and follow-up required for patients diagnosed with CH are discussed. Treatment options in terms of treatment initiation and dosage of hormone replacement are discussed. CONCLUSION: Though CH is considered as the most common neonatal metabolic disorder, it is also easily treatable compared to other metabolic or hereditary diseases. The outcome of CH treatment depends on the compliance of parents early in life and by patients themselves during later part of life.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Hormônios Tireóideos/uso terapêutico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Humanos
7.
Mar Drugs ; 12(1): 128-52, 2014 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24402174

RESUMO

There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-ß, ß'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.


Assuntos
Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Produtos Biológicos/química , Biotecnologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Fatores Imunológicos , Biologia Marinha , Xantofilas/efeitos adversos , Xantofilas/biossíntese , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação , Xantofilas/farmacocinética , Xantofilas/farmacologia
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