Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 330
Filtrar
1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 564-582, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713608

RESUMO

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry. METHODS: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9,241 cases and 10,193 controls. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry, and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category. RESULTS: For overall BC, the odds ratios per standard deviation of PRS313 was 1.27 (95%CI = 1.23 to 1.31), with an AUC of 0.571 (95%CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared to women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.72). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction. CONCLUSION: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared to that reported in European, Asian and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784351

RESUMO

Aggressive high-grade, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer is more common among American women of African ancestry (AA) than those of European ancestry (EA). Epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation and altered microRNA (miRNA) expression, may contribute to racial differences in breast cancer. However, few studies have specifically characterized genome-wide DNA methylation-based modifications at the miRNA level in relation to ER+ and ER- subtype, and their functional role in the regulation of miRNA expression, especially among high risk AA women. In this study, we evaluated DNA methylation patterns of miRNA encoding genes and their effect on expression in breast tumors from both AA and EA women. The genome-wide methylation screen identified a total of 7,191 unique CpGs mapped to 1,292 miRNA genes, corresponding to 2,035 unique mature miRNAs. We identified differentially methylated loci (DMLs: (|delta ß|)>0.10, FDR<0.05) between ER- and ER+ tumor subtypes, including 290 DMLs shared in both races, 317 and 136 were specific to AA and EA women, respectively. Integrated analysis identified certain DMLs whose methylation levels were significantly correlated with the expression of relevant miRNAs, such as multiple CpGs within miR-190b and miR-135b highly negatively correlated with their expression. These results were then validated in the TCGA dataset. Target prediction and pathway analysis showed that these DNA methylation-dysregulated miRNAs are involved in multiple cancer-related pathways, including cell cycle G1-S growth factor regulation, cytoskeleton remodeling, angiogenesis, EMT, and ESR1-mediated signaling pathways. In summary, our results suggest that DNA methylation changes within miRNA genes are associated with altered miRNA expression, which may contribute to the network of subtype- and race-related tumor biological differences in breast cancer. These findings support the involvement of epigenetic regulation of miRNA expression and provide insights into the relations of clinical-relevant miRNAs to their target genes, which may serve as potential preventative and therapeutic targets.

