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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211811

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the utilization rates and outcomes of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) placement among patients with advanced heart failure (HF). Objective: To examine utilization rates, patient characteristics, and outcomes of ICD and CRT-D placements among patients with advanced HF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a post hoc analysis of 81 492 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries enrolled in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry between January 2010 and December 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients who had received an HF diagnosis, had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, and showed evidence of advanced HF, which was defined as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV symptoms, inotrope use within the last 60 days, left ventricular assist device in situ, or orthotopic heart transplant listing. The comparator group included patients with NYHA class II and no HF hospitalization within the last 12 months, no left ventricular assist device, no orthotopic heart transplant listing, and no current or recent inotrope use. All eligible patients underwent first-time ICD or CRT-D placement for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Data were analyzed from January 2010 to December 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality and periprocedural complications. Results: Of 81 492 Medicare patients, 3343 had advanced HF (4.1%) and 19 424 were in the comparator group (23.8%). Among the advanced HF population, the mean (SD) age of patients was 74 (9) years, and patients were predominantly white individuals (81.5%) and men (71.1%). The all-cause mortality rate at 30 days was 3.1% (95% CI, 2.6%-3.8%) in the advanced HF group vs 0.5% (0.4%-0.6%) in the comparator group (P < .001). In the advanced HF population, the aggregate in-hospital periprocedural complication rate was 3.74% (95% CI, 3.12%-4.44%) vs 1.10% (95% CI, 0.95%-1.25%) in the comparator group (P < .001). Most adverse events in this group were in-hospital fatality (1.82%; 95% CI, 1.40%-2.34%) and resuscitated cardiac arrest (1.05%; 95% CI, 0.73%-1.45%). Patients with NYHA class IV (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.93; P = .04), ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48; P = .02), or diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.33; P = .01) had a higher risk of death. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing ICD or CRT-D placement for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death, only a small proportion had advanced HF. These patients experienced clinically important periprocedural complication rates associated with in-hospital death and cardiac arrest relative to patients with nonadvanced HF.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low transferrin saturation (TSAT) or reduced serum ferritin level are suggestive of iron deficiency but the relationship between iron parameters and outcomes has not been systematically evaluated in older adults with heart failure (HF) and anemia. METHODS: We identified a multicenter cohort of adults age ≥ 65 years with HF and incident anemia (hemoglobin <13 g/dL [men] or < 12 g/dL [women]) between 2005 and 2012. Patients were included if ferritin (ng/mL) and TSAT (%) were evaluated within 90 days of incident anemia. HF hospitalizations and all-cause death were ascertained from electronic health records. RESULTS: Among 4103 older adults with HF and incident anemia, 47% had TSAT <20% and the median (IQR) ferritin was 126 (53, 256) ng/mL. In multivariable analyses, compared with TSAT ≥20%, patients with TSAT <20% were at increased risk of HF hospitalization for serum ferritin <100 ng/mL (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.40, 95% CI:1.16-1.70) and 100-300 ng/mL (aHR 1.24, 95% CI:1.01-1.52) but not for a ferritin >300 ng/mL (aHR 0.89, 95% CI 0.65-1.23). In addition, TSAT <20% was independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause death regardless of serum ferritin level (<100 ng/mL: aHR 1.42, 95% CI:1.20-1.68; 100-300 ng/mL: aHR 1.18, 95% CI:1.00-1.38; >300 ng/mL: aHR 1.33, 95% CI:1.06-1.69). CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults with HF and incident anemia who had iron studies tested, nearly half had a TSAT <20%, which was independently associated with higher rates of morbidity and death.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212297

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-cardiac comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). Our objective was to define the association between non-cardiac comorbidity burden and clinical outcomes, costs of care, and length of stay within a large randomized trial of acute HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with complete medical history for the following comorbidities were included: diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease, history of cancer within the last 5 years, chronic renal disease (baseline serum creatinine >3.0 mg/mL), current smoking, alcohol abuse, depression, anaemia, peripheral arterial disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients were classified by overall burden of non-cardiac comorbidities (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4+). Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to assess associations between comorbidity burden and 30-day all-cause death or HF hospitalization and 180-day all-cause death in addition to costs of care and length of stay. A total of 6945 patients were included in the final analysis. Mean comorbidity number was 2.2 (± 1.34). Patients with 4+ comorbidities had higher rates of 30-day all-cause death/HF hospitalization as compared with patients with no comorbidities [odds ratio (OR) 3.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-6.84; P < 0.01]. Similar results were seen with respect to 180-day death (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.33-3.43; P < 0.01). Higher comorbidity burden was associated with higher 180-day costs of care and length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Higher comorbidity burden is associated with poor clinical outcomes, higher costs of care, and extended length of stay. Further studies are needed to define the impact of comorbidity management programmes on outcomes for HF patients.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108984

