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1.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 112-118, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438383

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a new zoonotic disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Since its emergence in Wuhan City, China, the virus has rapidly spread across the globe causing calamitous health, economic and societal consequences. It causes disproportionately severe disease in the elderly and those with co-morbidities, such as hypertension and diabetes. There is currently no proven treatment for COVID-19 and a safe and effective vaccine is at least a year away. The virus gains access to the respiratory epithelium through cell surface angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the virus is unlikely to mutate without loss of pathogenicity and thus represents an attractive target for antiviral treatment. Inhaled modified recombinant human ACE2, may bind SARS-CoV-2 and mitigate lung damage. This decoy strategy is unlikely to provoke an adverse immune response and may reduce morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Administração por Inalação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/administração & dosagem , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of NFKB1 variants are being identified in patients with heterogeneous immunologic phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and cellular phenotype as well as the management of patients with heterozygous NFKB1 mutations. METHODS: In a worldwide collaborative effort, we evaluated 231 individuals harboring 105 distinct heterozygous NFKB1 variants. To provide evidence for pathogenicity, each variant was assessed in silico; in addition, 32 variants were assessed by functional in vitro testing of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-κB) signaling. RESULTS: We classified 56 of the 105 distinct NFKB1 variants in 157 individuals from 68 unrelated families as pathogenic. Incomplete clinical penetrance (70%) and age-dependent severity of NFKB1-related phenotypes were observed. The phenotype included hypogammaglobulinemia (88.9%), reduced switched memory B cells (60.3%), and respiratory (83%) and gastrointestinal (28.6%) infections, thus characterizing the disorder as primary immunodeficiency. However, the high frequency of autoimmunity (57.4%), lymphoproliferation (52.4%), noninfectious enteropathy (23.1%), opportunistic infections (15.7%), autoinflammation (29.6%), and malignancy (16.8%) identified NF-κB1-related disease as an inborn error of immunity with immune dysregulation, rather than a mere primary immunodeficiency. Current treatment includes immunoglobulin replacement and immunosuppressive agents. CONCLUSIONS: We present a comprehensive clinical overview of the NF-κB1-related phenotype, which includes immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, autoinflammation, and cancer. Because of its multisystem involvement, clinicians from each and every medical discipline need to be made aware of this autosomal-dominant disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and NF-κB1 pathway-targeted therapeutic strategies should be considered in the future.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827542

RESUMO

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a rare group of primary immune defects, where the underlying cause is unknown. Approximately 10-20% of patients with typical CVID have a granulomatous variant, which has closely overlapping features with sarcoidosis. Case presentation: Here we describe a young man who sequentially developed refractory Evans syndrome, cauda equina syndrome and most recently renal impairment. Following immunosuppression, he has made a recovery from all three life-threatening autoimmune disorders. As the patient was hypogammaglobulinemic for most of the time while on immunosuppression, vaccine challenges and other tests were not possible. Histological features were in keeping with sarcoidosis rather than the granulomatous variant of CVID. In the brief period when immunosuppression was lifted between the cauda equina syndrome and renal impairment, he normalised his immunoglobulins, confirming sarcoidosis rather than CVID was the underlying cause. Conclusion: We discuss diagnostic difficulties distinguishing the two conditions, and the value of histological features in our diagnostic criteria for CVID in identifying sarcoidosis, while the patient was hypogammaglobulinemic. The key message from this case report is that the characteristic histological features of CVID can be very helpful in making (or excluding) the diagnosis, particularly when other tests are not possible.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720921

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency in adults. At this time, the causes of these conditions are unknown. Patients with CVID experience immune system failure consequent to late onset antibody failure. They have increased susceptibility to infections and are also at risk of severe autoimmune and inflammatory disorders as a result of immune dysregulation. An increasing number of monogenic causes as well as a digenic disorder have been described in patients with a CVID phenotype. If a causative mutation is identified, patients are removed from the umbrella diagnosis of CVID and are reclassified as having a CVID-like disorder, resulting from a specific mutation. In non-consanguineous populations, next-generation sequencing (NGS) identifies a genetic cause in approximately 25% of patients with a CVID phenotype. It is six years since we published our diagnostic criteria for CVID. There is ongoing debate about diagnostic criteria, the role of vaccine responses and genetic analysis in the diagnosis of CVID. There have been several recent studies, which have addressed some of these uncertainties. Here we review this new evidence from the perspective of our CVID diagnostic criteria and speculate on future approaches, which may assist in identifying and assessing this group of enigmatic disorders.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379811

