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1.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113447, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978740

RESUMO

Under-five children diarrhea remains a major public health problem in resource-limited areas, including Ethiopia, due to multiple risk factors. This study aimed to identify individual and community-level risk factors affecting under-five children diarrhea (UFCD) in five districts of the Bench Maji Zone, southwestern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2018. A total of 826 households were recruited from five randomly selected districts using stratified sampling. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify risk factors associated with UFCD. The prevalence of UFCD in the study area was found to be 18.3%. Children less than six months of age are more at risk for diarrhea (95% CI for AOR2.5;1.23-4.90). Most probably initiating supplementary feedings before six months of age is one of the main risk factor for diarrhea (95% CI for AOR 0.65; 0.45-0.98). Similarly, mothers with low educational status (95% CI for AOR 0.30; 0.10-0.84), limited knowledge of mothers' about diarrhea (95% CI for AOR 0.24; 0.15-0.40), absence of hand washing among mothers/caregivers at critical times (95% CI for AOR 4.6; 2.88-7.67), and sharing of the residence with domestic animals (95% CI for AOR 2.87, 1.75-4.67) were the predictors of UFCD at individual-level. Children living in semi pastoral areas (95% CI for AOR 0.22; 0.10-0.50) unvaccinated children for rotavirus prevention (95% CI AOR 5.22, 3.33-8.20), households obtaining water from unimproved sources (95% CI for AOR 2.53; 1.60-4.40), and households with unimproved latrine facilities (95% CI for AOR 0.60; 0.33-0.99) were the risk factors of UFCD at the community-level. The study revealed that UFCD is a critical health concern in southwestern Ethiopia, where integrated intervention approach at individual and community level could help to alleviate the problem. At individual level, behavioral change intervention on handwashing, exclusive breast-feeding before the age of six months, and awareness on diarrhea prevention methods are critical areas of intervention. Likewise, provision of safe and adequate water source combined with household water chlorination, and vaccination for rotavirus are interventions at community that need to be integrated with the individual-level of intervention. This could significantly contribute for the reduction of UFCD in the resource limited areas through intersectoral collaboration of the health and other sectors.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287852

RESUMO

This study assessed households' resilience to climate change-induced shocks in Dinki watershed, northcentral highlands of Ethiopia. The data were collected through a cross-sectional survey conducted on 288 households, three focus group discussions, and 15 key informant interviews. The Climate Resilience Index (CRI) based on the three resilience capacities (absorptive, adaptive and transformative) frame was used to measure households' resilience to climate change-induced shocks on an agro-ecological unit of analysis. A principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis were used to identify determinant factors and indicators to households' resilience, respectively. Findings indicate that the indexed scores of major components clearly differentiated the study communities in terms of their agro-ecological zones. Specifically, the absorptive capacity (0.495) was the leading contributing factor to resilience followed by adaptive (0.449) and transformative (0.387) capacities. Likewise, the Midland was relatively more resilient with a mean index value of 0.461. Both the PCA and multiple regression analysis indicated that access to and use of livelihood resources, such as farmlands and livestock holdings, diversity of income sources, infrastructure and social capital were determinants of households' resilience. In general, it might be due to their exposure to recurrent shocks coupled with limited adaptive capacities including underdeveloped public services, poor livelihood diversification practices, among others, the study communities showed minimal resilience capacity with a mean score of 0.44. Thus, in addition to short-term buffering strategies, intervention priority focusing on both adaptive and transformative capacities, particularly focusing on most vulnerable localities and constrained livelihood strategies, would contribute to ensuring long-term resilience in the study communities.