4.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fracture and osteoporosis are known side effects of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for postmenopausal hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) patients. How modifiable lifestyle factors impact fracture risk in these patients is relatively unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association of lifestyle factors, focusing on physical activity, with risk of incident major osteoporotic fracture and osteoporosis in 2152 HR+ BC patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California and who received AIs. Patients self-reported lifestyle factors at study entry and at 6-month follow-up. Fracture and osteoporosis outcomes were prospectively ascertained by physician-adjudication and bone mineral density (BMD) values, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from multivariable proportional hazards regression. Models were adjusted for age, menopausal status, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), AJCC stage, breast cancer treatment, prior osteoporosis, and prior major fracture. RESULTS: Over a median 6.1 years of follow-up after AI initiation, 165 women experienced an incident osteoporotic fracture and 243 women had osteoporosis. No associations were found between overall moderate-vigorous physical activity and fracture risk, although < 150 min/week of aerobic exercise in the 6 months after BC diagnosis was associated with increased fracture risk (HR=2.42; 95% CI: 1.34, 4.37) compared with ≥ 150 min/week (meeting physical activity guidelines). Risk was also higher for never or infrequently engaging in aerobic exercise (HR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.44). None or infrequent overall moderate-vigorous physical activity in the 6 months before BC diagnosis was associated with increased risk of osteoporosis (HR=1.94; 95% CI: 1.11; 3.37). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-vigorous physical activity during the immediate period after BC diagnosis, particularly aerobic exercise, was associated with lower risk of major osteoporotic fractures in women on AI therapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Findings may inform fracture prevention in women on AI therapy through non-pharmacologic lifestyle-based strategies.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blacks tend to have a stronger inflammatory immune response than Whites. We hypothesized that racial differences in host immunity also manifest in the tumor microenvironment (TME), constituting part of a distinct aggressive tumor biology underlying higher mortality in Black women. METHODS: Pathological and gene expression profiling approaches were used for characterizing infiltrating immune cells in breast TME from 1,315 patients from the Women's Circle of Health Study. Racial differences in tumor immune phenotypes were compared, with results validated in a publicly accessible dataset. Prognostic associations of immune phenotypes were assessed in three independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found marked and consistent differences in tumor immune responses between Black and White patients. Not only did tumors from Blacks display a stronger overall immune presence, but the composition and quality of immune infiltrates differed, regardless of tumor subtypes. Black patients had a stronger CD4+/B cell response, and further, a more exhausted CD8+ T cell profile. A signature indicating a higher ratio of exhausted CD8+ T cells to total CD8+ T cells (ExCD8-r) was consistently associated with poorer survival, particularly among hormone receptor (HR)-positive patients. Among HR-negative patients, combinations of the absolute fraction of CD8+ T cells and ExCD8-r signature identified the CD8lowExCD8-rhigh subgroup, the most prevalent among Blacks, with the worst survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of a distinct exhausted CD8+ T cell signature in Black breast cancer patients indicates an immunobiological basis for their more aggressive disease, and also a rationale for the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the exhaustion phenotype.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disproportionate burden of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes among African American/Black women may stem from multilevel determinants. However, data are limited regarding the impacts of neighborhood social environmental characteristics among Black women. METHODS: We evaluated the association between neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (nSES) and breast cancer subtypes in the Women's Circle of Health and Women's Circle of Health Follow-up Study, which included 1,220 Black women diagnosed from 2005 to 2017 with invasive breast cancer. nSES at diagnosis was measured using NCI's census tract-level SES index. We used multilevel multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the association of nSES with breast cancer subtypes [triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), HER2-positive vs. luminal A], adjusting for individual-level SES, body mass index, and reproductive factors. We tested for interactions by neighborhood racial composition. RESULTS: Compared to census tracts characterized as high nSES, the relative risk ratios (RRR) for TNBC were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.20-2.71) and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.27-2.99) for women residing in areas with intermediate and low nSES, respectively (p-trend: .002). Neighborhood racial composition modified the association between nSES and TNBC; the highest relative risk of TNBC was among women residing in low nSES areas with low proportions of Black residents. CONCLUSIONS: Black women residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods may have an increased risk of TNBC, particularly among areas with lower proportions of Black residents. IMPACT: Places people live may influence breast tumor biology. A deeper understanding of multilevel pathways contributing to tumor biology is needed.

8.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(10): 5673-5682, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133569

RESUMO

Cruciferous vegetables are primary sources of dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs), a group of phytochemicals showing promising cancer-chemopreventive activities in multiple cancer models. However, no study has thoroughly examined how cooking affects the yields of ITCs from cruciferous vegetables. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based cyclocondensation assay was performed to examine the ITC yields from four major cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale) under six cooking conditions (stir-frying, steaming, microwaving, boiling, stewing, and chip-baking for kale only) and measured the level of ITCs under the raw condition for a comprehensive list of cruciferous vegetables and ITC-containing condiments. A wide range of ITC yields was found across vegetables and condiments. Cooking significantly altered the ITC yields, showing an averagely four-fold increase by lightly cooking (stir-frying, steaming, and microwaving) and a 58% decrease by heavily cooking (boiling, stewing, and chip-baking). These findings will provide the evidence-based cooking guidance on cruciferous vegetable consumption and help better estimate dietary ITC exposure in epidemiologic studies.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests etiologic heterogeneity among breast cancer subtypes. Previous studies with six-marker IHC classification of intrinsic subtypes included small numbers of black women. METHODS: Using centralized laboratory results for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, proliferation marker, Ki-67, EGFR, and cytokeratin (CK)5/6, we estimated case-only and case-control ORs for established breast cancer risk factors among cases (n = 2,354) and controls (n = 2,932) in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. ORs were estimated by ER status and intrinsic subtype using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Case-only analyses by ER status showed etiologic heterogeneity by age at menarche, parity (vs. nulliparity), and age at first birth. In case-control analyses for intrinsic subtype, increased body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk of luminal A subtype, whereas older age at menarche and parity, regardless of breastfeeding, were associated with reduced risk. For basal-like cancers, parity without breastfeeding and increasing WHR were associated with increased risk, whereas breastfeeding and age ≥25 years at first birth were associated with reduced risk among parous women. Basal-like and ER-/HER2+ subtypes had earlier age-at-incidence distribution relative to luminal subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer subtypes showed distinct etiologic profiles in the AMBER consortium, a study of more than 5,000 black women with centrally assessed tumor biospecimens. IMPACT: Among black women, high WHR and parity without breastfeeding are emerging as important intervention points to reduce the incidence of basal-like breast cancer.