RESUMO

Background: Adults with primary hypogammaglobulinemia are frequently encountered by clinicians. Where IgG levels are markedly decreased, most patients are treated with subcutaneous or intravenous immunoglobulin (SCIG/IVIG), because of the presumed risk of severe infections. The natural history of untreated severe asymptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia is thus unknown. Similarly, there are no long-term prospective studies examining the natural history of patients with moderate reductions in IgG. Methods: In 2006, we began a prospective cohort study of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic reductions in IgG who were not immediately commenced on SCIG/IVIG. Over the course of 12 years, 120 patients were enrolled in the NZ hypogammaglobulinemia study (NZHS) including 59 who were asymptomatic. Results: Five patients with profound primary hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG < 3 g/l), who were not on regular SCIG/IVIG have remained well for a mean duration of 139 months. This study has also shown most asymptomatic patients with moderate hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG 3.0-6.9 g/l) have been in good health for a mean observation period of 96 months. We have only identified one asymptomatic patient with moderate hypogammaglobulinemia who experienced progressive decline in IgG levels to <3 g/l and was accepted for IVIG replacement. Prospective monitoring has shown that none have suffered catastrophic infections or any of the severe autoimmune or inflammatory sequelae associated with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID). Unexpectedly, 18.1% of asymptomatic and 41.6% of symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemic patients spontaneously increased their IgG into the normal range (≥7.0 g/l) on at least one occasion, which we have termed transient hypogammaglobulinemia of adulthood (THA). In this study, vaccine challenge responses have correlated poorly with symptomatic state and long-term prognosis including subsequent SCIG/IVIG treatment. Conclusions: In spite of our favorable experience, we recommend patients with severe asymptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia are treated with SCIG/IVIG because of the potential risk of severe infections. Patients with moderate asymptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia have a good prognosis. Patients with symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia are a heterogeneous group where some progress to SCIG/IVIG replacement, while many others spontaneously recover. This study has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of CVID.

9.
Vaccine ; 36(38): 5796-5802, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess if hepatitis B vaccination in adults is causally associated with autoimmune diseases. Such causation has been claimed based mainly on case reports and uncontrolled studies, and a syndrome 'Autoimmune/autoinflammatory Disorder Induced by Adjuvants' (ASIA) has been claimed to be linked to immunization, particularly hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: Review of peer-reviewed literature from January 1990 to March 2017 identifying controlled studies with documented incidence of autoimmune diseases occurring after hepatitis B vaccinations in adults. From 1297 studies identified, 259 were further assessed and 49 reviewed further; 19 relevant papers reporting 21 results are reviewed here, and 14 results included in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall no association between hepatitis B vaccination and the onset of autoimmune diseases was seen. The overall odds ratio was 1.06, with 95% confidence limits of 0.93-1.21, with non-significant heterogeneity. Only one study showed a significant excess risk between hepatitis B immunisation and autoimmune disease. CONCLUSIONS: Despite multiple case reports, there is no reliable scientific evidence of autoimmune diseases being caused by hepatitis B vaccinations.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos
10.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 67(6): 749-754, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 2012 European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guideline for diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) questioned the requirement for intestinal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. The guideline recommends that in symptomatic patients with consistent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) subtypes, the diagnostic accuracy of strongly positive serology is sufficient to confirm the diagnosis. We prospectively assessed these guidelines in a "real-life" clinical setting. METHODS: One hundred and four children referred for evaluation of possible CD were prospectively recruited. Following informed consent, blood was drawn for serological testing and HLA analysis at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histological findings according to Marsh criteria were correlated with blood results and the accuracy of the guideline analyzed.The study also examined the role of deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) in the diagnosis of CD. RESULTS: For symptomatic patients with consistent HLA subtypes, strongly positive serology (as described in the ESPGHAN guidelines) accurately predicted biopsy-proven CD in >95% of cases. DGP was positive in fewer patients than anti-TG2 or EMA. Incorporation of DGP as a second confirmatory serological test in place of EMA was associated with maintained predictive value of guideline, but fewer patients fulfilling criteria for biopsy-free diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The ESPGHAN guideline performs well in our population. Adoption of the guideline would reduce the number of patients requiring endoscopy without compromise in diagnostic accuracy. The involvement of pediatric gastroenterological expertise, however, remains key to diagnosis of CD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Gastroenterologia/normas , Ciências da Nutrição/normas , Pediatria/normas , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Gliadina/sangue , Antígenos HLA/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Peptídeos/sangue , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Transglutaminases/imunologia
11.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(7): 549-556, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immune defect in adults. Within the broad spectrum of CVID, a proportion of patients present with a predominant T cell phenotype associated with increased mortality. These patients are termed late-onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID) and are currently separated from patients suffering from CVID. Areas covered: We have recently codiscovered a new CVID-like disorder caused by mutations of the NFKB1 gene. Members of this non-consanguineous New Zealand kindred have a very diverse spectrum of phenotypes in spite of carrying the identical mutation. The proband appears to have the autoimmune variant. The proband's recently deceased sister best matched LOCID while other family members are less severely affected, including one asymptomatic adult brother, who has an affected daughter. Differences in genetics was one of the main arguments for separating these disorders in the past. Expert commentary: Given the recent advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of these conditions, we present the case that LOCID should now be considered a subset of CVID, rather than a separate disorder. At a clinical level, this distinction is less important but it is imperative these patients are carefully evaluated, the relevant complications are treated, and they are offered prognostic information.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Genótipo , Mutação/genética , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Idoso , Autoimunidade , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia
12.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(5): 435-439, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526635