RESUMO

AIMS: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces mortality in patients with heart failure and current guidelines advise implantation of ICDs in patients with a life expectancy of >1 year. We examined trends in all-cause mortality in patients who underwent primary or secondary prevention ICD placement in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System. METHODS AND RESULTS: US veterans receiving a new ICD placement for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death between January 2007 and January 2015, who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were included in the analysis. We assessed all-cause mortality 1 year post-ICD implantation. ICD implantation and HFrEF diagnosis were established with associated ICD-9 codes. The VA death registry was utilized to identify mortality rates following ICD placement. Results were subsequently age-stratified. There were 17 901 veterans with HFrEF with ICD placement nationwide. There was no statistically significant difference in 1-year mortality from 2007 (13.1%) to 2014 (13.4%, P > 0.05). There was a significant increase in 1-year mortality in patients in the oldest age quartile (81.6 years, 32.3% mortality) compared to the youngest quartile (55.5 years, 7% mortality). The finding of diverging clinical outcomes extended to the 30-day but also 8-year mark. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest there is a high 1-year mortality in aging HFrEF patients undergoing primary and secondary prevention ICD placement. This highlights the importance of developing better predictive models for mortality in our ICD eligible patient population.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933144

RESUMO

Patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for early readmission. A post hoc analysis was performed of the biomarker substudy of the ASCEND-HF trial. An in-hospital congestion score was derived using orthopnea, pedal edema, and NT-proBNP levels. Its added prognostic value beyond traditional risk factors was assessed by determining the net reclassification index (NRI). Study participants (n = 884) had a median age (years) of 67 (55-77), 68% were male, and the median (25th-75th) ejection fraction (%) was 26 (20-40). After adjustment, increasing congestion score was associated with 30-day all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.77, p < 0.001) and 180-day all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% CI 1.28-1.72, p < 0.001). However, adding the congestion score to the multivariable model did not significantly impact the NRI. A higher in-hospital congestion score portended a poor short-term prognosis but did not significantly reclassify risk.

8.
Am Heart J ; 220: 97-107, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is closely linked to health status and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. We aimed to test whether biomarkers can reflect CRF and its change over time. METHODS: This post hoc analysis used data from ambulatory cohorts of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (IRONOUT) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (RELAX). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and 16- or 24-week follow-up (for IRONOUT and RELAX respectively). Biomarkers included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor-15, and Galectin-3. RESULTS: Analysis included 225 patients with HFrEF and 216 with HFpEF. Baseline peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, and 6MWD showed a mild correlation with the doubling of all 4 tested biomarkers in HFrEF and HFpEF. Following multivariable adjustment (including all biomarkers), the only significant association between change in biomarker and functional parameter in HFrEF was change in NT-proBNP and change in VE/VCO2 slope (3.596% increase per doubling, 95% CI 0.779-6.492, P = .012). In HFpEF, a decrease in peak VO2 was associated with an increase in NT-proBNP (-0.726 mL/min/kg per doubling, 95% CI -1.100 to -0.353, P < .001), and a decrease in 6MWD was associated with an increase in growth differentiation factor-15 (-31.606 m per doubling, 95% CI -61.404 to -1.809, P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: In these ambulatory trial cohorts, NT-proBNP was associated with baseline and change in CRF in HFrEF and HFpEF. In contrast, novel biomarkers do not appear suitable as a reliable surrogate for serial assessment of exercise capacity in HF patients given lack of consistent independent association with CRF beyond traditional risk factors and NT-proBNP.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(4): 534-541, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848029

