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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998408

RESUMO

Despite relevant advances made in therapies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), they still represent the first cause of death worldwide. Cardiac fibrosis and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling are common end-organ features in diseased hearts, leading to tissue stiffness, impaired myocardial functional, and progression to heart failure. Although fibrosis has been largely recognized to accompany and complicate various CVDs, events and mechanisms driving and governing fibrosis are still not entirely elucidated, and clinical interventions targeting cardiac fibrosis are not yet available. Immune cell types, both from innate and adaptive immunity, are involved not just in the classical response to pathogens, but they take an active part in "sterile" inflammation, in response to ischemia and other forms of injury. In this context, different cell types infiltrate the injured heart and release distinct pro-inflammatory cytokines that initiate the fibrotic response by triggering myofibroblast activation. The complex interplay between immune cells, fibroblasts, and other non-immune/host-derived cells is now considered as the major driving force of cardiac fibrosis. Here, we review and discuss the contribution of inflammatory cells of innate immunity, including neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, eosinophils and mast cells, in modulating the myocardial microenvironment, by orchestrating the fibrogenic process in response to tissue injury. A better understanding of the time frame, sequences of events during immune cells infiltration, and their action in the injured inflammatory heart environment, may provide a rationale to design new and more efficacious therapeutic interventions to reduce cardiac fibrosis.

2.
Blood Press ; : 1-4, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870038

RESUMO

In this report we present a case of missed hypertension due to subclavian artery stenosis. A 77 year-old female patient, initially thought as being normotensive, was referred to us due to newly discovered systolic heart murmur suspicious for aortic stenosis. We noted inter-arm blood pressure difference of 30 mmHg, with higher, hypertensive values on right arm. Further workup and medical imaging excluded aortic stenosis and revealed an asymptomatic, hemodynamically significant, stenosis of left subclavian artery. Due to absence of symptoms, the patient has been managed with conservative therapy for subclavian stenosis and hypertension, and she is currently in good conditions and followed up for any signs of disease progression. This case clearly shows importance of measuring blood pressure on both arms when initially diagnosing hypertension as this is often overlooked and is key to properly diagnose hypertension and possible subclavian stenosis.

4.
J Cardiovasc Echogr ; 30(1): 29-32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766103

RESUMO

Pseudoaneurysm complicated by aortopulmonary fistula (APF) after a Bentall procedure is extremely rare but potentially fatal, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. We present a subacute case of a post-traumatic APF which has had initial aspecific symptoms and later an acute worsening heart failure with chest pain not responding to medical treatment and requiring emergency surgery.

5.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 57: 236-243, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802325

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus is responsible for the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) which has relevant pathogenic implications for the cardiovascular system. Incidence and severity of COVID-19 are higher in the elderly population (65 years and older). This may be due to higher frequency of comorbidities, but increased frailty and immunosenescence linked with aging may also contribute. Moreover, in elderly individuals, SARS-CoV-2 may adopt different molecular strategies to strongly impact on cardiac aging that culminate in exacerbating a pro-inflammatory state (cytokine storm activation), which, in turn, may lead to pulmonary vascular endothelialitis, microangiopathy, diffuse thrombosis, myocarditis, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and acute coronary syndromes. All these events are particularly relevant in elderly patients, and deserve targeted cardiovascular treatments and specific management of repurposed drugs against COVID-19. We discuss current evidence about the cardiovascular involvement during COVID-19, and elaborate on clinical implications in elderly patients.

