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1.
Child Dev ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411288

RESUMO

A fundamental part of understanding structural inequality is recognizing that constrained choices, particularly those that align with societal stereotypes, are poor indicators of a person's desires. This study examined whether children (N = 246 U.S. children, 53% female; 61% White, 24% Latinx; 5-10 years) acknowledge constraints in this way when reasoning about gender-stereotypical choices, relative to gender-neutral and gender-counterstereotypical choices. Results indicated that children more frequently inferred preferences regardless of whether the actor was constrained when reasoning about gender-stereotypical choices, as compared to gender-neutral or gender-counterstereotypical choices. We also found evidence of an age-related increase in the general tendency to acknowledge constraints. We discuss the broader implications of these results for children's understanding of constraints within society.

2.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Child Dev ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109611

RESUMO

Children live in a world where disagreement is commonplace. Although disagreement can sometimes be explained by differences in people's reliability, disagreement may also indicate that the referent elicits multiple perspectives. The present studies (total N = 129, 5- to 12-year-old ethnically diverse U.S. children, 42% girls) examined children's ability to resolve disagreement among two individuals by identifying referents that integrated the perspectives, and considered the extent to which any age-related change could be explained by epistemological understanding (i.e., acknowledging that two perspectives can be right). Children's age was positively correlated with their ability to integrate perspectives, and children performed at above-chance levels by approximately 10 years of age. Age differences in integrating perspectives were partially accounted for by epistemological understanding.

4.
Child Dev ; 91(2): 661-678, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927372

RESUMO

This daily diary study examined how adolescents' institutional and teacher-specific trust predicted classroom behavioral engagement the day after being disciplined by that teacher. Within mathematics classrooms, adolescents (N = 190; Mage  = 14 years) reported institutional and teacher-specific trust and then completed a 15-day diary assessing teacher discipline and behavioral engagement. The results indicated that, among adolescents with low teacher trust, discipline was unrelated to next-day behavior. Contrastingly, adolescents with high teacher but low institutional trust became less engaged following discipline, whereas those with high teacher and institutional trust became more engaged. These findings suggest that adolescents interpret discipline within the social context of trust, and adolescents' trust in the institution and teacher are important for discipline to improve behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Professores Escolares , Meio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Confiança , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Punição , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Am Psychol ; 75(1): 23-36, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081648

RESUMO

Although minor misconduct is normative in adolescence, such behavior may be met with punishment in American schools. As part of a punitive disciplinary approach, teachers may give adolescents official infractions for minor misconduct-that is, a minor infraction-presumably to deter future problem behavior. This article investigates three arguments that challenge the wisdom of this assumption and considers the potentially detrimental effects of minor infractions: (a) minor infractions increase, rather than deter, adolescents' defiant behavior; (b) these effects are exacerbated among adolescents who are highly attached to school; and (c) teachers' punishment of minor misconduct may be racially biased, resulting in African American students receiving more minor infractions than White students. To test these hypotheses, 729 adolescents' school disciplinary records were analyzed over 1 academic year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted to assess (a) if receiving minor infractions predicted later increases in infractions for defiant behavior at the within-student level, (b) whether adolescents' attachment to school moderated this association, and (c) if a disparity existed between African American and White students' average level of minor infractions. Results indicated that minor infractions predicted subsequent rises in defiant behavior, and this link was exacerbated for adolescents who reported initially high levels, but not low levels, of school attachment. Furthermore, African American students received more minor infractions than White students, controlling for a host of risk factors for school misconduct. Findings are discussed in relation to American school discipline policies and African Americans' persistent overrepresentation in school discipline and the criminal justice system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1218-1233, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903366