10.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024820

RESUMO

Energy imbalance has an important role in breast cancer prognosis. Hyperactive mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is associated with breast tumor growth, but the extent to which body fatness is associated with mTOR pathway activities in breast cancer is unclear. We performed immunostaining for mTOR, phosphorylated (p)-mTOR, p-AKT, and p-p70S6K in tumor tissue from 590 women (464 African Americans/Blacks and 126 Whites) with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer in the Women's Circle of Health Study. Anthropometric measures were taken by study staff, and body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Linear regressions were used to estimate percent differences in protein expression between categories of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, fat mass, fat mass index, and percent body fat. We observed that BMI ≥ 35.0 vs. <25 kg/m2 was associated with 108.3% (95% CI = 16.9%-270.9%) and 101.8% (95% CI = 17.0%-248.8%) higher expression in p-mTOR and normalized p-mTOR, i.e., p-mTOR/mTOR, respectively. Quartiles 4 vs. 1 of waist/hip ratio was associated with 41.8% (95% CI = 5.81%-89.9%) higher mTOR expression. Similar associations were observed for the body fat measurements, particularly in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) tumors, but not in those with ER+ tumors, although the differences in associations were not significant. This tumor-based study found positive associations between body fatness and mTOR pathway activation, evident by a p-mTOR expression, in breast cancer. Our findings suggest that mTOR inhibition can be a treatment strategy to prevent the recurrence of these tumors in obese individuals.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited epidemiologic data are available on the expression of adipokines leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adipokine receptors (LEPR, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) in the breast tumor microenvironment (TME). The associations of gene expression of these biomarkers with tumor clinicopathology are not well understood. METHODS: NanoString multiplexed assays were used to assess the gene expression levels of LEP, LEPR, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 within tumor tissues among 162 Black and 55 White women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate associations of gene expression with breast tumor clinicopathology (overall and separately among Blacks). RESULTS: Black race was associated with lower gene expression of LEPR (P = 0.002) and ADIPOR1 (P = 0.01). Lower LEP, LEPR, and ADIPOQ gene expression were associated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.0007, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively) and larger tumor size (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0005, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Lower ADIPOQ expression was associated with ER- status (P = 0.0005), and HER2-enriched (HER2-E; P = 0.0003) and triple-negative (TN; P = 0.002) subtypes. Lower ADIPOR2 expression was associated with Ki67+ status (P = 0.0002), ER- status (P < 0.0001), PR- status (P < 0.0001), and TN subtype (P = 0.0002). Associations of lower adipokine and adipokine receptor gene expression with ER-, HER2-E, and TN subtypes were confirmed using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (P-values < 0.005). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lower expression of ADIPOQ, ADIPOR2, LEP, and LEPR in the breast TME might be indicators of more aggressive breast cancer phenotypes. Validation of these findings are warranted to elucidate the role of the adipokines and adipokine receptors in long-term breast cancer prognosis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are positively associated with time to menopause and breast cancer risk. We examined breast cancer associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AMH gene or its receptor genes, ACVR1 and AMHR2, among African American women. METHODS: In the AMBER consortium, we tested 65 candidate SNPs, and 1130 total variants, in or near AMH, ACVR1, and AMHR2 and breast cancer risk. Overall, 3649 cases and 4230 controls contributed to analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: After correction for multiple comparisons (false-discovery rate of 5%), there were no statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Without correction for multiple testing, four candidate SNPs in ACVR1 and one near AMH were associated with breast cancer risk. In ACVR1, rs13395576[C] was associated with lower breast cancer risk overall (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.97) and for ER+ disease (OR 0.75; CI 0.62, 0.89) (p < 0.05). Rs1220110[A] and rs1220134[T] each had ORs of 0.89-0.90 for postmenopausal and ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.03). Conversely, rs1682130[T] was associated with higher risk of ER+ breast cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04, 1.32). Near AMH, rs6510652[T] had ORs of 0.85-0.90 for breast cancer overall and after menopause (p ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The present results, from a large study of African American women, provide limited support for an association between AMH-related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and require replication in other studies.