6.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 47, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are women. Exploring mechanisms underlying the sex differences may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF. Studies focusing on sex differences in circulating proteins in HFpEF patients are scarce. METHODS: A total of 415 proteins were analyzed in 392 HFpEF patients included in The Metabolic Road to Diastolic Heart Failure: Diastolic Heart Failure study (MEDIA-DHF). Sex differences in these proteins were assessed using adjusted logistic regression analyses. The associations between candidate proteins and cardiovascular (CV) death or CV hospitalization (with sex interaction) were assessed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We found 9 proteins to be differentially expressed between female and male patients. Women expressed more LPL and PLIN1, which are markers of lipid metabolism; more LHB, IGFBP3, and IL1RL2 as markers of transcriptional regulation; and more Ep-CAM as marker of hemostasis. Women expressed less MMP-3, which is a marker associated with extracellular matrix organization; less NRP1, which is associated with developmental processes; and less ACE2, which is related to metabolism. Sex was not associated with the study outcomes (adj. HR 1.48, 95% CI 0.83-2.63), p = 0.18. CONCLUSION: In chronic HFpEF, assessing sex differences in a wide range of circulating proteins led to the identification of 9 proteins that were differentially expressed between female and male patients. These findings may help further investigations into potential pathophysiological processes contributing to HFpEF.

7.
Echocardiography ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation and contractile reserve (CR) in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) at rest and during exercise, and their correlation with functional capacity. BACKGROUND: The natural history of chronic AR is characterized by a prolonged silent phase before onset of symptoms and overt LV dysfunction. Assessment of LV systolic function and contractile reserve has an important role in the decision-making of AR asymptomatic patients. METHODS: Standard echo, lung ultrasound, and LV 2D speckle tracking strain were performed at rest and during exercise in asymptomatic patients with severe AR and in age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. RESULTS: 115 AR patients (male sex 58.2%; 52.3 ± 18.3 years) and 55 controls were enrolled. Baseline LV ejection fraction was comparable between the groups. Resting LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and myocardial work efficiency (MWE) were significantly reduced in AR (GLS-15.8 ± 2.8 vs -21.4 ± 4.4; P < .001). Patients with AR and CR- showed reduced resting LV GLS and MWE and increased B-lines. MWE was closely related to peak effort watts, VO2 , LV E/e', and B-lines, at a multivariable analysis. Both GLS and MWE were strong independent predictors of CR. A resting LV GLS cutoff of -12% differentiated CR+ and CR- (78% sensitivity and 84% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: The lower resting values of LV GLS and MWE in severe AR asymptomatic patients suggest an early subclinical myocardial damage that seems to be closely associated with lower exercise capacity, greater pulmonary congestion, and blunted LV contractile reserve during stress.

8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and RV-pulmonary artery (PA) uncoupling are associated with the development of pulmonary congestion during exercise. However, there is limited information regarding the association between these right-sided cardiac parameters and pulmonary congestion in acutely decompensated heart failure (HF). METHODS: We performed an individual patient meta-analysis from four cohort studies of hospitalized patients with HF who had available lung ultrasound (B-lines) data on admission and/or at discharge. RV function was assessed by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV-PA coupling was defined as the ratio of TAPSE to PA systolic pressure (PASP). RESULTS: Admission and discharge cohort included 319 patients (75.8 ± 10.1 years, 46% women) and 221 patients (77.9 ± 9.0 years, 47% women), respectively. Overall, higher TAPSE was associated with higher ejection fraction, lower PASP, b-type natriuretic peptide and B-line counts. By multivariable analysis, worse RV function or RV-PA coupling was associated with higher B-line counts on admission and at discharge, and with a less reduction in B-line counts from admission to discharge. Higher B-line counts at discharge were associated with a higher risk of the composite of all-cause mortality and/or HF re-hospitalization [adjusted-HR 1.13 (1.09-1.16), p < 0.001]. Furthermore, the absolute risk increase related to high B-line counts at discharge was higher in patients with lower TAPSE. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acutely decompensated HF, impaired RV function and RV-PA coupling were associated with severe pulmonary congestion on admission, and less resolution of pulmonary congestion during hospital stay. Worse prognosis related to residual pulmonary congestion was enhanced in patients with RV dysfunction. TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; PASP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure.