3.
Heliyon ; 5(5): e01740, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193531

RESUMO

Teff (Eragrostis tef) is an ancient cereal that is indigenous from Ethiopia. Nowadays, teff grain is becoming popular to many parts of the world. Teff is gluten-free in nature, has high iron and fiber content, and many other health benefits make this crop interesting to many consumers. Since no insect pests are attacking the teff grains, farmers do not apply pesticides on it, unlike maize and other grains. Nevertheless, residues of organochlorine pesticides have been detected at an alarming level that could pose a consumer risk. Teff is often consumed as injera which is a fermented flat pancake. The main aim of the present study is, therefore, to investigate the effect of household food processing (doughing and baking) on the reduction of pesticide residues from teff. Pesticide residues previously detected in teff grain such as permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT were spiked and extracted followed by the subsequent household processing which are generally doughing (dough making followed by fermentation) and baking. From the findings of this study, doughing decrease the pesticide residues in the range of 59.9-86.4% and baking in the range of 63.2-90.2%. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicates that the reduction of pesticide residues by baking is significantly different from doughing (p-value < 0.0001). There is also a significant difference between non-fermented and fermented dough (p-value = 0.012). The processing factor for doughing and baking was less than one (PF < 1 = reduction factor) which indicates the reduction of pesticides due to teff processing. The cumulative effect of these processing methods is important to evaluate the risks associated with the ingestion of pesticides, particularly in teff grain.

4.
Heliyon ; 5(4): e01464, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008397

RESUMO

Objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact of interventions on school children resilience and well-being; assess sensitivity of resilience evaluation tools; and identify shift in resilience among children in poor rural communities of Ethiopia. Qualitative and quantitative data are collected using semi-structured Pre- and Post- Interview Analysis (PIA), child and youth resilience measure (CYRM) and mental health continuum (MHC) questionnaires among the control and intervention groups. The study identified that PIA questions were not sensitive enough to detect all child resilience indicators. Resilience intervention has brought important positive change on most of the resilience indicators. However, no significant improvement observed on problem solving skills, and avoidance of troubling thoughts and feelings. However, the qualitative finding showed that children improved problem solving skill, such as intervening early marriage, avoiding physical abuse, and supporting needy children. In addition, integrated interventions have brought substantial resilience impacts on children school performance, their interaction and social relations. Besides, integration of parents, teachers and community has brought significant change on the result of child resilience and well-being. Younger children under intervention showed lower resilience and well-being score compared to the older ones. Shift of resilience between male and female was observed when compared between the control and intervention groups. In the control communities, female students are more resilience and psychosocial well-being than male students. On the other side, among intervention groups, males showed better resilience than females. This suggests that context specific resilience intervention by gender could be necessary among school children of East Gojjam and similar communities.

5.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(1): 156-164, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816872

RESUMO

Eight horizontal subsurface flow pilot scale artificial wetlands were constructed to evaluate the effectiveness of broken brick to remove nutrients from hospital wastewater. The average total suspended solids (TSS), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), NH4-N, NO3-N, and phosphate percent removal efficiency of constructed wetlands were, respectively, 93.2%, 90.4%, 83.7%, 64%, 64.3%, 52.1% and 56.1% in the dry season and 89.7%, 85.8%, 82.9%, 66%, 62.7%, 56.1% and 59.5% in the rainy season. Broken brick bed wetlands provide better removal efficiency of TKN, ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate with an average removal rate of 73%, 71.3%, 79.6% and 77.1% in the dry season and 74.7%, 70.7%, 70.9% and 73.6% in the rainy season, respectively, and it provides better adsorption sites for ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate. Typha with the broken brick bed significantly improved (P < 0.05) the treatment performance of the constructed wetland systems for the removal of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate. The seasonal variation could not significantly influence the removal of all the pollutants, but better performance of nitrate and phosphate was achieved in a dry season. Use of locally available broken brick as a substrate media can increase the nutrient removal efficiency of wetlands at a cheaper cost when applied in full scale constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Hospitais , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(1): 36, 2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593609

RESUMO

A study was carried out on four tributaries of Gilgel Gibe Reservoir to identify water physicochemical characteristics in different land use categories (farmland, naturally vegetated land, and settlement). Water samples were collected from 12 sampling sites along four permanent streams flowing into Gilgel Gibe Reservoir. Data sets were evaluated using nonparametric statistical techniques. Dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total nitrogen (TN), turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS) spatially showed significant differences in the wet season and DO, temperature, and BOD5 varied significantly during the dry season. When excluding DO, electrical conductivity (EC), and TP during the wet and dry seasons, the remaining variables showed significant differences. During the wet season, concentrations of most water quality parameters were greatest in influents from agricultural land. Pollution and eutrophication risk is closely associated with drainage from agricultural land, requiring that emphasis and priorities be given to land use management and conservation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Eutrofização , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água , África Oriental , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261590