13.
Semin Immunopathol ; 42(6): 719-734, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948909

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. It is associated with multiple symptoms in both patients and caregivers, such as stress, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and fatigue. Stress appears to promote cancer progression via activation of the sympathetic nervous system releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine as well as activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis releasing cortisol. These stress hormones have been shown to promote the proliferation of cancer cells. This review focuses on stress-reducing strategies which may decrease cancer progression by abrogating these pathways, with a main focus on the ß-adrenergic signaling pathway. Patients utilize both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies to reduce stress. Non-pharmacologic stress-reduction strategies include complementary and alternative medicine techniques, such as meditation, yoga, acupuncture, exercise, use of natural products, support groups and psychology counseling, herbal compounds, and multivitamins. Pharmacologic strategies include abrogating the ß2-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway to antagonize epinephrine and norepinephrine action on tumor and immune cells. ß-Blocker drugs may play a role in weakening the pro-migratory and pro-metastatic effects induced by stress hormones in cancer and strengthening the anti-tumor immune response. Preclinical models have shown that non-selective ß1/2-blocker use is associated with a decrease in tumor growth and metastases and clinical studies have suggested their positive impact on decreasing breast cancer recurrence and mortality. Thus, non-pharmacological approaches, along with pharmacological therapies part of clinical trials are available to cancer patients to reduce stress, and have promise to break the cycle of cancer and stress.

14.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-Hispanic black women (NHB) are diagnosed with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) more often than other ethnic or racial groups in the United States (US). This study describes regional differences in TNBC incidence among NHB women in the US from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: We analyzed data from the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) that includes incidence data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs. RESULTS: Compared to the incidence rate for NHB women in the South, rates were significantly lower in the Northeast (22.6 per 100,000), higher in the Midwest (25.5 per 100,000) and similar in the West. These regional differences might be explained by genetic admixture among people with different geographic ancestral origins. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study highlight the need to extend etiological research and evidence-based cancer prevention and control efforts to women at high risk of this disease in order to decrease cancer disparities.