9.
J Electrocardiol ; 62: 1-4, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731138

RESUMO

Ventricular pacing may interfere with the interpretation of ECG among patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with possible delay of reperfusion therapy. Since left bundle branch block has a similar ECG morphology to right ventricular paced rhythm, Sgarbossa and modified Sgarbossa criteria could be useful in this setting. We present four clinical cases in which a recently proposed clinical-instrumental algorithm has been adopted to manage patients with right ventricular paced rhythm and suspected AMI.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer is a widespread disease, frequently complicated by perforation and bleeding. Administrative databases are useful tool to perform epidemiological and drug utilization studies, but they need a validation process based on a comparison with the original data contained in the medical charts. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the ICD-9 codes in identifying patients with peptic ulcer and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the regional administrative database of Umbria. METHODS: The index test of our study was the hospital discharge abstract database of the Umbria region (Italy), while the reference standard was the clinical information collected in the medical charts. The study population were adult patients with a hospital discharge for peptic ulcer or gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the period 2012-2014. A random sample of cases and non-cases was selected and the corresponding medical charts were reviewed. Cases of peptic ulcer were confirmed based on endoscopy, radiology, and surgery, while adjudication of gastrointestinal hemorrhage was based on presence of hematemesis, melena, and rectal bleeding. RESULTS: Overall, we reviewed 445 clinical charts of cases and 80 clinical charts of non-cases. The diagnostic accuracy results were: code 531 (gastric ulcer), sensitivity and NPV 98%, specificity 88%, and PPV 91%; code 532 (duodenal ulcer), sensitivity and NPV 100%, specificity and PPV 98%; code 534 (gastrojejunal ulcer), sensitivity and NPV 100%, specificity 70%, and PPV 45%; code 578 (gastrointestinal hemorrhage), sensitivity 96%, specificity 90%, PPV and NPV 94%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a high level of diagnostic accuracy for most of the codes considered. The ICD-9 code 534 of gastrojejunal ulcer had a lower level of specificity and PPV due to false positives, being mainly misclassifications for coding errors. These validated codes can be used for future epidemiological studies and for health services research.


Assuntos
Codificação Clínica/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Úlcera Péptica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615890

RESUMO

Patients with diabetes mellitus have been reported to be at a high risk of complications from SARS-CoV2 virus infection (COVID-19). In type 2 diabetes, there is a change in immune system cells, which shift from an anti-inflammatory to a predominantly pro-inflammatory pattern. This altered immune profile may induce important clinical consequences, including increased susceptibility to lung infections; and enhanced local inflammatory response. Furthermore, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) enzyme is highly expressed in the lung, and that it may have additional actions besides its effects on glucose metabolism, which might exert profound pro-inflammatory effects. We briefly review the impact on the inflammatory system of DPP4 for its possible detrimental effect on COVID-19 syndrome, and of DPP4 inhibitors (gliptins), currently used as glucose lowering agents, which may have the potential to exert positive pleiotropic effect on inflammatory diseases, in addition to their effects on glucose metabolism. Thanks to these ancillary effects, gliptins could potentially be "repurposed" as salutary drugs against COVID-19 syndrome, even in non-diabetic subjects. Clinical studies should be designed to investigate this possibility.

14.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 20(6): 581-592, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519318

RESUMO

Angiogenesis inhibitor Bevacizumab (BVZ) may lead to the development of adverse effects, including hypertension and cardiac ischemia. Whether assessment of changes in myocardial strain by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) can be of value in detecting BVZ-mediated cardiotoxicity at an earlier stage is not known. We investigated whether 2D-STE can non-invasively detect early evidence of cardiotoxicity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with BVZ. Between January and June 2019, 25 consecutive patients (71.8 ± 7.5 year/old, 17 males) with mCRC were prospectively enrolled. Patients underwent physical examination, blood tests, and conventional 2D-transthoracic echocardiography implemented with 2D-STE analysis, at baseline and at 3 and 6 months following treatment with BVZ (15 mg/kg every 15 days) + 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX i.v.). At 6-month follow-up, we assessed occurrence of global longitudinal strain (GLS) impairment (> 15% decrease in GLS compared with baseline) as primary end-point and a new-onset systemic hypertension (secondary end-point). On average, GLS showed a progressive significant impairment after BVZ, from - 17.4 ± 3.2% at baseline to - 16 ± 2.9% (p = 0.003) at 6-month follow-up; > 15% decrease in GLS (primary end-point) was detected in 9 patients (36%). All other strain parameters remained unchanged. New-onset systemic hypertension (secondary end-point) was diagnosed in five patients (20%). No significant changes were observed in serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurements. No patient developed significant changes in LV size or LV ejection fraction; no case of clinically symptomatic HF was observed during BVZ-treatment. Measurement of GLS by 2D-STE analysis can effectively detect BVZ-mediated cardiotoxicity at an early stage.