RESUMO

We examine factors associated with the use of basic water supply and sanitation services as part of an integrated community-based nutrition programme which included a drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) intervention and emphasise findings related to health risk perceptions. Data were collected from 2658 households in four regions in Ethiopia with a cross-sectional survey in WaSH intervention areas, as well as in control areas, where the intervention was not implemented. The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariable regression analysis. Awareness of health risk factors related to inadequate WaSH was high in the programme area. The use of basic water and sanitation services was associated with several health risk perceptions: Perceiving water quality as good increased the odds of using basic water services as opposed to believing the water quality was poor (OR 3.94; CI 3.06⁻5.08; p ≤ 0.001). Believing that drinking unsafe water was the main cause for diarrhoea increased the odds of using basic water services (OR 1.48; CI 1.20⁻1.81; p ≤ 0.001). In the WaSH intervention group, the use of basic sanitation was more likely than in the control group. The use of basic sanitation was associated with households who had previously received sanitation training, as opposed to such who had not (OR 1.55; CI 1.22⁻1.97; p ≤ 0.001). Perceiving dirty space as the main cause of diarrhoea (OR 1.81; CI 1.50⁻2.19; p ≤ 0.001), and privacy when using a latrine (OR 2.00; CI 1.67⁻2.40; p ≤ 0.001), were associated with higher odds of using basic sanitation. Households that indicated a disadvantage of owning a latrine was maintenance costs were less likely to use basic sanitation (OR 0.49; CI 0.38⁻0.63; p ≤ 0.001). Risk perceptions were important determinants of use of basic services. The findings point to risk perceptions motivating the application of positive WaSH-related and health-protective ours. This suggests that well-designed health risk communication strategies may be effective for engaging households in healthy WaSH behaviour.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prática de Saúde Pública , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Propriedade , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Água , Qualidade da Água
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050585

RESUMO

Molluscicidal plant products have interesting attributes of environmental friendliness and accessibility to local communities. Their bait formulations are more economical and target specific as they are applied only to the snail-infested sections of the water habitat. Their active ingestion by target snails could also increase gastric concentrations and enhance effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) leaf hydroethanolic extract in bait and immersion applications. Serial dilutions of the extract in water for immersion, and in snail food pellets for bait test, were set. Adult Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails exposed to the bioassays for 24 hours and data were analyzed using probit model. The plant showed molluscicidal activity in both methods. The respective LC50 and LC90 doses were 20.37 and 46.84 ppm in the immersion and 3.10 and 11.08 ppm in the bait. The more efficient bait method reduced the LC50 by 6.57 and the LC90 by 4.23 times. This finding provides a strong foundation for the molluscicidal potential of A. aspera. It is applicable and possibly more effective if formulated into those commercially available snail food pellets or flakes. However, selection and optimization of suitable baits is a crucial step for maximum output.

9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(3): 163, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470719

