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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033344

RESUMO

The inverse association between anogenital distance (AGD; the distance from the center of the anus to the base of the clitoris) and fertility, its moderate heritability, and high variability reported in dairy cattle make AGD a promising candidate for further exploration as a reproductive phenotype. In addition to heritability, repeatability (i.e., consistency in measurements taken at different time points) is important for a reproductive phenotype to be considered useful in genetic selection. Therefore, our primary objective was to determine the repeatability of AGD from birth to breeding age (≈16 mo) in Holstein heifer calves, and during different stages of the estrous cycle, gestation, and lactation in Holstein cows. We also determined the associations among AGD, height (at the hip), and body weight (BW) at birth. In calves (n = 48), we recorded BW (kg) and height (cm) at birth and measured AGD (mm) at approximately 0, 2, 6, 9, 12, and 16 mo of age. In cows, AGD was measured at different stages of the estrous cycle (proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus; n = 20), gestation (30, 90, 180, and 270 d; n = 78), and lactation (30-300 d in milk in 30-d increments; n = 30). Calf height and BW at birth had a weak positive association with AGD at birth. The AGD increased linearly from birth to breeding age, but there was no association between the AGD at birth and at breeding age in heifers. Although any 2 consecutive AGD measurements were correlated, 6 mo was the earliest age at which AGD was moderately correlated (r = 0.41) with that of breeding-age heifers. The AGD was neither influenced by the different stages of estrous cycle nor lactation and remained highly repeatable (r ≥ 0.95). Although AGD measurements at 30, 90, and 180 d of gestation (126.9, 126.7, and 127.7 mm, respectively) were strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.97) with each other, AGD at 270 d of gestation (142.8 mm) differed from AGD at all earlier stages of gestation. In summary, AGD measured at birth did not reflect AGD at breeding age in heifers, but AGD measurements in cows had high repeatability at all stages of the estrous cycle, gestation, and lactation, except at 270 d of gestation. Therefore, AGD could be measured reliably at any of the aforesaid physiological states in cows due to its high repeatability, except during late gestation. The earliest gestational stage when pregnancy-associated increase in AGD occurred, however, could not be definitively established in the present study.

2.
Animal ; 15(7): 100205, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171567

RESUMO

Low estrus detection rates (>50%) are associated to extended calving intervals, low economic profit and reduced longevity in Holstein dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of infrared thermography and behavioral biometrics combined as potential estrus alerts in naturally (not induced) cycling dairy cows housed in a tie-stall barn. Eighteen first lactation cows were subjected to transrectal ultrasonography to determine spontaneous ovulation. The dominant follicle (DF) disappearance was used retrospectively as an indirect indicator of ovulation, and to establish the estrus period (48-24 h prior the DF disappearance). Raw skin temperature (Raw IR) and residual skin temperature (Res IR) were recorded using an infrared camera at the Vulva area with the tail (Vtail), Vulva area without the tail (Vnotail), and Vulva's external lips (Vlips) at AM and PM milking from Day 14 until two days after ovulation was confirmed. Behavioral biometrics were recorded on the same schedule as infrared scan. Behavioral biometrics included large hip movements (L-hip), small hip movements (S-hip), large tail movements and small tail movements to compare behavioral changes between estrus and nonestrus periods. Significant increases in Raw IR skin temperature were observed two days prior to ovulation (Vtail; 35.93 ±â€¯0.27 °C, Vnotail; 35.59 ±â€¯0.27 °C, and Vlips; 35.35 ±â€¯0.27 °C) compared to d -5 (Proestrus; Vtail; 35.29 ±â€¯0.27 °C, Vnotail; 34.93 ±â€¯0.31 °C, and Vlips; 34.68 ±â€¯0.27 °C). No significant changes were found for behavioral parameters with the exception of S-hip movements, which increased at two days before ovulation (d -2; 11.13 ±â€¯1.44 Events/5min) compared to d -5 (7.30 ±â€¯1.02 Events/5min). To evaluate the accuracy of thermal and behavioral biometrics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed using Youden index (YJ), diagnostic odds ratio, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), Sensitivity, Specificity and Positive predicted value to score the estrus alerts. The greatest accuracy achieved using thermal parameters was for Res IR Vtail PM (YJ = 0.34) and L-hip PM (YJ = 0.27) for behavioral biometrics. Combining thermal and behavioral parameters did not improve the YJ index score but reduced the false-positive occurrence observed by increasing the diagnostic odds ratio (26.62), LR+ (12.47), Specificity (0.97) and positive predicted value (0.90) in a Res IR Vtail PM, S-hip AM, S-hip PM combination. The combination of thermal and behavioral parameters increased the accuracy of estrus detection compared to either thermal or behavioral biometrics, independently in naturally cycling cows during milking.