15.
Cancer Res ; 80(22): 4871-4877, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816853

RESUMO

There are differential risk relationships between parity and breast cancer according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, with an increased risk of ER- disease reduced by breastfeeding. This may be particularly relevant for understanding the higher incidence of ER- tumors in Black women, who are more likely to be parous and less likely to breastfeed than other U.S. groups. Potential mechanisms for these relationships may include effects of disordered breast involution on inflammatory milieu in the breast as well as epigenetic reprogramming in the mammary gland, which can affect cell fate decisions in progenitor cell pools. In normal breast tissue, parity has been associated with hypermethylation of FOXA1, a pioneer transcription factor that promotes the luminal phenotype in luminal progenitors, while repressing the basal phenotype. In breast tumors, relationships between FOXA1 methylation and parity were strongest among women who did not breastfeed. Here, we summarize the epidemiologic literature regarding parity, breastfeeding, and breast cancer subtypes, and review potential mechanisms whereby these factors may influence breast carcinogenesis, with a focus on effects on progenitor cell pools in the mammary gland.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 62, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African American/Black women with breast cancer have poorer survival than White women, and this disparity persists even after adjusting for non-biological factors. Differences in tumor immune biology have been reported between Black and White women, and the tumor immune milieu could potentially drive racial differences in breast cancer etiology and outcome. METHODS: We examined the association of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells with clinical-pathological variables in the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS) population of predominantly Black breast cancer patients. We evaluated 688 invasive breast tumor samples (550 Black, 138 White) using immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarray slides. CD8+ T cells were scored for each patient tumor sample with digital image analysis. RESULTS: Black women had a significantly higher percentage of high-grade, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, and triple-negative tumors than White women and significantly higher CD8+ T cell density (median 87.6/mm2 vs. 53.1/mm2; p < 0.001). Within the overall population and in the population of Black women only, CD8+ T cell density was significantly higher in younger patients and patients with high-grade and ER/PR-negative tumors. No significant associations were observed between CD8+ T cell density and overall survival or breast cancer-specific survival in the overall population, or when Black patients were analyzed as a separate group. However, when stratified by subtype, Black women with triple-negative breast cancer and high CD8+ T cell density showed a trend towards better overall survival in comparison with patients with low CD8+ T cell density (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.25-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our data raise the possibility that distinct mechanisms of immune cell action may occur in different racial groups.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 182(2): 503-509, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the contribution of tumor genome biology to racial disparities of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is important for narrowing the cancer mortality gap between Black and White women. METHODS: We evaluated tumor somatic mutations using targeted sequencing of a customized panel of 151 genes and 15 copy number variations (CNVs) within a population of 133 TNBC patients, including 71 Black and 62 White women. RESULTS: The overall mutational burden between Black and White women with TNBC was not significantly different, with a median of 5 somatic changes per patient (point mutations and CNVs combined) for the customized panel (range 1-31 for Blacks vs. 1-26 for Whites; p = 0.76). Of the 151 genes examined, none were mutated at a significantly higher frequency in Black than in White cases, whereas two genes were mutated at a higher frequency in White cases-PIK3CA and NCOR1. No significant difference in the frequency of CNVs was observed between Black and White women with TNBC in our study population. CONCLUSION: Of gene mutations and CNVs in TNBC tumors from Black and White women, only PIK3CA and NCOR1 had significantly different, although slight, frequencies by race. These results indicate that overall differences observed in the mutation spectra between Black and White women with breast cancer are likely due to the differential distributions of breast cancer subtypes by race.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although physical activity has been consistently associated with reduced breast cancer mortality, evidence is largely based upon data collected at one occasion. We examined how pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity was associated with survival outcomes in high-risk breast cancer patients. METHODS: Included were 1,340 patients enrolled in the DELCaP Study, a prospective study of lifestyle and prognosis ancillary to a SWOG clinical trial (S0221). Activity before diagnosis, during treatment, and at one-and two-year intervals after enrollment were collected. Patients were categorized according to the Physical Activity Guidelines as meeting the minimum Guidelines (yes/no) and incrementally as inactive, low-active, moderately active (meeting the Guidelines), or high-active. RESULTS: In joint-exposure analyses, patients meeting the Guidelines before and one-year after diagnosis experienced statistically significant reductions in hazards of recurrence (HR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.42-0.82) and mortality (HR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77); associations were stronger at two-year follow-up for recurrence (HR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.31-0.65) and mortality (HR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.52). In time-dependent analyses, factoring in activity from all time points, we observed striking associations with mortality for low- (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.68), moderate- (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23-0.76), and high-active patients (HR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Meeting the minimum Guidelines for physical activity both before diagnosis and after treatment appears to be associated with statistically significantly reduced hazards of recurrence and mortality among breast cancer patients. When considering activity from all time points, including during treatment, lower volumes of regular activity were associated with similar overall survival advantages as meeting and exceeding the Guidelines.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...