RESUMO

This research investigated the spatiotemporal variation of water quality in the Gilgel Gibe reservoir, Ethiopia, using physicochemical water quality parameters. Nonparametric tests and multivariate statistical techniques were used to evaluate data sets measured during dry and rainy seasons. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3-), total dissolved solids (TDSs), and total suspended solids (TSSs) were all significantly different among seasons (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.01). In addition, principal component analysis distinguished dry season samples from wet season samples. The dry season was positively associated with EC, pH, TP, TN, NO3-, TDS, and TSS and negatively associated with BOD5. The wet season was in contrast associated with high values of turbidity, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), water temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO). Within the reservoir, spatial variation was observed for some of the water quality parameters, with significant difference at p = < 0.05. Overall, high nutrient concentrations suggest eutrophic conditions, likely due to high nutrient loading from the watershed. Levels of TSS, attributed to inputs from tributaries, have been excessive enough to inhibit light penetration and thus have a considerable impact on the aquatic food web. Our findings indicate that the reservoir is at high risk of eutrophication and siltation, and hence, urgent action should target the planning and implementation of integrated watershed management for this and similar reservoirs in the region.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Etiópia , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 133, 2017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is a wide spread disease in most parts of Ethiopian highlands. Snail control is one major strategy in schistosomiasis control. The use of molluscicidal plant products is becoming interesting due to their environmental friendliness, accessibility and easy application. This research is aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal effect of Achyranthes aspera on Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis snails, which are of great medical and veterinary importance in Ethiopia. METHODS: Adult B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to the various concentrations of A. aspera aqueous leaf extract for 24, 48 and 72 h. Similarly, adult L. natalensis snails were exposed to the extract for 24 h. Mortality data were analyzed using probit regression model. Phytochemical content of the plant was analyzed using standard screening methods. RESULTS: The plant's molluscicidal effect on the two snail species was demonstrated. The 24 h LC50 and LC90 values against L. natalensis were 69.5 and 93.9 ppm respectively. In the 24, 48 and 72 h exposure of B. pfeifferi, the LC50 values were 72.4, 69.9, 64.7 ppm and the LC90 were 96.5, 93.8, 92.8 ppm, respectively. The phytochemical screening tests indicated presence of saponins. CONCLUSION: From the findings of this study, A. aspera has a molluscicidal potential. The result provides a useful foundation for further in-depth studies to ensure its wider applicability in different water bodies and evaluate its toxic effects on non-target species.


Assuntos
Achyranthes/química , Biomphalaria , Lymnaea , Moluscocidas , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Etiópia
11.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 64-70, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28483709

RESUMO

Khat (Catha edulis) is one of the most consumed plant in the horn of African countries. However, it is a stimulant plant that has several side effects on the health of consumers. On top of that, the khat leaves used for human consumption are often contain contaminants such as pesticide residues. The present study aims to investigate the level of DDT residue and its metabolites (p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT and p'p-DDT) in khat samples and to undertake exposure assessment to consumers. The khat samples were collected from local markets in southwestern Ethiopia. Consumption survey was undertaken using 24 h recall method for both male and female khat consumers. The finding showed that 80% of the khat samples contained DDT and its metabolites. Some of the residues were above the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The concentration of p'p-DDE and p'p-DDT in khat were in the range of 0.033-0.113 and 0.010-0.026 mg/kg, respectively. High concentration of the metabolite (p'p-DDE) compared to the parent compound (p'p-DDT) revealed the historical use of DDT in the study area. Probabilistic exposure analysis indicated that the mean and 97.5 percentile (P97.5), of the estimated daily intake of total DDT were 0.002 and 0.006 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The study concluded that khat consumers are exposed to the stimulant effect of the plant as well as DDT and its metabolites in Jimma zone.


Assuntos
Catha/química , DDT/análise , Mastigação , Folhas de Planta/química , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134771

RESUMO

Recurrent shocks and stresses are increasingly deteriorating pastoralist communities' resilience capacities in many aspects. A context specific resilience framework is essential to strengthen pastoralist community's resilience capacity towards the impact of recurrent drought. Hence, the present study was aimed to develop a context specific and data driven resilience building framework towards impacts of recurrent droughts in the case of Borana pastoralists in Ethiopia. Qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to guide the study process. The data were collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews in two drought affected districts of Borana Zone during October 2013. The analysis was assisted by ATLAS. ti 7.1.4. The analysis provided a context specific resilience building conceptual tool, which consists of, closely interconnected, eight dimensions operating at multiple capacities and levels: environment (underlying vulnerability factor); livestock, infrastructures/social services, and wealth (immediate causes and effects); community network/social capital, as well as governance, peace and security (support and enabling factors oriented), psychosocial, and human capital (as eventual outcomes and impacts). The resilience capacities of these pastoralist communities have been eroded, leaving them without sufficient and effective adaptive strategies. The emergent resilience framework can serve as a useful guidance to design context-specific interventions that makes the people and the system resilient to the impacts of recurrent droughts.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Desastres , Secas , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Etiópia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Chemosphere ; 162: 252-60, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27501312