Assuntos
Detecção do Estro , Termografia , Animais , Bovinos , Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Ovulação , Progesterona , Estudos Retrospectivos , Termografia/veterinária
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(7): 8256-8264, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865592

RESUMO

Anogenital distance (AGD), defined as the distance from the center of the anus to the base of the clitoris, in lactating dairy cows of first and second parity, has been reported to be inversely related to fertility and moderately heritable. Thus, AGD may be a useful reproductive phenotype for future genetic selection to improve fertility. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize AGD in nulliparous dairy heifers; and (2) determine if the inverse relationship between AGD and fertility, found in lactating dairy cows, is also evident in nulliparous heifers. We measured AGD in 1,692 Holstein heifers from 16 herds in Western Canada (Alberta and British Columbia) and one herd in the United States (Washington State). Data were analyzed using MEANS, UNIVARIATE, LOGISTIC, ROC, GLIMMIX, and LIFETEST procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc.). Mean (±standard deviation) age at AGD measurement was 13.9 ± 1.5 mo, and AGD was normally distributed with a mean of 107.3 ± 10.5 mm, ranging from 69 to 142 mm. With every 1-mm increase in AGD, the predicted probability of pregnancy was reduced by 1.9%. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the optimum threshold AGD that predicted the probability of pregnancy. Based on the optimum threshold AGD, data from heifers were categorized into short (≤110 mm) and long (>110 mm) AGD groups, and associations between AGD groups and fertility measures were determined. Heifers with short AGD required fewer services per conception (1.5 vs. 1.7) than heifers with long AGD. Consequently, heifers with short AGD conceived earlier (448.4 vs. 454.3 d) and had greater pregnancy to first AI than those with long AGD (58.3 vs. 49.6%). Moreover, heifers with long AGD had reduced hazard (hazard ratio of 0.59) for pregnancy up to 450 d of life compared with those with short AGD. In summary, AGD was normally distributed and highly variable in the population. In addition, an inverse relationship between AGD and fertility measures in nulliparous heifers was evident, confirming an earlier report of a similar relationship in lactating dairy cows. These findings strengthen the potential for AGD to be used as a fertility trait and management tool in future selection programs.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Lactação , Alberta , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Bovinos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Paridade , Gravidez , Washington
4.
Malays J Pathol ; 43(1): 75-79, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903309

RESUMO

Cutaneous multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare disease. It can be primary or secondary in origin. The secondary type is further classified into specific and nonspecific types. The specific type is uncommon and is known as a secondary cutaneous plasmacytoma. We report a case of secondary cutaneous plasmacytoma in a 58-year-old man who had a history of plasma cell tumour of the lung and multiple myeloma. He achieved complete remission after the completion of chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). However, five months later, he developed multiple erythematous nodules on the whole body. Skin biopsy revealed diffuse neoplastic cells infiltrate in the reticular dermis with sparing of the upper papillary dermis and epidermis. The neoplastic cells were monotonous and homogenous with variable degrees of cytological atypia. Occasional cells showed distinctive plasma cell features. Plasma cell lineage was confirmed with CD138. The cells were immunoreactive to Kappa. Ki-67 was greater than 90%. They were non-immunoreactive to CD45, CD3, CD20, CD79 alpha and CK AE1/AE3. The findings were consistent with secondary cutaneous plasmacytoma. Our case illustrates that MM may present with nonspecific dermatological manifestations. As specific cutaneous involvement of MM is very uncommon; a high degree of clinical suspicion, detailed medical history and histopathological examination are required to arrive at an early diagnosis.

5.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 1136-1152, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069415

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of pre- and postweaning planes of nutrition on feed and metabolizable energy (ME) intake, growth, concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in blood and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) from birth to 25 wk of age in Holstein heifers. Heifer calves (n = 36) were randomly assigned to receive either a low (5 L/d of whole milk) or high (10 L/d of whole milk) preweaning plane of nutrition from 1 to 7 wk of age, and either a low (70% concentrate dry total mixed ration) or high (85% concentrate dry total mixed ration) postweaning plane of nutrition from 11 to 25 wk of age. From birth to 25 wk of age, feed intake was recorded daily, and body measures were obtained weekly. Circulating hormone and metabolite concentrations were measured biweekly and total ruminal VFA, fecal starch, and body condition were assessed monthly. Overall, average daily gain and body weight were greater for heifers offered increased planes of nutrition during both the pre- and postweaning phases. Heifers offered the high preweaning plane had greater milk intake (7.7 ± 0.1 vs. 4.5 ± 0.1 L/d) but lower starter intake (0.3 ± 0.04 vs. 0.7 ± 0.04 kg/d) during the preweaning phase than those offered the low plane. High preweaning plane heifers also had greater ME intake from wk 1 to 7, but less ME intake at wk 9 (5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.6 ± 0.2 Mcal/kg) than those offered the low plane. Furthermore, overall glucose (118.8 ± 2.9 vs. 110.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL) and IGF-1 (101.6 ± 3.6 vs. 75.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL) concentrations were greater for high versus low preweaning plane heifers, although circulating insulin and BHB did not differ between preweaning plane groups. However, heifers offered the high preweaning plane had reduced total rumen VFA concentrations compared with heifers offered the low plane in the preweaning phase (47.3 ± 2.0 vs. 55.6 ± 2.1 mM). During the postweaning phase, dry matter intake and ME were consistently greater in heifers offered the high postweaning plane. Overall insulin (2.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 ng/mL), glucose (97.1 ± 0.6 vs. 92.1 ± 0.6 ng/mL), IGF-1 (178.0 ± 4.8 vs. 155.8 ± 4.8 ng/mL), and BHB concentrations (8.8 ± 0.2 vs. 8.1 ± 0.2 ng/mL) were greater in heifers offered the high than the low postweaning plane. In addition, heifers offered the high postweaning plane had increased VFA concentrations in the postweaning phase (73.4 ± 1.3 vs. 63.9 ± 1.3 mM) compared with heifers offered the low postweaning plane. The results indicated that increasing the pre- and postweaning planes of nutrition along with energy levels positively influenced several indicators associated with heifer development before 25 wk of age. Nevertheless, there was limited interaction in growth and development indicators between the 2 phases.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leite , Estado Nutricional , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 1153-1163, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131818

