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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460

RESUMO

p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689163

RESUMO

The reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has proven to be a powerful system creating new opportunities to interrogate molecular mechanisms controlling cell fate determination. Under standard conditions, the generation of iPSCs upon overexpression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC (OSKM) is generally slow and inefficient due to the presence of barriers that confer resistance to cell fate changes. Hyperactivated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as a major reprogramming barrier that impedes the initial mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) step to form iPSCs from mesenchymal somatic cells. Here, we describe several systems to detect ER stress in the context of OSKM reprogramming and chemical interventions to modulate this process for improving iPSC formation.

3.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(2): 300-314.e11, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396862

RESUMO

RNA editing of adenosine to inosine (A to I) is catalyzed by ADAR1 and dramatically alters the cellular transcriptome, although its functional roles in somatic cell reprogramming are largely unexplored. Here, we show that loss of ADAR1-mediated A-to-I editing disrupts mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) during induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming and impedes acquisition of induced pluripotency. Using chemical and genetic approaches, we show that absence of ADAR1-dependent RNA editing induces aberrant innate immune responses through the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensor MDA5, unleashing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hindering epithelial fate acquisition. We found that A-to-I editing impedes MDA5 sensing and sequestration of dsRNAs encoding membrane proteins, which promote ER homeostasis by activating the PERK-dependent unfolded protein response pathway to consequently facilitate MET. This study therefore establishes a critical role for ADAR1 and its A-to-I editing activity during cell fate transitions and delineates a key regulatory layer underlying MET to control efficient reprogramming.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Edição de RNA , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Inosina/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla
4.
Life Sci Alliance ; 3(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284354

RESUMO

BMAL1 is essential for the regulation of circadian rhythms in differentiated cells and adult stem cells, but the molecular underpinnings of its function in pluripotent cells, which hold a great potential in regenerative medicine, remain to be addressed. Here, using transient and permanent loss-of-function approaches in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we reveal that although BMAL1 is dispensable for the maintenance of the pluripotent state, its depletion leads to deregulation of transcriptional programs linked to cell differentiation commitment. We further confirm that depletion of Bmal1 alters the differentiation potential of ESCs in vitro. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that BMAL1 participates in the regulation of energy metabolism maintaining a low mitochondrial function which is associated with pluripotency. Loss-of-function of Bmal1 leads to the deregulation of metabolic gene expression associated with a shift from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism. Our results highlight the important role that BMAL1 plays at the exit of pluripotency in vitro and provide evidence implicating a non-canonical circadian function of BMAL1 in the metabolic control for cell fate determination.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Glicólise , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia
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