RESUMO

The autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) was first described in 2011. The aluminium containing adjuvants of vaccines were stated to be one of the main causes of the condition. Other disorders associated with ASIA include siliconosis, Gulf war syndrome, sick building syndrome and the macrophagic myositis syndrome. We have recently reviewed ASIA as defined by its authors. We have shown that the definition of ASIA is imprecise and includes all patients with an autoimmune disorder as well as potentially the entire population. Application of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality does not support ASIA as an outcome of exposure to aluminium containing adjuvants in vaccines. The advocates of ASIA highlight animal models as evidence for the existence of the disorder. However, as this review will demonstrate, animal models purporting to support the existence of ASIA have methodological, analytical and ethical flaws which, in our view, refute the existence of the condition. Three publications by the advocates of ASIA were recently retracted from peer-reviewed journals. We call for an immediate moratorium on animal experiments of ASIA until an independent inquiry has been conducted to determine the existence of a clinically relevant syndrome, identifiable as ASIA in humans.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais
16.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 54(2): 261-268, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030829

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are an enigmatic group of often heritable conditions, which may manifest for the first time in early childhood or as late as the eighth decade of life. In the last 5 years, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised identification of genetic disorders. However, despite the best efforts of researchers around the globe, CVID conditions have been slow to yield their molecular secrets. We have previously described the many clinical advantages of identifying the genetic basis of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). In a minority of CVID patients, monogenic defects have now been identified. If a causative mutation is identified, these conditions are reclassified as CVID-like disorders. Here we discuss recent advances in the genetics of CVID and discuss how NGS can be optimally deployed to identify the causal mutations responsible for the protean clinical manifestations of these conditions. Diagnostic criteria such as the Ameratunga et al. criteria will continue to play an important role in patient management as well as case selection and sequencing strategy design until the genetic conundrum of CVID is solved.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225631

RESUMO

Background: Immunoglobulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of immunodeficiency disorders as well as autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. In immunodeficient patients, there has been controversy whether initial loading doses of intravenous (IVIG) should be based on actual body weight or a calculated parameter such as adjusted body weight in obese patients. Case presentation: I describe a patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) who underwent bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. Her weight decreased by 50% to below her calculated ideal body weight (IBW) while her immunoglobulin requirement fell by approximately 20%. Her steady state serum IgG increased from approximately 7 g/l to 11.7 g/l concomitant with weight loss. Conclusions: I present this observation as support for the recommendation that initial loading doses of SCIG/IVIG in immunodeficiency should be based on adjusted body weight (AjBW) and not actual body weight in obese patients. This has important fiscal implications for treating obese patients with immunodeficiency disorders.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis syndrome is a very rare primary retinal vasculitis. It seems to evolve in stages, where there is initially a florid vasculitis associated with aneurysm formation. Neuroretinitis and macula edema are common features. Subsequently, retinal ischemia ensues, leading to neovascularization. If untreated, further sight-threatening complications occur, including traction retinal detachment and secondary glaucoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we describe a patient with early idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis syndrome, who was treated with a combination of systemic immunosuppression and localized photocoagulation. There was substantial regression of the aneurysms and improvement of the macular edema. Treatment of the disorder should be based on the clinical stage and complications of the disorder. CONCLUSIONS: As shown here, a multidisciplinary approach can be very helpful in managing patients with this severe sight-threatening disorder.

20.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 6(10): e159, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114388

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of primary immunodeficiencies where monogenetic causes account for only a fraction of cases. On this evidence, CVID is potentially polygenic and epistatic although there are, as yet, no examples to support this hypothesis. We have identified a non-consanguineous family, who carry the C104R (c.310T>C) mutation of the Transmembrane Activator Calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand Interactor (TACI, TNFRSF13B) gene. Variants in TNFRSF13B/TACI are identified in up to 10% of CVID patients, and are associated with, but not solely causative of CVID. The proband is heterozygous for the TNFRSF13B/TACI C104R mutation and meets the Ameratunga et al. diagnostic criteria for CVID and the American College of Rheumatology criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Her son has type 1 diabetes, arthritis, reduced IgG levels and IgA deficiency, but has not inherited the TNFRSF13B/TACI mutation. Her brother, homozygous for the TNFRSF13B/TACI mutation, is in good health despite profound hypogammaglobulinemia and mild cytopenias. We hypothesised that a second unidentified mutation contributed to the symptomatic phenotype of the proband and her son. Whole-exome sequencing of the family revealed a de novo nonsense mutation (T168fsX191) in the Transcription Factor 3 (TCF3) gene encoding the E2A transcription factors, present only in the proband and her son. We demonstrate mutations of TNFRSF13B/TACI impair immunoglobulin isotype switching and antibody production predominantly via T-cell-independent signalling, while mutations of TCF3 impair both T-cell-dependent and -independent pathways of B-cell activation and differentiation. We conclude that epistatic interactions between mutations of the TNFRSF13B/TACI and TCF3 signalling networks lead to the severe CVID-like disorder and SLE in the proband.

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