RESUMO

The objectives were to investigate the effects of differing planes of pre- and postweaning nutrition on prepubertal serum leptin concentrations, LH profiles, and age at puberty in Holstein heifers. Thirty-six Holstein calves were randomly assigned to either a low (5 L) or high (10 L of whole milk/d) preweaning plane of nutrition from 1 to 7 wk of age, a transition diet (a dry total mixed ration with 85% of concentrate) from wk 8 to 10, and to either a low (70%) or high (85% of concentrate dry total mixed ration) postweaning plane from 11 to 25 wk of age. Serum leptin concentrations were measured every 2 wk from 1 to 25 wk of age, and LH profiles were determined both at wk 15 and 25 based on sequential blood samples taken every 12 min over 10 h. Starting at 26 wk of age, ovaries were examined weekly by transrectal ultrasonography until first ovulation (puberty) was confirmed. Heifers that received the high preweaning plane diet had greater mean (± standard error; SE) leptin concentrations during the preweaning phase than those fed the low plane (2.9 ± 0.1 vs. 2.6 ± 0.1 ng/mL). During the postweaning phase, mean circulating leptin was greater in heifers fed the high compared with the low postweaning diet [3.2 ng/mL (95% confidence interval; CI = 2.7 to 3.4) vs. 2.5 ng/mL (95% CI = 2.3 to 2.8)]. Mean (± SE) amplitude (2.1 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1 ng/mL), peak (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 ng/mL), and duration (35.6 ± 2.1 vs. 28.7 ± 2.0 min) of LH pulses assessed at wk 15 were greater in heifers offered the high than those offered the low preweaning plane, but no nutritional effects were observed on LH pulses at wk 25. Mean (± SE) age at puberty was 250 ± 9 d and was not influenced by planes of nutrition. However, the likelihood of attaining puberty by 30 wk of age was greater (hazard ratio = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.0 to 14.4) in heifers fed the high postweaning plane compared with the low plane. Heifers achieving puberty by 30 wk also had greater leptin concentrations from wk 1 to 25, whereas for every 1 ng/mL increase in circulating leptin at wk 15 and 25, days to puberty were estimated to decrease by 22 d (95% CI = 1 to 44) and 13 d (95% CI = 1 to 24), respectively. Increasing the preweaning plane from 5 to 10 L/d of whole milk increased serum leptin concentrations at wk 1, 3, and 5 and LH pulse amplitude, peak, and duration at wk 15. Increasing the postweaning plane from 70 to 85% of concentrate resulted in greater circulating leptin concentrations, which may be linked to an earlier onset of puberty.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Leptina/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Leite , Estado Nutricional , Ovário , Maturidade Sexual , Desmame
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(24): 241802, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639796

RESUMO

We report the most precise measurements to date of the strong-phase parameters between D^{0} and D[over ¯]^{0} decays to K_{S,L}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} using a sample of 2.93 fb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} annihilation data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. Our results provide the key inputs for a binned model-independent determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle γ/ϕ_{3} with B decays. Using our results, the decay model sensitivity to the γ/ϕ_{3} measurement is expected to be between 0.7° and 1.2°, approximately a factor of three smaller than that achievable with previous measurements, based on the studies of the simulated data. The improved precision of this work ensures that measurements of γ/ϕ_{3} will not be limited by knowledge of strong phases for the next decade. Furthermore, our results provide critical input for other flavor-physics investigations, including charm mixing, other measurements of CP violation, and the measurement of strong-phase parameters for other D-decay modes.

8.
Malays Fam Physician ; 15(1): 39-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284803

RESUMO

Introduction : Atopic eczema (AE) is a common inflammatory skin dermatosis that is increasing in prevalence. However, it can present in various clinical presentations, which leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition, especially in a primary care setting. The Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Atopic Eczema was developed by a multidisciplinary development group and approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia in 2018. It covers the aspects of diagnosis, severity assessment, treatment, and referral.

