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1.
J Neuroimaging ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recently, there has been growing interest in the glymphatic system (the functional waste clearance pathway for the central nervous system and its role in flushing solutes (such as amyloid ß and tau), metabolic, and other cellular waste products in the brain. Herein, we investigate a recent potential biomarker for glymphatic activity (the diffusion tensor imaging along the perivascular space [DTI-ALPS] parameter) using diffusion MRI imaging in an elderly cohort comprising 10 cognitively normal, 10 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 16 Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: All 36 participants imaged on a Siemens 3.0T Tim Trio. Single-SE diffusion weighted Echo-planar imaging scans were acquired as well as T1 magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo, T2 axial, and susceptibility weighted imaging. Three millimeter regions of interest were drawn in the projection and association fibers adjacent to the medullary veins at the level of the lateral ventricle. The DTI-ALPS parameter was calculated in these regions and correlated with cognitive status, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ADASCog11 measures. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between DTI-ALPS and MMSE and ADASCog11 in the right hemisphere adjusting for age, sex, and APoE ε4 status. Significant differences were also found in the right DTI-ALPS indices between cognitively normal and AD groups (P < .026) and MCI groups (P < .025) in a univariate general linear model corrected for age, sex, and APoE ε4. Significant differences in apparent diffusion coefficient between cognitively normal and AD groups were found in the right projection fibers (P = .028). CONCLUSION: Further work is needed to determine the utility of DTI-ALPS index in larger elderly cohorts and whether it measures glymphatic activity.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4356, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623075

RESUMO

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has been proposed as a risk factor for future cognitive decline and dementia. Given the heterogeneity of SCD and the lack of consensus about how to classify this condition, different operationalization approaches still need to be compared. In this study, we used the same sample of individuals to compare  different SCD operationalization approaches. We included 399 cognitively healthy individuals from a community-based cohort. SCD was assessed through nine questions about memory and non-memory subjective complaints. We applied four approaches to operationalize SCD: two hypothesis-driven approaches and two data-driven approaches. We characterized the resulting groups from each operationalization approach using multivariate methods on comprehensive demographic, clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging data. We identified two main phenotypes: an amnestic phenotype characterized by an Alzheimer's Disease (AD) signature pattern of brain atrophy; and an anomic phenotype, which was mainly related to cerebrovascular pathology. Furthermore, language complaints other than naming helped to identify a subgroup with subclinical cognitive impairment and difficulties in activities of daily living. This subgroup also showed an AD signature pattern of atrophy. The identification of SCD phenotypes, characterized by different syndromic and biomarker profiles, varies depending on the operationalization approach used. In this study we discuss how these findings may be used in clinical practice and research.

3.
Neurology ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Aß level on progression risk to MCI or dementia and longitudinal cognitive change in cognitively normal (CN) older individuals. METHODS: All CN from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle study (AIBL) with Aß PET and ≥3 years follow-up were included (n=534; age 72±6 yrs; 27% Aß positive; follow-up 5.3±1.7 yrs). Aß level was divided using the standardised 0-100 Centiloid scale: <15 CL negative, 15-25 CL uncertain, 26-50 CL moderate, 51-100 CL high, >100 CL very high, noting >25 CL approximates a positive scan. Cox proportional hazards analysis and linear mixed effect models were used to assess risk of progression and cognitive decline. RESULTS: Aß levels in 63% were negative, 10% uncertain, 10% moderate, 14% high and 3% very high. Fifty-seven (11%) progressed to MCI or dementia. Compared to negative Aß, the hazard ratio for progression for moderate Aß was 3.2 (95% CI 1.3-7.6; p<0.05), for high was 7.0 (95% CI 3.7-13.3; p<0.001) and for very high was 11.4 (95% CI 5.1-25.8; p<0.001). Decline in cognitive composite score was minimal in the moderate group (-0.02 SD/year, p=0.05) while the high and very high declined substantially (high -0.08 SD/year, p<0.001; very high -0.35 SD/year p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The risk of MCI or dementia over 5 years in older CN is related to Aß level on PET, 5% if negative vs 25% if positive but ranging from 12% if 26-50 CL to 28% if 51-100 CL and 50% if >100 CL. This information may be useful for dementia risk counselling and aid design of preclinical AD trials.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5698, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173055