RESUMO

Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 µg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI < ARfD). However, chronic risks to human health were observed from exposure to diazinon and fenpropimorph (EDI > ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Agricultura , Água Potável , Etiópia , Humanos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 96(3): 369-75, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26781632

RESUMO

The present study investigates the impact of tannery effluents on the self-purification capacity and the local macroinvertebrate community of one natural stream. As the concentration of chromium and sulfide increased from up- to downstream sites, the reduction of suspended solids, 5-days biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand and nitrification capacity decreased by 61 %, 21 %, 30 % and 74 %, respectively. Similarly, the share of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera on the macroinvertebrate community decreased from 24 % to 0 %. Also the diversity (Simpson's) index and the correlation between the physicochemical parameters, BOD5 reduction, the macroinvertebrate abundance and the chromium concentration underpin the importance of the contamination by tannery effluents for the degradation of the stream habitat quality. In conclusion, although the physicochemical parameters indicate that the self-purification of the river can be maintained for a certain stream section, the biodiversity of the river is severely compromised.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/química , Sulfetos/análise , Curtume , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biodiversidade
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(38): 8568-73, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26344013

RESUMO

Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan ß, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and ß in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference between coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Café/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Sementes/química , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Culinária , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos
16.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0131212, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173100

RESUMO

Although more emphasis has been given to the genetic and environmental factors that determine host vulnerability to malaria, other factors that might have a crucial role in burdening the disease have not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effect of khat chewing on the incidence of severe malaria syndromes and immune responses during malaria infection in an area where the two problems co-exist. Clinical, physical, demographic, hematological, biochemical and immunological data were collected from Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected malaria patients (age ≥ 10 years) seeking medication in Halaba Kulito and Jimma Health Centers. In addition, incidences of severe malaria symptoms were assessed. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 20) software. Prevalence of current khat chewer malaria patients was 57.38% (95%CI =53-61.56%). Malaria symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, prostration and hyperparasitemia were significantly lower (P<0.05) among khat chewer malaria patients. However, relative risk to jaundice and renal failure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in khat chewers than in non-khat chewer malaria patients. Longer duration of khat use was positively associated with incidence of anemia. IgM and IgG antibody titers were significantly higher (P<0.05) among khat chewer malaria patients than among malaria positive non-chewers. Although levels of IgG subclasses in malaria patients did not show significant differences (P>0.05), IgG3 antibody was significantly higher (P<0.001) among khat chewer malaria patients. Moreover, IgM, IgG, IgG1and IgG3 antibodies had significant negative association (P<0.001) with parasite burden and clinical manifestations of severe malaria symptoms, but not with severe anemia and hypoglycemia. Additionally, a significant increment (P<0.05) in CD4+ T-lymphocyte population was observed among khat users. Khat might be an important risk factor for incidence of some severe malaria complications. Nevertheless, it can enhance induction of humoral immune response and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population during malaria infection. This calls for further investigation on the effect of khat on parasite or antigen-specifc protective malaria immunity and analysis of cytokines released upon malaria infection among khat chewers.