9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11622-11635, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521342

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the distribution and variability of plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration; (2) evaluate factors associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH; (3) examine the associations between categories of plasma AMH and reproductive outcomes [pregnancy to first artificial insemination (P/AI), and pregnancy rates within 21, 42, and 84 d after the mating start date (MSD)]; (4) estimate pedigree and genomic heritability for plasma AMH; and (5) identify and validate SNP associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH. Plasma AMH concentration (pg/mL) was determined from a blood sample collected (mean ± standard deviation) 10 ± 2 d after first insemination at detected estrus (IDE) in 2,628 first- and second-parity Irish dairy cows. Overall, plasma AMH had a positively skewed distribution with mean (± standard deviation), median, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 326 ± 231, 268, 15, and 2,863 pg/mL, respectively. Plasma AMH was greatest for Jersey, followed by Holstein × Jersey, Holstein × Norwegian Red, and Holstein cows (410, 332, 284, and 257 pg/mL, respectively). Second-parity cows had greater plasma AMH than first-parity cows (333 vs. 301 pg/mL, respectively). Samples collected at 7 and 8 d after first IDE had lesser plasma AMH than those collected on d 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 after first IDE (291 and 297 vs. 317, 319, 331, 337, and 320 pg/mL). Plasma AMH was not associated with either body condition score at first IDE or the interval from calving to MSD. Cows were categorized into low (≤150 pg/mL; n = 526; lowest 20%), intermediate (>150 to ≤461 pg/mL; n = 1,576; intermediate 60%), and high AMH (>461 pg/mL; n = 526; highest 20%) groups based on plasma AMH, and associations with reproductive outcomes were tested. Cows with high and intermediate plasma AMH had 1.42- and 1.51-times-greater odds of becoming pregnant within 84 d after the MSD than those with low plasma AMH (90.3 and 90.8 vs. 86.8%, respectively); however, P/AI and pregnancy rate within 21 and 42 d after the MSD did not differ among AMH categories. Plasma AMH was moderately heritable (pedigree heritability of 0.40 ± 0.06 and genomic heritability of 0.45 ± 0.05), and 68 SNP across Bos taurus autosomes 7 and 11 were associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH. Out of 68 SNP, 42 were located in a single quantitative trait locus on Bos taurus autosome 11 that harbored 6 previously identified candidate genes (NR5A1, HSPA5, CRB2, DENND1A, NDUFA8, and PTGS) linked to fertility-related phenotypes in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Detecção do Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10514-10529, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521363

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate the carryover effects of differing pre- and postweaning planes of nutrition on prepubertal reproductive tract development and postpubertal estrous cycle characteristics in Holstein heifers. Heifer calves (n = 36) were randomly assigned to receive either a low or a high (5 or 10 L of whole milk/d, respectively) preweaning diet from 1 to 7 wk of age and either a low or a high (70 or 85% of concentrate dry total mixed ration, respectively) postweaning diet from 11 to 25 wk of age. Starting at wk 26 of age, heifers were subjected to weekly transrectal ultrasonography until wk 33 or until first ovulation to assess endometrial thickness and ovarian follicular count and size in the prepubertal phase. In a subset of heifers (n = 28), ovarian ultrasonography continued weekly until at least the second ovulation was confirmed; thereafter, ovarian dynamics (through ultrasonography) and blood progesterone (P4) were assessed every 2 d throughout 1 complete estrous cycle in the postpubertal phase. In the prepubertal phase, endometrial thickness (12.0 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.3 mm) and largest follicle size (11.8 ± 0.3 vs. 10.9 ± 0.2 mm) were greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet. Furthermore, the number of class 2 (6-9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high preweaning diet than in those fed the low preweaning diet (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1), whereas the number of class 3 (>9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1). In the postpubertal phase, overall corpus luteum and P4 dynamics did not differ among pre- or postweaning treatments; however, P4 at 4 d preceding luteolysis was lesser in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (6.1 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.4 ng/mL). In addition, compared with heifers fed the low postweaning diet, those fed the high postweaning diet had a greater number of antral follicles (31.4 ± 2.2 vs. 21.4 ± 2.3) and tended to have more class 3 follicles (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 2.7 ± 0.3). Results indicate positive carryover effects of increasing the preweaning plane of nutrition from 5 to 10 L of whole milk/d on prepubertal follicular growth in Holstein heifers. Furthermore, an increased postweaning plane of nutrition (85 vs. 70% of concentrate dry total mixed ration) advanced reproductive development through greater endometrial thickness and follicular growth in the prepubertal phase and increased the population of antral follicles in the postpubertal estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Leite/fisiologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corpo Lúteo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estado Nutricional , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Progesterona/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4427-4440, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879824