RESUMO

The association between statins and diabetes mellitus (DM) remains controversial. The Kaiser Permanente CHAMP Study identified adults without DM who had cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and no previous lipid lowering therapy (LLT) between 2008 and 2010. The CV risk factors included known atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl, or a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 70 and 189 mg/dl and an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. Incident DM was defined as ≥2 abnormal tests (i.e., A1C ≥6.5% or a fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl) or ≥1 abnormal test result plus a new diagnostic code or medication for DM. Among 213,289 eligible adults, 28,149 patients initiating statins were carefully matched to an equal number of patients who remained off LLT during follow-up. Compared with matched patients not receiving statins, those initiating statin therapy had the same mean age (67.9 ± 9.4 years) and gender (42.8% women). The crude rate (per 100 person-years) of incident DM was low (0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52 to 0.59) but was marginally higher in patients who were treated with a statin (0.69, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.74) versus no LLT (0.42, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.46). After additional adjustment, statin therapy was associated with a modestly increased risk of incident DM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.34). In conclusion, in adults without DM at increased ASCVD risk, initiation of statin therapy was independently associated with a modestly higher risk of incident DM.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825471

RESUMO

Importance: In PIONEER-HF, among stabilized patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), the in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan was well tolerated and led to improved outcomes compared with enalapril. However, there are limited data comparing the strategies of in-hospital vs postdischarge initiation of sacubitril/valsartan. Objective: To describe changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in patients recently hospitalized for ADHF and switching from taking enalapril to taking sacubitril/valsartan after discharge and compare clinical outcomes for patients randomized to receive in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan vs in-hospital initiation of enalapril who later switched to taking sacubitril/valsartan during an open-label extension phase. Interventions: Sacubitril/valsartan titrated to 97/103 mg twice daily. Design, Setting, and Participants: The PIONEER-HF trial was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial conducted at 129 US sites between May 2016 and May 2018 that compared the in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan vs enalapril (titrated to target dose, 10 mg twice daily) for 8 weeks among patients admitted for ADHF with reduced ejection fraction and hemodynamic stability. All patients were to continue in a 4-week, open-label study of sacubitril/valsartan; of 881 patients enrolled in PIONEER-HF, 832 (94%) continued in the open-label study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in NT-proBNP levels from week 8 to 12 as well as the exploratory composite of heart failure rehospitalization or cardiovascular death from randomization through week 12. Results: Of 881 participants, 226 (27.7%) were women, 487 (58.5%) were white, 297 (35.7%) were black, 15 (1.8%) were Asian, and 73 (8.8%) were of Hispanic ethnicity; the mean (SD) age was 61 (14) years. For patients who continued to take sacubitril/valsartan, NT-proBNP levels declined -17.2% (95% CI, -3.2 to -29.1) from week 8 to 12. The NT-proBNP levels declined to a greater extent for those switching from taking enalapril to sacubitril/valsartan after the week 8 visit (-37.4%; 95% CI, -28.1 to -45.6; P < .001; comparing changes in 2 groups). Over the entire 12 weeks of follow-up, patients that began taking sacubitril/valsartan in the hospital had a lower hazard for the composite outcome compared with patients that initiated enalapril in the hospital and then had a delayed initiation of sacubitril/valsartan 8 weeks later (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI 0.49-0.97). Conclusions and Relevance: Switching patients' treatment from enalapril to sacubitril/valsartan at 8 weeks after randomization led to a further 37% reduction in NT-proBNP levels in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and a recent hospitalization for ADHF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02554890.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863532