RESUMO

Changes to lipid metabolism are tightly associated with the onset and pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipids are complex molecules comprising many isomeric and isobaric species, necessitating detailed analysis to enable interpretation of biological significance. Our expanded targeted lipidomics platform (569 species across 32 classes) allows for detailed lipid separation and characterisation. In this study we examined peripheral samples of two cohorts (AIBL, n = 1112 and ADNI, n = 800). We are able to identify concordant peripheral signatures associated with prevalent AD arising from lipid pathways including; ether lipids, sphingolipids (notably GM3 gangliosides) and lipid classes previously associated with cardiometabolic disease (phosphatidylethanolamine and triglycerides). We subsequently identified similar lipid signatures in both cohorts with future disease. Lastly, we developed multivariate lipid models that improved classification and prediction. Our results provide a holistic view between the lipidome and AD using a comprehensive approach, providing targets for further mechanistic investigation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metabolômica
5.
Neuroimage ; 226: 117593, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Centiloid was introduced to harmonise ß-Amyloid (Aß) PET quantification across different tracers, scanners and analysis techniques. Unfortunately, Centiloid still suffers from some quantification disparities in longitudinal analysis when normalising data from different tracers or scanners. In this work, we aim to reduce this variability using a different analysis technique applied to the existing calibration data. METHOD: All PET images from the Centiloid calibration dataset, along with 3762 PET images from the AIBL study were analysed using the recommended SPM pipeline. The PET images were SUVR normalised using the whole cerebellum. All SUVR normalised PiB images from the calibration dataset were decomposed using non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF). The NMF coefficients related to the first component were strongly correlated with global SUVR and were subsequently used as a surrogate for Aß retention. For each tracer of the calibration dataset, the components of the NMF were computed in a way such that the coefficients of the first component would match those of the corresponding PiB. Given the strong correlations between the SUVR and the NMF coefficients on the calibration dataset, all PET images from AIBL were subsequently decomposed using the computed NMF, and their coefficients transformed into Centiloids. RESULTS: Using the AIBL data, the correlation between the standard Centiloid and the novel NMF-based Centiloid was high in each tracer. The NMF-based Centiloids showed a reduction of outliers, and improved longitudinal consistency. Furthermore, it removed the effects of switching tracers from the longitudinal variance of the Centiloid measure, when assessed using a linear mixed effects model. CONCLUSION: We here propose a novel image driven method to perform the Centiloid quantification. The methods is highly correlated with standard Centiloids while improving the longitudinal reliability when switching tracers. Implementation of this method across multiple studies may lend to more robust and comparable data for future research.

6.
Collabra Psychol ; 6(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073161

RESUMO

Early investigations of the neuroticism by conscientiousness interaction with regards to health have been promising, but to date, there have been no systematic investigations of this interaction that account for the various personality measurement instruments, varying populations, or aspects of health. The current study - the second of three - uses a coordinated analysis approach to test the impact of the neuroticism by conscientiousness interaction on the prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions. Using 15 pre-existing longitudinal studies (N > 49,375), we found that conscientiousness did not moderate the relationship between neuroticism and having hypertension (OR = 1.00,95%CI[0.98,1.02]), diabetes (OR = 1.02[0.99,1.04]), or heart disease (OR = 0.99[0.97,1.01]). Similarly, we found that conscientiousness did not moderate the prospective relationship between neuroticism and onset of hypertension (OR = 0.98,[0.95,1.01]), diabetes (OR = 0.99[0.94,1.05]), or heart disease (OR = 0.98[0.94,1.03]). Heterogeneity of effect sizes was largely nonsignificant, with one exception, indicating that the effects are consistent between datasets. Overall, we conclude that there is no evidence that healthy neuroticism, operationalized as the conscientiousness by neuroticism interaction, buffers against chronic conditions.

7.
Neurology ; 95(18): e2577-e2585, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which deficits in learning over 6 days are associated with ß-amyloid-positive (Aß+) and hippocampal volume in cognitively normal (CN) adults. METHODS: Eighty CN older adults who had undergone PET neuroimaging to determine Aß status (n = 42 Aß- and 38 Aß+), MRI to determine hippocampal and ventricular volume, and repeated assessment of memory were recruited from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. Participants completed the Online Repeatable Cognitive Assessment-Language Learning Test (ORCA-LLT), which required they learn associations between 50 Chinese characters and their English language equivalents over 6 days. ORCA-LLT assessments were supervised on the first day and were completed remotely online for all remaining days. RESULTS: Learning curves in the Aß+ CN participants were significantly worse than those in matched Aß- CN participants, with the magnitude of this difference very large (d [95% confidence interval (CI)] 2.22 [1.64-2.75], p < 0.001), and greater than differences between these groups for memory decline since their enrollment in AIBL (d [95% CI] 0.52 [0.07-0.96], p = 0.021), or memory impairment at their most recent visit. In Aß+ CN adults, slower rates of learning were associated with smaller hippocampal and larger ventricular volumes. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that in CN participants, Aß+ is associated more strongly with a deficit in learning than any aspect of memory dysfunction. Slower rates of learning in Aß+ CN participants were associated with hippocampal volume loss. Considered together, these data suggest that the primary cognitive consequence of Aß+ is a failure to benefit from experience when exposed to novel stimuli, even over very short periods.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4796, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963231