RESUMO

Most Canadian dairy herds operate in tiestall housing (61%), where average estrus detection rates may be lower than 54%. The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography and behavioral biometrics as indicators of estrus in dairy cows. Eighteen cyclic multiparous cows (Synch) were subjected to an estrus synchronization protocol, and 18 pregnant cows (control) received a sham protocol on the same schedule and frequency as the cyclic cow treatment. A decline in plasma concentrations of progesterone and the appearance of a dominant follicle using transrectal ultrasonography were used as indirect indicators of estrus, and the disappearance of a dominant follicle was used to confirm ovulation. All cows were monitored via visual cameras to determine the frequency of treading, drinking, neighbor interaction, tail movement, lying, and shifting behaviors. Infrared thermograms were recorded at the eye, muzzle, cheek, neck, front right foot, front left foot, rump, flank, vulva area, tail head, and withers. To evaluate the accuracy of behavioral and thermal parameters, a predefined minimum acceptable value (i.e., threshold) for estrus alerts (>0.30 Youden J index and >0.60 area under the curve) was used. Ovulation was confirmed in 14 (77.7%) out of 18 Synch cows. Eye, cheek, neck, rump, flank, vulva area, and wither thermograms exhibited higher temperatures at 48 h [cycle threshold (Δt) = +0.30 to 1.20°C] and 24 h before ovulation compared with 4 d prior to ovulation (Δt = 0.06 to 0.11°C) and during ovulation day (Δt = 0.03 to 0.32°C) in the Synch group. In addition, control cows exhibited greater treading activity per day compared with Synch cows (20.84 ± 0.39 vs. 16.35 events/5 min ± 0.34), and tail movement frequency was greater in Synch cows compared with control cows (14.84 ± 2.7 vs. 10.11 ± 4.7 events/5 min). However, within Synch cows, tail movement was the only behavior that significantly increased in frequency 2 d before ovulation (11.81 ± 1.71 events/5 min) followed by a decrease in frequency 1 d before ovulation (4.67 ± 1.05 events/5 min) compared with ovulation day (0 d; 6.10 ± 1.25 events/5 min) and during luteolysis (3 d before ovulation; 6.01 ± 1.25 events/5 min). Upon evaluation of all variables (thermograms and behavior frequencies) as estrus indicators at 48 and 24 h before ovulation, treading and tail movements before milking and 9 thermal locations satisfied the predefined minimum acceptable value for estrus alerts. This study demonstrates that fluctuations in radiated temperature measured at specific anatomical locations and the frequency of tail movements and treading behaviors can be used as a noninvasive estrus alerts in multiparous cows housed in a tiestall system.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Detecção do Estro/métodos , Ovulação , Termografia/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Termografia/métodos
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 3615-3621, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712938

RESUMO

The in-line milk analysis system (IMAS) is an automated biosensor technology that samples and quantifies milk progesterone concentrations (P4c) at frequent intervals starting early postpartum until pregnancy. The objective was to validate the use of pregnancy notifications (PregN) generated by an IMAS based on P4c profiles after artificial insemination (AI) to determine pregnancy and nonpregnancy status in dairy cows. Records of 1,821 AI events from 715 Holstein cows that had milk P4c (ng/mL) measured every 2.2 ± 1.9 d (mean ± standard deviation) between 24.5 ± 8.2 and 173.4 ± 49.3 d in milk through a real-time IMAS (Herd Navigator, DeLaval International, Tumba, Sweden) were evaluated. Based on variations in adjusted milk P4c (< vs. ≥ the 5.0 ng/mL threshold), the system determined the sampling frequency, onset and cessation of luteal phases, and pregnancy. If a luteal phase initiated (P4c increased to ≥5.0 ng/mL) after AI and remained uninterrupted, a PregN was generated starting at (mean ± standard deviation) 31.0 ± 4.3 d until 53.4 ± 7.9 d after AI, when sampling stopped, unless a decline in P4c (to <5.0 ng/mL) occurred indicating nonpregnancy and imminent estrus. The assessment of IMAS PregN at 4 weekly intervals was tested, and a confirmed calving occurrence between 262 and 296 d after AI, with no other subsequent AI recorded, was the gold standard for pregnancy. In total, 14.1 (256/1,821), 41.0 (746/1,821), and 50.7% (924/1,821) of AI events were followed by a decline in P4c before 19, 23, and 30 d after AI, respectively. Frequency of the last 3 sampling events preceding P4c decline was greater if P4c decline occurred between 18 and 25 d after AI (1.4 ± 0.5 samples per day) compared with before 17 or beyond 26 d after AI (1.0 ± 0.5 samples per day). At 30 ± 3 (27 to 33) d after AI, PregN occurred in 46.8% (853/1,821) of AI events, of which 15.2% (130/853) had a decline in P4c between 30 and 55 d after AI and 17.1% (146/853) was later confirmed nonpregnant based on the gold standard. A total of 40.7% (742/1,821) of AI events was confirmed pregnant by the gold standard, which was no different than the proportion of PregN at 51 ± 3 (48 to 54) d (40.9%; 744/1,821). At any time point between 27 and 54 d after AI, sensitivity and negative predictive values for PregN were greater than 95.0 and 96.0%, respectively, whereas specificity values were less than 90.0% for PregN before 40 d but greater than 94.0% for PregN beyond 41 d after AI. In conclusion, IMAS is able to diagnose pregnancy based on P4c profiles with high precision and determine early nonpregnancy based on the spontaneous cessation of the luteal phase. However, for accuracy greater than 95.0%, pregnancy declaration based on IMAS notifications alone should occur no earlier than 41 d after AI.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Leite/química , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Prenhez , Progesterona/análise , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial , Lactação , Fase Luteal , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Suécia
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 3082-3096, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738670