RESUMO

AIMS: Worsening heart failure (HF) is associated with shorter left ventricular systolic ejection time (SET), but there are limited data describing the relationship between SET and clinical outcomes. Thus, the objective was to describe the association between SET and clinical outcomes in an ambulatory HF population irrespective of ejection fraction (EF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified ambulatory patients with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) and HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) who had an outpatient transthoracic echocardiogram performed between August 2008 and July 2010 at a tertiary referral centre. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between SET and 1-year outcomes. A total of 545 HF patients (171 HFrEF, 374 HFpEF) met eligibility criteria. Compared with HFpEF, HFrEF patients were younger [median age 60 years (25th-75th percentiles 50-69) vs. 64 years (25th-75th percentiles 53-74], with fewer females (30% vs. 56%) and a similar percentage of African Americans (36% vs. 35%). Median (25th-75th percentiles) EF with HFrEF was 30% (25-35%) and with HFpEF was 54% (48-58%). Median SET was shorter (280 ms vs. 315 ms, P < 0.001), median pre-ejection period was longer (114 ms vs. 89 ms, P < 0.001), and median relaxation time was shorter (78.7 ms vs. 93.3 ms, P < 0.001) among patients with HFrEF vs. HFpEF. Death or HF hospitalization occurred in 26.9% (n = 46) HFrEF and 11.8% (n = 44) HFpEF patients. After adjustment, longer SET was associated with lower odds of the composite of death or HF hospitalization at 1 year among HFrEF but not HFpEF patients. CONCLUSION: Longer SET is independently associated with improved outcomes among HFrEF patients but not HFpEF patients, supporting a potential role for normalizing SET as a therapeutic strategy with systolic dysfunction.

13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663094

RESUMO

Importance: A deceleration in the rate of decrease of heart disease (HD) mortality between 2011 and 2014 has been reported. In the context of the rapid increase in the population of adults aged 65 years and older, extending the examination of HD mortality through 2017 has potentially important implications for public health and medical care. Objective: To examine changes in the age-adjusted mortality rate and the number of deaths within subcategories of HD from 2011 to 2017 in conjunction with the change in the size of the US population during the same period. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this quality improvement study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (CDC WONDER) data set was used to identify national changes in the US population aged 65 years and older and in the age-adjusted mortality rates and number of deaths that were listed with an underlying cause of HD, coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and other HDs from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes from 2011 to 2017 in the US population and in age-adjusted mortality rates and number of deaths that were listed with an underlying cause of HD, CHD, heart failure (both as an underlying and a contributing cause), and other HDs overall, by sex and race/ethnicity. Results: The total size of this population of US adults aged 65 years and older increased 22.9% from 41.4 million to 50.9 million between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2017, while the population of adults younger than 65 years increased by only 1.7%. During this period, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased 5.0% for HD and 14.9% for CHD while increasing 20.7% for heart failure and 8.4% for other HDs. The number of deaths increased 8.5% for HD, 38.0% for heart failure, and 23.4% for other HDs while decreasing 2.5% for CHD. A total of 80% of HD deaths occurred in the group of adults aged 65 years and older. Conclusions and Relevance: The substantial increase in the growth rate of the group of adults aged 65 years and older who have the highest risk of HD was associated with an increase in the number of HD deaths in this group despite a slowly declining HD mortality rate in the general population. With the number of adults aged 65 years and older projected to increase an additional 44% from 2017 to 2030, innovative and effective approaches to prevent and treat HD, particularly the substantially increasing rates of heart failure, are needed.

17.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(9): 1097-1105, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (HF) patients with renal insufficiency and risk factors for diuretic resistance may be most likely to derive incremental improvement in congestion with the addition of spironolactone. METHODS: The Aldosterone Targeted Neurohormonal Combined with Natriuresis Therapy in Heart Failure (ATHENA-HF) trial randomized 360 acute HF patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction to spironolactone 100 mg daily or usual care for 96 hours. The current analysis assessed the effects of study therapy within tertiles of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subgroups at heightened risk for diuretic resistance. RESULTS: Across eGFR tertiles, there was no incremental benefit of high-dose spironolactone on any efficacy endpoint, including changes in log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and signs and symptoms of congestion (all P for interaction ≥ 0.06). High-dose spironolactone had no significant effect on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide reduction regardless of blood pressure, diabetes mellitus status, and loop diuretic dose (all P for interaction ≥ 0.38). In-hospital changes in serum potassium and creatinine were similar between treatment groups for all GFR tertiles (all P for interaction ≥ 0.18). Rates of inpatient worsening HF, 30-day worsening HF, and 60-day all-cause mortality were numerically higher among patients with lower baseline eGFR, but relative effects of study treatment did not differ with renal function (all P for interaction ≥ 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: High-dose spironolactone did not improve congestion over usual care among patients with acute HF, irrespective of renal function and risk factors for diuretic resistance. In-hospital initiation or continuation of spironolactone was safe during the inpatient stay, even when administered at high doses to patients with moderate renal dysfunction.

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