RESUMO

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estruturas Cromossômicas , Cognição , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(1): 321-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease often coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While both diseases share common risk factors, their interrelationship remains unclear. Increasing the understanding of how cerebrovascular changes interact with AD is essential to develop therapeutic strategies and refine biomarkers for early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We investigate the prevalence and risk factors for the comorbidity of amyloid-ß (Aß) and cerebrovascular disease in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing, and further examine their cross-sectional association. METHODS: A total of 598 participants (422 cognitively normal, 89 with mild cognitive impairment, 87 with AD) underwent positron emission tomography and structural magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of Aß deposition and cerebrovascular disease. Individuals were categorized based on the comorbidity status of Aß and cerebrovascular disease (V) as Aß-V-, Aß-V+, Aß+V-, or Aß+V+. RESULTS: Advancing age was associated with greater likelihood of cerebrovascular disease, high Aß load and their comorbidity. Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 carriage was only associated with Aß positivity. Greater total and regional WMH burden were observed in participants with AD. However, no association were observed between Aß and WMH measures after stratification by clinical classification, suggesting that the observed association between AD and cerebrovascular disease was driven by the common risk factor of age. CONCLUSION: Our observations demonstrate common comorbid condition of Aß and cerebrovascular disease in later life. While our study did not demonstrate a convincing cross-sectional association between Aß and WMH burden, future longitudinal studies are required to further confirm this.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 95: 46-55, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750666

RESUMO

Neocortical Aß-amyloid deposition, one of the hallmark pathologic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), begins decades prior to the presence of clinical symptoms. As clinical trials move to secondary and even primary prevention, understanding the rates of neocortical Aß-amyloid deposition and the age at which Aß-amyloid deposition becomes abnormal is crucial for optimizing the timing of these trials. As APOE-ε4 carriage is thought to modulate the age of clinical onset, it is also important to understand the impact of APOE-ε4 carriage on the age at which the neocortical Aß-amyloid deposition becomes abnormal. Here, we show that, for 455 participants with over 3 years of follow-up, abnormal levels of neocortical Aß-amyloid were reached on average at age 72 (66.5-77.1). The APOE-ε4 carriers reached abnormal levels earlier at age 63 (59.6-70.3); however, noncarriers reached the threshold later at age 78 (76.1-84.4). No differences in the rates of deposition were observed between APOE-ε4 carriers and noncarriers after abnormal Aß-amyloid levels had been reached. These results suggest that primary and secondary prevention trials, looking to recruit at the earliest stages of disease, should target APOE-ε4 carriers between the ages of 60 and 66 and noncarriers between the ages of 76 and 84.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 733-744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has received much attention, as evidence suggests high levels of cholesterol might be an AD risk factor. The carriage of cholesterol and lipids through the body is mediated via lipoproteins, some of which, particularly apolipoprotein E (ApoE), are intimately linked with AD. In humans, high density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as a "good" lipid complex due to its ability to enable clearance of excess cholesterol via 'cholesterol reverse transport', although its activities in the pathogenesis of AD are poorly understood. There are several subclasses of HDL; these range from the newly formed small HDL, to much larger HDL. OBJECTIVE: We examined the major subclasses of HDL in healthy controls, mild cognitively impaired, and AD patients who were not taking statins to determine whether there were HDL profile differences between the groups, and whether HDL subclass levels correlated with plasma amyloid-ß (Aß) levels or brain Aß deposition. METHODS: Samples from AIBL cohort were used in this study. HDL subclass levels were assessed by Lipoprint while Aß1-42 levels were assessed by ELISA. Brain Aß deposition was assessed by PET scan. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests. RESULTS: We found that small HDL subclass is reduced in AD patients and it correlates with cognitive performance while plasma Aß concentrations do not correlate with lipid profile or HDL subfraction levels. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that AD patients exhibit altered plasma HDL profile and that HDL subclasses correlate with cognitive performances.