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; NutriTek, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) during the periparturient period (d -28 ± 3 to 44 ± 3 relative to calving) on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, and postpartum ovarian activity of dairy cows fed fresh diets varying in starch content. From d 28 ± 3 before the expected calving date until d 44 ± 3 after calving, 117 Holstein cows were fed diets with SCFP (SCFP; n = 59) or without (control, CON; n = 58). A common, basal, controlled-energy close-up diet (net energy for lactation: 1.43 Mcal/kg; 13.8% starch) was fed before calving. Cows within each treatment (CON or SCFP) were fed either a low- (LS; 22.1% starch) or high-starch (HS; 28.3% starch) diet from d 1 to 23 ± 3 after calving (fresh period), resulting in 4 treatment groups: LS-CON (n = 30), LS-SCFP (n = 29), HS-CON (n = 28), and HS-SCFP (n = 30). All cows were fed the HS diets from d 24 ± 3 to 44 ± 3 after calving (post-fresh period). Cows were assigned to treatment balanced for parity, body condition score, body weight, and expected calving date. Milk yield was higher for cows fed the LS diets compared with those fed the HS diets during the fresh period (34.1 vs. 32.1 kg/d), whereas DMI and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (FCM) were not affected by dietary starch content, and LS cows tended to lose more body condition than HS cows (-0.42 vs. -0.35 per 21 d) during the fresh period. Overall DMI during the close-up and fresh periods did not differ between SCFP and CON cows. However, SCFP supplementation transiently increased DMI on d 1 (13.0 vs. 11.9 kg/d) and 5 (15.5 vs. 14.1 kg/d) after calving compared with CON. During the post-fresh period, SCFP cows tended to eat less than CON cows (19.8 vs. 20.6 kg/d) but had similar 3.5% FCM (44.9 vs. 43.6 kg/d), resulting in greater feed efficiency for SCFP cows (FCM/DMI; 2.27 vs. 2.13). Neither starch content of fresh diets nor SCFP supplementation affected the interval from calving to first ovulation or the incidence of double ovulation. These findings suggest that feeding low-starch diets during the fresh period can increase milk production of dairy cows during the fresh period, and that supplementation of SCFP may increase feed intake around calving and feed efficiency in the post-fresh period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Parto , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(1): 780-798, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343919

RESUMO

Our objectives were to characterize parameters of luteal activity based on milk progesterone concentration (P4c) data from before and after artificial insemination (AI) and to evaluate their potential association with fertility in Holstein cows. Records of AI events (n = 4,353) and of milk P4c (n = 158,961) obtained through an in-line milk analysis system (Herd Navigator, DeLaval International, Tumba, Sweden) from 1,891 lactations of 1,423 Holstein cows were evaluated. Milk P4c (ng/mL) were measured every 2.2 ± 1.9 d (mean ± standard deviation) between 23.6 ± 7.3 and 185.3 ± 56.7 d in milk. Variations in milk P4c of consecutive records were used to determine onset of luteal phase (increase in P4c from <5.0 to ≥5.0 ng/mL), luteal phase length (period, in days, of P4c ≥5.0 ng/mL), cessation of luteal phase (decline from ≥5.0 to <5.0 ng/mL, designated as P4c-decline), and pregnancy (AI followed by a luteal phase that remained uninterrupted until 50 d post-AI). The length of the luteal phase preceding AI, the highest P4c (P4c peak) during the luteal phase preceding AI, the lowest P4c preceding AI (P4c pre-AI) that followed a P4c-decline, and the interval between P4c-decline and AI were evaluated, as well as the interval between AI and onset of luteal phase, and P4c at early diestrus (4.5 ± 0.6 d post-AI), mid diestrus (10.0 ± 0.6 d post-AI), and late diestrus (14.1 ± 0.6 d post-AI). Data were analyzed using logistic regressions, and comparisons made based on quartiles and cut-points established by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall probability of pregnancy was 32.0%. Parameters associated with reduced probability of pregnancy (represented as percentage points decrease in the probability of pregnancy) were (1) luteal phase length >14.4 d (7.6% decrease), (2) P4c peak ≤24.7 ng/mL (4.5% decrease), (3) P4c pre-AI >0.5 ng/mL (5.5% decrease), (4) interval between P4c-decline and AI of >1.6 d (4.0% decrease), (5) interval between AI and onset of luteal phase of <7 or >11 d (9.3 and 12.1% decrease, respectively), and (6) P4c at early diestrus ≤0.7 or >3.5 ng/mL (15.2 and 6.7% decrease, respectively), (7) P4c at mid diestrus ≤12.4 ng/mL (12.5% decrease), and (8) P4c at late diestrus ≤22.7 ng/mL (9.7% decrease). The parameters of luteal activity associated with reduced probability of pregnancy established here could be used as benchmarks while developing recommendations to improve reproductive performance in herds using in-line milk progesterone monitoring.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fase Luteal , Leite/química , Progesterona/análise , Animais , Corpo Lúteo/química , Feminino , Fertilidade , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reprodução , Suécia
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(2): 1702-1711, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594382