RESUMO

The role of older siblings in younger siblings' academic socialization becomes increasingly salient during adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the developmental mechanisms through which older siblings shape younger siblings' academic outcomes and whether older siblings' peer affiliations predict younger siblings' educational aspirations and attainment. Data consisted of responses from 395 target adolescents (Mage = 12.22 years, 48.9% female; 51.6% African American, 38.5% European American) and their older siblings (Mage = 14.65 years, 50.1% female) across nine years. The findings showed that older siblings' affiliation with academically disengaged peers at 7th grade predicted younger siblings' decreased affiliation with academically engaged peers and increased affiliation with disengaged peers at 9th grade. In addition, younger siblings' affiliation with academically engaged peers predicted greater educational aspirations at 11th grade, which in turn were related to higher postsecondary educational attainment. The identification of developmental processes through which older siblings were associated with younger siblings' academic success may aid in creating supportive social environments in which adolescents can thrive.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Relações entre Irmãos , Irmãos/psicologia , Socialização , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Psicologia do Adolescente , Meio Social
7.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(2): 269-286, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276598

RESUMO

Research proposing that mindset interventions promote student achievement has been conducted at a frenetic pace nationwide in the United States, with many studies yielding mixed results. The present study explores the hypothesis that mindset interventions are beneficial for students only under specific circumstances. Using a randomized controlled trial with student-level random assignment within two public schools (School 1: n = 198 seventh-graders, 73% Black, 27% White, 53% male; School 2: n = 400 ninth-graders, 98% White, 2% Black, 52% male), this trial conceptually integrated elements from three evidence-based mindset interventions. It then examined two theoretically driven moderators of student performance following the transition to middle or high school: students' racial backgrounds and students' educational expectations. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for a particular subset of students-Black students with high educational expectations-resulting in higher grades over the course of the year. Among students with low educational expectations (regardless of race), the intervention did not impact grades. For White students with high educational expectations, the control activities actually benefitted grades more than the mindset intervention. Both theoretical and practical implications for mindset research are discussed.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Atenção Plena/métodos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
8.
J Sch Psychol ; 69: 127-142, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558748

RESUMO

Using stereotype threat and motivational resilience theories as the guiding frameworks, this study examined how African American adolescents' academic coping strategies (i.e., problem solving, help seeking, self-encouragement, comfort seeking, and commitment) were associated with academic achievement, and whether these associations varied by adolescents' gender and perceptions of school climate (i.e., school mastery goal structure and support for cultural pluralism). Data were collected from 274 African American seventh graders (Mage = 12.84 years; 55% female; 91% low-income). Results suggested that associations between academic coping and achievement depended on adolescents' gender and school climate perceptions. Problem solving was associated with higher achievement for males only. Comfort seeking was associated with lower achievement among females and for adolescents who perceived their schools to be less mastery-oriented. Commitment related to lower achievement among males who perceived less supportive school climates. Importantly, self-encouragement was associated with higher achievement among males who perceived greater school support for cultural pluralism. Replication analyses with White adolescents from the same schools indicated that these findings were unique to African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Estereotipagem , Estudantes/psicologia
9.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 87: 9-16, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875523

RESUMO

Permanency is a key child welfare system goal for the children they serve. This study addresses three key research questions: (1) How do older youth in foster care define their personal permanency goals? (2) How much progress have these youth made in achieving their personal permanency goals and other aspects of relational permanency, and how does this vary by gender, race, and age? and (3) What transition-related outcomes are associated with relational permanency achievement? Surveys were conducted with 97 youth between the ages of 14 and 20 currently in care. Over three-fourths of participants had an informal/relational permanency goal; however, only 6.7% had achieved their goal. Of eight additional conceptualizations of relational permanency assessed, the one associated with achievement of the highest number of key transition outcomes was Sense of Family Belonging. The transition outcomes with the most associations with permanency achievement were physical health and mental health. Relational permanency is a highly personal part of the transition process for youth in care, warranting personalized supports to ensure individual youths' goals are being addressed in transition planning. Permanency achievement may also provide a foundation for supporting youth in achieving other key transition outcomes.