15.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a marker of vagal tone, which is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) is a treatment for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), which impressively impacts cardiovascular outcome. This study aims at evaluating the effects of S/V on HRR and its correlation with cardiopulmonary indexes in HFrEF patients. METHODS: Patients with HFrEF admitted to outpatients' services were screened out for study inclusion. S/V was administered according to guidelines. Up-titration was performed every 4 weeks when tolerated. All patients underwent laboratory measurements, Doppler-echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing (CPET) at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Study population consisted of 134 HFrEF patients (87% male, mean age 57.9 ± 9.6 years). At 12-month follow-up, significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (from 28% ± 5.8% to 31.8% ± 7.3%, p < 0.0001), peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2peak) (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 17.8 ± 4.2 mL/kg/min, p < 0.0001), the slope of increase in ventilation over carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2 slope )(from 33.4 ± 6.2 to 30.3 ± 6.5, p < 0.0001), and HRR (from 11.4 ± 9.5 to 17.4 ± 15.1 bpm, p = 0.004) was observed. Changes in HRR were significantly correlated to changes in VE/VCO2slope (r = -0.330; p = 0.003). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis showed that changes in HRR were significantly associated to changes in VE/VCO2slope (Beta (B) = -0.975, standard error (SE) = 0.364, standardized Beta coefficient (Bstd) = -0.304, p = 0.009). S/V showed significant reduction in exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) detection at CPET (28 EOV detected at baseline CPET vs. 9 EOV detected at 12-month follow-up, p < 0.001). HRR at baseline CPET was a significant predictor of EOV at 12-month follow-up (B = -2.065, SE = 0.354, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In HFrEF patients, S/V therapy improves autonomic function, functional capacity, and ventilation. Whether these findings might translate into beneficial effects on prognosis and outcome remains to be elucidated.

16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(6): e006769, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) typically develop dyspnea and pulmonary congestion upon exercise. Lung ultrasound is a simple diagnostic tool, providing semiquantitative assessment of extravascular lung water through B-lines. It has been shown that patients with HFpEF develop B-lines upon submaximal exercise stress echocardiography; however, whether exercise-induced pulmonary congestion carries prognostic implications is unknown. This study aimed at evaluating the prognostic value of B-line assessment during exercise in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: Sixty-one New York Heart Association class I to II patients with HFpEF underwent standard echocardiography, lung ultrasound (28-scanning point method), and BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) assessment during supine exercise echocardiography (baseline and peak exercise). The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization at 1 year. RESULTS: B-lines, E/e', and BNP significantly increased during exercise (P<0.001 for all). By multivariable analysis, both peak (hazard ratio, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.21-1.85], P<0.001), and change (hazard ratio 1.34 [95% CI, 1.12-1.62], P=0.002) B-lines were retained as independent predictors of outcome (hazard ratios per 1 B-line increment), along with BNP and E/e' ratio. Importantly, adding peak B-line on top of a clinical model significantly improved prognostic accuracy (C-index increase, 0.157 [0.056-0.258], P=0.002) and net reclassification (continuous net reclassification improvement, 0.51 [0.09-0.74], P=0.016), with similar results for B-line change. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of exercise-induced pulmonary congestion by lung ultrasound is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with HFpEF; its use may help refining the routine risk stratification of these patients on top of well-established clinical variables.