Assuntos
Catha , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Mastigação , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Incidência , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Masculino , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Immunol ; 16: 9, 2015 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory effect of khat and its active component, cathinone, using mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Swiss albino mice aged 7-8 weeks weighing 25-30 g were used in the study. Mice were randomized into eight groups of 6 each and oral treatment of khat crude extract and cathinone were given daily for four weeks. Physical, hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters were measured. Immunological studies included humeral immunity (IgG and IgM), cellular immune response (delay type hypersensitivity), phagocytic activities of reticuloendothelial system, and determination of T-lymphocyte population: CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) count and CD4(+)/CD8(+) status. RESULTS: Findings of this study showed that, khat and its major metabolite, cathinone, can positively affect immune system in dose dependent manner. When doses of crude khat extract and cathinone increase, the induction of humeral (IgG and IgM) and cellular immune responses were up-regulated significantly (P < 0.05), while at higher dose of khat (200 mg/kg) cellular immune response was suppressed. In support of this, as doses of the two test substances increased, the count of T helper cells (CD4(+)) was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while higher dose significantly reduced whole white blood cell (WBC), CD8(+), and CD3(+) counts. CONCLUSION: At relatively lower dose (50-100 mg/kg), crude khat extract has immune stimulating property, although higher dose (200 mg/kg) leads to suppression of cellular immune response. Cathinone also share all immune modulating property of its parent compound, khat, but with intense strength. Thus, it calls for further detailed investigation of khat for practical application of the same in human medication.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/administração & dosagem , Catha , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/efeitos adversos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunomodulação , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 170, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25886020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to explore effects of khat (Catha edulis) on outcome of rodent malaria infection and its anti-plasmodial activities on Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). METHODS: Female Swiss albino mice were orally treated with crude khat (Catha edulis) extracts (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) on a daily basis for 4 weeks prior to PbA infection. Physical, clinical, hematological, biochemical and histo-pathological features of the mice were assessed. In addition, in vivo anti-plasmodial activities of khat were evaluated. RESULTS: The finding of this study showed that khat use was strongly associated with increment of levels of liver and kidney biomarkers, leucopenia, severe anemia, rise in level of inflammation biomarkers: C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA), increased monocyte-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR), manifestation of cerebral malaria symptoms such as ataxia, paralysis and deviation of the head but with no pulmonary edema. Significantly lower level of parasitemia (P<0.05), rectal temperature, but, high level of hemoglobin were observed at the early stage of the PbA infection in khat treated mice than the control. With extension of the treatment period, however, drastic increments were observed in parasite load and rectal temperature although there was reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) level. Moreover, khat showed poor anti-plasmodial activity with <10% parasite suppression activity and lack protection against major malaria symptoms. The significant reduction (P<0.01) of hematological parameters during PbA infection strengthen the notion that hematological parameters could be good predictors of severe malaria complications in human. CONCLUSIONS: In mice model treated with khat prior to infection with the rodent malaria parasite, khat was found to worsen manifestation of most malaria complications. Furthermore, the same plant showed poor in vivo anti-plasmodial activity and protection against major malaria symptoms.


Assuntos
Catha , Hemoglobinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/metabolismo , Parasitemia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteína C-Reativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Malária/imunologia , Malária/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Parasitemia/imunologia , Parasitemia/fisiopatologia , Edema Pulmonar/imunologia , Edema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ácido Úrico/imunologia
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 511: 454-60, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25569581

RESUMO

Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue.


Assuntos
DDT/análise , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Zea mays/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Etiópia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e112221, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25372843

RESUMO

Blackflies are important macroinvertebrate groups from a public health as well as ecological point of view. Determining the biological and environmental factors favouring or inhibiting the existence of blackflies could facilitate biomonitoring of rivers as well as control of disease vectors. The combined use of different predictive modelling techniques is known to improve identification of presence/absence and abundance of taxa in a given habitat. This approach enables better identification of the suitable habitat conditions or environmental constraints of a given taxon. Simuliidae larvae are important biological indicators as they are abundant in tropical aquatic ecosystems. Some of the blackfly groups are also important disease vectors in poor tropical countries. Our investigations aim to establish a combination of models able to identify the environmental factors and macroinvertebrate organisms that are favourable or inhibiting blackfly larvae existence in aquatic ecosystems. The models developed using macroinvertebrate predictors showed better performance than those based on environmental predictors. The identified environmental and macroinvertebrate parameters can be used to determine the distribution of blackflies, which in turn can help control river blindness in endemic tropical places. Through a combination of modelling techniques, a reliable method has been developed that explains environmental and biological relationships with the target organism, and, thus, can serve as a decision support tool for ecological management strategies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Simuliidae/fisiologia , Animais , Etiópia
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