10.
J Res Adolesc ; 27(4): 765-781, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152865

RESUMO

Although many young offenders desist from crime during adolescence, little is known about this process. This study used a qualitative approach to elucidate adolescent offenders' experiences in desisting from crime. Thirty-nine male adolescent offenders (Mage  = 16.59 years) participated in a semistructured interview about the desistance process. One of four themes characterized adolescents' reflections on their own desistance: having a psychological reorientation, reacting to consequences, persisting, or being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Adolescents discussed five agentic moves they make to facilitate desistance: seeking and maintaining supportive relationships, navigating peer groups, working toward long-term goals, structuring time, and finding sanctuaries from the outside. These findings highlight adolescents' strengths, resources, and active role in desisting from crime.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Autonomia Pessoal , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(9): 1982-1998, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299495

RESUMO

Although sport involvement has the potential to enhance psychological wellbeing, studies have suggested that motivation to participate in sports activities declines across childhood and adolescence. This study incorporated expectancy-value theory to model children's sport ability self-concept and subjective task values trajectories from first to twelfth grade. Additionally, it examined if sport motivation trajectories predicted individual and team-based sport participation and whether sport participation in turn reduced the development of depressive symptoms. Data were drawn from the Childhood and Beyond Study, a cross-sequential longitudinal study comprised of three cohorts (N = 1065; 49% male; 92% European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave were 6.42, 7.39, and 9.36 years, respectively). Results revealed four trajectories of students' co-development of sport self-concept and task values: congruent stable high, incongruent stable high, middle school decreasing, and decreasing. Trajectory membership predicted individual and team-based sports participation, but only team-based sport participation predicted faster declines in depressive symptoms. The use of a person-centered approach enabled us to identify heterogeneity in trajectories of sport motivation that can aid in the development of nuanced strategies to increase students' motivation to participate in sports.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Autoimagem , Participação Social/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
12.
Dev Psychopathol ; 29(3): 819-835, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27416789

RESUMO

Longitudinal investigations that have applied Moffitt's dual taxonomic framework to criminal offending have provided support for the existence of adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial individuals, but have also identified additional trajectories. For instance, rather than a single persistent trajectory, studies have found both high-level and moderate-level persistent offenders. To inform theory and progress our understanding of chronic antisocial behavior, the present study used a sample of serious adolescent offenders (N =1,088) followed from middle adolescence to early adulthood (14-25 years), and examined how moderate-level persistent offenders differed from low-rate, desisting, and high-level persistent offenders. Results indicated that moderate-level persisters' etiology and criminal offense patterns were most similar to high-level persisters, but there were notable differences. Specifically, increasing levels of contextual adversity characterized both moderate-level and high-level persisting trajectories, but moderate-level persisters reported consistently lower levels of environmental risk. While both high- and moderate-level persisters committed more drug-related offenses in early adulthood compared to adolescence, moderate-level persisters engaged in lower levels of antisocial behavior across all types of criminal offenses. Taken cumulatively, the findings of this study suggest that sociocontextual interventions may be powerful in reducing both moderate- and high-level persistence in crime.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(8): 1743-1757, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27942932

RESUMO

Adolescents often avoid seeking academic help when needed, making it important to understand the motivational processes that support help seeking behavior. Using expectancy-value theory as a framework, this study examined transactional relations between motivational beliefs (i.e., academic self-concept or academic importance) and seeking help from teachers and peers across adolescence (i.e., from approximately age 12 to 17 years). Data were collected from 1479 adolescents (49% female; 61.9% African American, 31.2% European American, 6.9% other race). Analyses were conducted with cross-lagged panel models using three waves of data from seventh, ninth, and eleventh grade. Results indicated that both academic self-concept and academic importance were associated with increases in teacher help seeking in earlier adolescence, but were associated only with increases in peer help seeking in later adolescence. Help-seeking behavior positively influenced motivational beliefs, with teacher help seeking increasing academic self-concept earlier in adolescence and peer help seeking increasing academic importance later in adolescence. These transactional relations differed by adolescents' prior achievement and racial background, but not by adolescents' gender.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Motivação , Autoimagem , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Professores Escolares
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