13.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; : 1-12, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The criteria for objective memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are vaguely defined. Aggregating the number of abnormal memory scores (NAMS) is one way to operationalise memory impairment, which we hypothesised would predict progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. METHODS: As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 896 older adults who did not have dementia were administered a psychometric battery including three neuropsychological tests of memory, yielding 10 indices of memory. We calculated the number of memory scores corresponding to z ≤ -1.5 (i.e., NAMS) for each participant. Incident diagnosis of AD dementia was established by consensus of an expert panel after 3 years. RESULTS: Of the 722 (80.6%) participants who were followed up, 54 (7.5%) developed AD dementia. There was a strong correlation between NAMS and probability of developing AD dementia (r = .91, p = .0003). Each abnormal memory score conferred an additional 9.8% risk of progressing to AD dementia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for NAMS was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) .81-.93, p < .01]. The odds ratio for NAMS was 1.67 (95% CI 1.40-2.01, p < .01) after correcting for age, sex, education, estimated intelligence quotient, subjective memory complaint, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score and apolipoprotein E ϵ4 status. CONCLUSIONS: Aggregation of abnormal memory scores may be a useful way of operationalising objective memory impairment, predicting incident AD dementia and providing prognostic stratification for individuals with MCI.

14.
Life (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781776

RESUMO

In response to double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in chromosomal DNA, H2AX (a member of histone H2A family) becomes phosphorylated to form γH2AX. Although increased levels of γH2AX have been reported in the neuronal nuclei of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the understanding of γH2AX responses in buccal nuclei of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD remain unexplored. In the current study, endogenous γH2AX was measured in buccal cell nuclei from MCI (n = 18) or AD (n = 16) patients and in healthy controls (n = 17) using laser scanning cytometry (LSC). The γH2AX level was significantly elevated in nuclei of the AD group compared to the MCI and control group, and there was a concomitant increase in P-trend for γH2AX from the control group through MCI to the AD group. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were carried out for different γH2AX parameters; γH2AX in nuclei resulted in the greatest area under the curve value of 0.7794 (p = 0.0062) with 75% sensitivity and 70% specificity for the identification of AD patients from control. In addition, nuclear circularity (a measure of irregular nuclear shape) was significantly higher in the buccal cell nuclei from the AD group compared with the MCI and control groups. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between the nuclear circularity and γH2AX signals. The results indicated that increased DNA damage is associated with AD.

15.
Elife ; 92020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697195

RESUMO

The critical role of blood lipids in a broad range of health and disease states is well recognised but less explored is the interplay of genetics and environment within the broader blood lipidome. We examined heritability of the plasma lipidome among healthy older-aged twins (75 monozygotic/55 dizygotic pairs) enrolled in the Older Australian Twins Study (OATS) and explored corresponding gene expression and DNA methylation associations. 27/209 lipids (13.3%) detected by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were significantly heritable under the classical ACE twin model (h2 = 0.28-0.59), which included ceramides (Cer) and triglycerides (TG). Relative to non-significantly heritable TGs, heritable TGs had a greater number of associations with gene transcripts, not directly associated with lipid metabolism, but with immune function, signalling and transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide average DNA methylation (GWAM) levels accounted for variability in some non-heritable lipids. We reveal a complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences on the ageing plasma lipidome.