RESUMO

The evaluation of anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the center of the anus to base of the clitoris, as a potential fertility trait for genetic selection in dairy cows has generated recent interest. The objectives of this cross-sectional observational study were to (1) characterize the distribution and variability of AGD, (2) determine factors associated with AGD, (3) estimate heritability for AGD, (4) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with phenotypic variation of AGD, and (5) validate the relationship between categories of AGD and fertility in Irish Holstein-Friesian cows. Anogenital distance was measured using digital calipers in 1,180 Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation: 225 ± 79 d in milk) from 10 dairy herds located in Munster, Ireland. In addition, age (yr), weight (kg), height at hip (cm), and body condition score (BCS) at the time of AGD measurement were determined in a subset of 281 cows. Genotype information available from 908 cows was subsequently imputed to the Illumina Bovine High Density BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) for genome-wide association analysis of phenotypic variation in AGD. Overall, AGD had a normal distribution and high variability (mean ± standard deviation; 119.2 ± 11.6 mm). Anogenital distance was weakly but positively associated with cow age, hip height, and body weight, and negatively associated with BCS; the phenotypic variation in AGD that was explainable by these variables was small (coefficient of determination; R2 = 0.09, 0.06, 0.10, and 0.02, respectively). The estimated heritability for AGD was 0.37 (standard error of mean ± 0.08). Six SNP of suggestive significance were identified on Bos taurus autosomes 6, 15, 20, and 26; however, none of these SNP was related to previously identified candidate genes for fertility. Cows were categorized into quartiles (Q1; 86 to 111 mm; n = 311, Q2; 112 to 120 mm; n = 330; Q3; 121 to 127 mm; n = 265, and Q4; 128 to 160 mm; n = 274) based on AGD and the association with reproductive outcomes examined (21-d submission rate, pregnancy to first AI, pregnancy rate within 21, 42 and 84-d after the farm mating start date, and number of times bred). None of the reproductive variables differed significantly between AGD categories. In summary, despite identification of high variability and moderate heritability for AGD in Irish Holstein-Friesian cows, reproductive outcomes did not differ between categories of AGD. This latter result differs from our previous finding of an inverse relationship between AGD and pregnancy outcomes in first- and second-parity Canadian Holstein cows, emphasizing the need to test and validate this new phenotype in diverse cow populations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Irlanda , Lactação/genética , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Seleção Genética
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(12): 11441-11446, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268627

RESUMO

Although positive effects on growth have been shown when calves are placed on high planes of nutrition, little information exists regarding the effect of this feeding strategy on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone whose fundamental action is to stimulate growth, and its binding proteins during the preweaning period. The objective of this study was to characterize IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in plasma during the pre- and immediate postweaning period, when calves were offered a high or low plane of whole milk. Twenty-six female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to either a high (HI; 10 L/d; n = 13) or low (LO; 5 L/d; n = 13) plane of milk following colostrum feeding at d 3 of life. Calves were fed their respective diet as whole milk until d 48 when a 10-d weaning transition began. During this transition, milk was reduced by 10% per day such that all calves received no milk on d 59 of life. Blood samples were collected bi-weekly to measure IGF-1 and IGFBP in plasma. Calves fed HI gained more body weight than calves fed LO during the preweaning period (d 1-48 of life; 0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d); however, no differences in average daily gain or metabolizable energy intake during the weaning transition (d 48-58 of life) or postweaning period (d 59-70 of life) occurred. Concentrations of IGF-1 were higher in HI calves during the preweaning period, which was associated with high levels of IGFBP-3 at wk 5 and lower IGFBP-2 during each measured time point preweaning as compared with LO. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 was lower in HI calves only during wk 1, and IGFBP-5 was not affected by the dietary treatment. Overall, offering a high plane of nutrition was associated with changes in plasma IGF-1 and IGFBP that would indicate greater growth and development preweaning but not necessarily postweaning.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Leite/química , Estado Nutricional , Desmame
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(10): 9154-9167, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031580

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine (1) factors associated with serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); (2) the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration during the first week postpartum and ovarian cyclicity status by 35 d postpartum (DPP); (3) an optimum serum IGF-1 concentration threshold predictive of pregnancy to first artificial insemination (P/AI), including its diagnostic values; (4) the associations among categories of serum IGF-1 concentration and reproductive outcomes (P/AI and pregnancy risk up to 150 and 250 DPP); and (5) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with phenotypic variation in serum IGF-1 concentration in dairy cows. Serum IGF-1 concentration was determined at 7 (±2.4; ±standard error of the mean) DPP in 647 lactating Holstein cows (213 primiparous, 434 multiparous) from 7 herds in Alberta, Canada. The overall mean, median, minimum, and maximum serum IGF-1 concentrations during the first week postpartum were 37.8 (±1.23), 31.0, 20.0, and 225.0 ng/mL, respectively. Herd, age, parity, precalving body condition score, and season of blood sampling were all identified as factors associated with serum IGF-1 concentrations. Although serum IGF-1 concentration during the first week postpartum had no association with ovarian cyclicity status by 35 DPP in primiparous cows, it was greater in cyclic than in acyclic multiparous cows (32.2 vs. 27.4 ng/mL, respectively). The optimum serum IGF-1 thresholds predictive of P/AI were 85.0 ng/mL (sensitivity = 31.9%; specificity = 89.1%) and 31.0 ng/mL (sensitivity = 45.5%; specificity = 66.9%) for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. When cows were grouped into either high or low IGF-1 categories (greater or less than or equal to 85.0 ng/mL for primiparous cows and greater or less than or equal to 31.0 ng/mL for multiparous cows, respectively), primiparous cows with high IGF-1 had 4.43 times greater odds of P/AI and a tendency for higher pregnancy risk up to 150 DPP than those with low IGF-1, but not up to 250 DPP. Likewise, multiparous cows with high IGF-1 had 1.61 times greater odds of P/AI than those with low IGF-1. Pregnancy risk up to 150 and 250 DPP, however, did not differ between IGF-1 categories in multiparous cows. Moreover, 37 SNP across 10 Bos taurus autosomes were associated with variation in serum IGF-1 concentration, and 4 previously identified candidate genes related to fertility that were in linkage disequilibrium with some of these SNP were also identified.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Alberta , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez
18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(24): 242003, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956981