17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(5): 779-782, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592113

RESUMO

Patients with diabetes mellitus have been reported to be at a high risk of complications from SARS-CoV2 virus infection (COVID-19). In type 2 diabetes, there is a change in immune system cells, which shift from an anti-inflammatory to a predominantly pro-inflammatory pattern. This altered immune profile may induce important clinical consequences, including increased susceptibility to lung infections; and enhanced local inflammatory response. Furthermore, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) enzyme is highly expressed in the lung, and that it may have additional actions besides its effects on glucose metabolism, which might exert profound pro-inflammatory effects. We briefly review the impact on the inflammatory system of DPP4 for its possible detrimental effect on COVID-19 syndrome, and of DPP4 inhibitors (gliptins), currently used as glucose lowering agents, which may have the potential to exert positive pleiotropic effect on inflammatory diseases, in addition to their effects on glucose metabolism. Thanks to these ancillary effects, gliptins could potentially be "repurposed" as salutary drugs against COVID-19 syndrome, even in non-diabetic subjects. Clinical studies should be designed to investigate this possibility.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Incretinas/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Pandemias , Prognóstico
18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401833

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) are at a higher risk of severe disease and mortality with COVID-19. Moreover, evaluating and treating HF patients with comorbid COVID-19 represents a formidable clinical challenge as symptoms of both conditions may overlap and they may potentiate each other. Limited data exist regarding comprehensive management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19. Since these issues pose serious new challenges for clinicians worldwide, HF specialists must develop a structured approach to the care of patients with COVID-19 and be included early in the care of these patients. Therefore, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology and Chinese Heart Failure Association & National Heart Failure Committee conducted web-based meetings to discuss these unique clinical challenges and reach a consensus opinion to help providers worldwide deliver better patient care. The main objective of this position paper is to outline the management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19 based on the available data and personal experiences of physicians from Asia, Europe and United States. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442666

RESUMO

Pectus excavatum (PE) may cause symptoms and alter cardiopulmonary function. Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function have been reported to be impaired in PE subjects. However, this issue has not been systematically investigated with respect to the degree of chest wall abnormality. We aimed to evaluate the influence of severity of chest shape abnormality on myocardial strain parameters in PE subjects. We studied 30 healthy subjects (55.8 ± 14.0 year/old, 18 males) with PE, assessed by the ratio of chest transverse diameter over the distance between sternum and spine (modified Haller index, MHI, >2.5), and 30 controls (MHI ≤2.5) matched by age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants underwent 2-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography implemented with 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography. Right-heart and left-heart chamber dimensions, and stroke volume, were significantly reduced in PE subjects (all P< 0.0001). While LV ejection fraction, E/A, and E/e', did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, all LV and RV strain and strain rate parameters were severely reduced in subjects with PE (P < 0.0001). Importantly, in PE subjects, but not in controls, LV global longitudinal strain, LV global circumferential strain, LV global radial strain, and RV free wall systolic strain, were all linearly correlated to MHI (all P < 0.0001). In healthy subjects with PE, abnormal chest anatomy progressively impairs myocardial strain. However, this impairment is not due to subclinical myocardial dysfunction; it might reflect intraventricular dyssynchrony due to compressive phenomena, or technical limitations of strain methodology, due to chest wall abnormality.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(6): 941-956, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463543

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) are at a higher risk of severe disease and mortality with COVID-19. Moreover, evaluating and treating HF patients with comorbid COVID-19 represents a formidable clinical challenge as symptoms of both conditions may overlap and they may potentiate each other. Limited data exist regarding comprehensive management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19. Since these issues pose serious new challenges for clinicians worldwide, HF specialists must develop a structured approach to the care of patients with COVID-19 and be included early in the care of these patients. Therefore, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology and the Chinese Heart Failure Association & National Heart Failure Committee conducted web-based meetings to discuss these unique clinical challenges and reach a consensus opinion to help providers worldwide deliver better patient care. The main objective of this position paper is to outline the management of HF patients with concomitant COVID-19 based on the available data and personal experiences of physicians from Asia, Europe and the United States.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas , China , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
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