16.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2111-2121, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH; PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH) are regional classifications of WMH and reflect proposed differences in cause. In the first study, to date, we undertook genome-wide association analyses of DWMH and PVWMH to show that these phenotypes have different genetic underpinnings. METHODS: Participants were aged 45 years and older, free of stroke and dementia. We conducted genome-wide association analyses of PVWMH and DWMH in 26,654 participants from CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology), ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis), and the UKB (UK Biobank). Regional correlations were investigated using the genome-wide association analyses -pairwise method. Cross-trait genetic correlations between PVWMH, DWMH, stroke, and dementia were estimated using LDSC. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication analysis, for PVWMH only, we found associations on chromosomes 2 (NBEAL), 10q23.1 (TSPAN14/FAM231A), and 10q24.33 (SH3PXD2A). In the much larger combined meta-analysis of all cohorts, we identified ten significant regions for PVWMH: chromosomes 2 (3 regions), 6, 7, 10 (2 regions), 13, 16, and 17q23.1. New loci of interest include 7q36.1 (NOS3) and 16q24.2. In both the discovery/replication and combined analysis, we found genome-wide significant associations for the 17q25.1 locus for both DWMH and PVWMH. Using gene-based association analysis, 19 genes across all regions were identified for PVWMH only, including the new genes: CALCRL (2q32.1), KLHL24 (3q27.1), VCAN (5q27.1), and POLR2F (22q13.1). Thirteen genes in the 17q25.1 locus were significant for both phenotypes. More extensive genetic correlations were observed for PVWMH with small vessel ischemic stroke. There were no associations with dementia for either phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms these phenotypes have distinct and also shared genetic architectures. Genetic analyses indicated PVWMH was more associated with ischemic stroke whilst DWMH loci were implicated in vascular, astrocyte, and neuronal function. Our study confirms these phenotypes are distinct neuroimaging classifications and identifies new candidate genes associated with PVWMH only.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 72, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heme and iron homeostasis is perturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD); therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the levels and association of heme with iron-binding plasma proteins in cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD individuals from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL) and Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health (KARVIAH) cohorts. METHODS: Non-targeted proteomic analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed to quantify relative protein abundances in plasma samples from 144 CN individuals from the AIBL and 94 CN from KARVIAH cohorts and 21 MCI and 25 AD from AIBL cohort. ANCOVA models were utilized to assess the differences in plasma proteins implicated in heme/iron metabolism, while multiple regression modeling (and partial correlation) was performed to examine the association between heme and iron proteins, structural neuroimaging, and cognitive measures. RESULTS: Of the plasma proteins implicated in iron and heme metabolism, hemoglobin subunit ß (p = 0.001) was significantly increased in AD compared to CN individuals. Multiple regression modeling adjusted for age, sex, APOEε4 genotype, and disease status in the AIBL cohort revealed lower levels of transferrin but higher levels of hemopexin associated with augmented brain amyloid deposition. Meanwhile, transferrin was positively associated with hippocampal volume and MMSE performance, and hemopexin was negatively associated with CDR scores. Partial correlation analysis revealed lack of significant associations between heme/iron proteins in the CN individuals progressing to cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, heme and iron dyshomeostasis appears to be a feature of AD. The causal relationship between heme/iron metabolism and AD warrants further investigation.

18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(1): 303-315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the relationship between AD risk factors (age, APOEɛ4, and gender) and lipid metabolism is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether altered lipid metabolism associated with increased age, gender, and APOE status may contribute to the development of AD by examining these risk factors in healthy controls and also clinically diagnosed AD individuals. METHODS: We performed plasma lipidomic profiling (582 lipid species) of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle flagship study of aging cohort (AIBL) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Linear regression and interaction analysis were used to explore the relationship between risk factors and plasma lipid species. RESULTS: We observed strong associations between plasma lipid species with gender and increasing age in cognitively normal individuals. However, APOEɛ4 was relatively weakly associated with plasma lipid species. Interaction analysis identified differential associations of sphingolipids and polyunsaturated fatty acid esterified lipid species with AD based on age and gender, respectively. These data indicate that the risk associated with age, gender, and APOEɛ4 may, in part, be mediated by changes in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study extends our existing knowledge of the relationship between the lipidome and AD and highlights the complexity of the relationships between lipid metabolism and AD at different ages and between men and women. This has important implications for how we assess AD risk and also for potential therapeutic strategies involving modulation of lipid metabolic pathways.

20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410984

RESUMO

White matter (WM) microstructure is a sensitive marker to distinguish individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease. The association of objective physical fitness (PF) measures and WM microstructure has not been explored and mixed results reported with physical activity (PA). Longitudinal studies of WM with PA and PF measures have had limited investigation. This study explored the relationship between objective PF measures over 24-months with "normal-appearing" WM microstructure. Data acquired on magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure "normal-appearing" WM microstructure at baseline and 24-months. Clinical variables such as cognitive and blood-based measures were collected longitudinally. Also, as part of the randomized controlled trial of a PA, extensive measures of PA and fitness were obtained over the 24 months. Bilateral corticospinal tracts (CST) and the corpus callosum showed a significant association between PF performance over 24-months and baseline WM microstructural measures. There was no significant longitudinal effect of the intervention or PF performance over 24-months. Baseline WM microstructural measures were significantly associated with PF performance over 24-months in this cohort of participants with vascular risk factors and at risk of Alzheimer's disease with distinctive patterns for each PF test.

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