RESUMO

Using a low background data sample of 9.7×10^{5} J/ψ→γη^{'}, η^{'}→γπ^{+}π^{-} events, which are 2 orders of magnitude larger than those from the previous experiments, recorded with the BESIII detector at BEPCII, the decay dynamics of η^{'}→γπ^{+}π^{-} are studied with both model-dependent and model-independent approaches. The contributions of ω and the ρ(770)-ω interference are observed for the first time in the decays η^{'}→γπ^{+}π^{-} in both approaches. Additionally, a contribution from the box anomaly or the ρ(1450) resonance is required in the model-dependent approach, while the process specific part of the decay amplitude is determined in the model-independent approach.

19.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(8): 7563-7574, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729909

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate factors associated with variation in circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations, (2) establish an optimum AMH threshold predictive of pregnancy to first artificial insemination (P/AI), (3) examine the relationship between AMH and fertility (P/AI, pregnancy loss between 30 and 60 d after artificial insemination, and pregnancy risk up to 250 d postpartum), and (4) identify quantitative trait loci associated with phenotypic variation of AMH concentrations in dairy cows. Serum AMH concentrations (pg/mL) were determined at 7 ± 2.4 d postpartum in 647 lactating Holstein cows (213 primiparous, 434 multiparous) from 1 research and 6 commercial dairy herds in Alberta, Canada. Of these, 589 cows were genotyped on the 26K Bovine BeadChip (Neogen Inc., Lincoln, NE) and subsequently imputed to the Illumina Bovine High Density BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) for genome-wide association analysis for variation in serum AMH concentrations. Factors associated with variation in serum AMH concentrations and the relationship between categories of AMH and aforementioned fertility outcomes were evaluated only in a subset of 460 cows that had a complete data set available. The overall mean (±standard error of the mean), median, minimum, and maximum AMH concentrations were 191.1 ± 6.3, 151.7, 13.9, and 1,879.0 pg/mL, respectively. The AMH concentrations were not associated with herd, precalving body condition score, postpartum week, and season of sampling; the lactation number, however, had a quadratic relationship with serum AMH concentrations (116.2, 204.9 204.5, and 157.9 pg/mL for first, second, third, and ≥fourth lactation, respectively). The optimum AMH threshold predictive of P/AI could not be established because the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis model was nonsignificant. Categories of AMH [low (<83.0 pg/mL; n = 92), intermediate (≥83.0 to ≤285.0 pg/mL; n = 276), and high (>285.0 pg/mL; n = 92) based on lowest 20%, intermediate 60%, and highest 20% serum AMH) had no associations with P/AI (34, 43, and 40%), pregnancy loss between 30 and 60 d after artificial insemination (20, 12, and 8%), or pregnancy risk up to 250 d postpartum. One candidate gene associated with AMH production [AMH gene on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7] and 4 candidate genes related to embryo development (SCAI and PPP6C genes on BTA11 and FGF18 and EEF2K genes on BTA20 and BTA25, respectively) were in linkage disequilibrium with single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with phenotypic variation in serum AMH in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Bovinos , Fertilidade/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alberta , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial , Lactação , Gravidez , Progesterona
20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(7): 072001, 2017 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949653

RESUMO

The spin and parity of the Z_{c}(3900)^{±} state are determined to be J^{P}=1^{+} with a statistical significance larger than 7σ over other quantum numbers in a partial wave analysis of the process e^{+}e^{-}→π^{+}π^{-}J/ψ. We use a data sample of 1.92 fb^{-1} accumulated at sqrt[s]=4.23 and 4.26 GeV with the BESIII experiment. When parametrizing the Z_{c}(3900)^{±} with a Flatté-like formula, we determine its pole mass M_{pole}=(3881.2±4.2_{stat}±52.7_{syst}) MeV/c^{2} and pole width Γ_{pole}=(51.8±4.6_{stat}±36.0_{syst}) MeV. We also measure cross sections for the process e^{+}e^{-}→Z_{c}(3900)^{+}π^{-}+c.c.→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-} and determine an upper limit at the 90% confidence level for the process e^{+}e^{-}→Z_{c}(4020)^{+}π^{-}+c.c.→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-}.

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