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1.
Environ Int ; 163: 107213, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have demonstrated endocrine disrupting properties. Several of these chemicals are carcinogenic and positive associations have been suggested with breast cancer risk. In general population, diet represents the main source of exposure. METHODS: Associations between dietary intake of 17 dioxins and 35 PCBs and breast cancer were evaluated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from nine European countries using multivariable Cox regressions. The present study included 318,607 women (mean ± SD age: 50.7 ± 9.7) with 13,241 incident invasive breast cancers and a median follow-up of 14.9 years (IQR = 13.5-16.4). Dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs was assessed combining EPIC food consumption data with food contamination data provided by the European Food Safety Authority. RESULTS: Exposure to dioxins, dioxins + Dioxin-Like-PCBs, Dioxin-Like-PCBs (DL-PCBs), and Non-Dioxin-Like-PCBs (NDL-PCBs) estimated from reported dietary intakes were not associated with breast cancer incidence, with the following hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for an increment of 1 SD: HRdioxins = 1.00 (0.98 to 1.02), HRdioxins+DL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), HRDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), and HRNDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03). Results remained unchanged when analyzing intakes as quintile groups, as well as when analyses were run separately per country, or separating breast cancer cases based on estrogen receptor status or after further adjustments on main contributing food groups to PCBs and dioxins intake and nutritional factors. CONCLUSIONS: This large European prospective study does not support the hypothesis of an association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438160

RESUMO

It is unclear if body weight in early life affects cancer risk independently of adult body weight. To investigate this question for six obesity-related cancers, we performed univariable and multivariable analyses using i) Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis and ii) longitudinal analyses in prospective cohorts. Both the MR and longitudinal analyses indicated that larger body size at age 10 was associated with higher risk of endometrial (ORMR=1.61, 95%CI = 1.23-2.11) and kidney cancer (ORMR=1.40, 95%CI = 1.09-1.80). These associations were attenuated after accounting for adult body size in both the MR and cohort analyses. Early life BMI was not consistently associated with the other investigated cancers. The lack of clear independent risk associations suggests that early life BMI influences endometrial and kidney cancer risk mainly through pathways that are common with adult BMI.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of prostate cancer (PCa) is not well-known, and the role of diet is not well established. We aimed to evaluate the role of the inflammatory power of the diet, measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), on the risk of PCa. METHODOLOGY: A population-based multicase-control (MCC-Spain) study was conducted. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, personal and family antecedents, and lifestyles, including diet from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed using the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) based on 30 parameters (a higher score indicates a higher inflammatory capacity of the diet). Tertiles of E-DII were created using the cut-off points from the control group. The International Society of Urology Pathology (ISUP) was grouped as ISUP 1, ISUP 2, or ISUP 3-5. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between E-DII score and PCa risk. RESULTS: A total of 928 PCa cases and 1278 population controls were included. Among PCa cases, the mean value of the E-DII score was 0.18 (SD: 1.9) vs. 0.07 (SD: 1.9) in the control group (p = 0.162). Cases with a more pro-inflammatory diet (3rd tertile) had the highest risk of PCa, aORT3vsT1 = 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.65) (p-trend = 0.026). When stratifying by ISUP, this risk association was observed only for ISUP 2 and ISUP 3-5, aORT3vsT1 = 1.46 (95% CI 1.02-2.10) and 1.60 (95% CI 1.10-2.34), respectively. CONCLUSION: A positive association was observed between consuming a pro-inflammatory diet and PCa in the MCC-Spain population, specifically for an ISUP grade greater or equal than 2.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366005

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that components of one-carbon metabolism, particularly circulating vitamin B6, have an etiological role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in the transsulfuration pathway. We sought to holistically investigate the role of the transsulfuration pathway in RCC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study (455 RCC cases and 455 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Plasma samples from the baseline visit were analyzed for metabolites of the transsulfuration pathway, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the biologically active form of vitamin B6), homocysteine, serine, cystathionine, and cysteine, in addition to folate. Bayesian conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations of metabolites with RCC risk as well as interactions with established RCC risk factors. Circulating PLP and cysteine were inversely associated with RCC risk, and these associations were not attenuated after adjustment for other transsulfuration metabolites (odds ratio (OR) and 90% credible interval (CrI) per 1 SD increase in log concentration: 0.76 [0.66, 0.87]; 0.81 [0.66, 0.96], respectively). A comparison of joint metabolite profiles suggested substantially greater RCC risk for the profile representative of low overall transsulfuration function compared to high function (OR 2.70 [90% CrI 1.26, 5.70]). We found some statistical evidence of interactions of cysteine with body mass index, and PLP and homocysteine with smoking status, on their associations with RCC risk. In conclusion, we found evidence suggesting that the transsulfuration pathway may play a role in metabolic dysregulation leading to RCC development.

6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403197

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with and without CHD risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPIC-CVD is a case-cohort study of 29 333 participants that included 13 582 incident CHD cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Self-reported physical activity was summarized using the Cambridge physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active). Participants were categorized into sub-groups based on the presence or the absence of the following risk factors: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol ≥6.2 mmol/L), history of diabetes, hypertension (self-reported or ≥140/90 mmHg), and current smoking. Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to assess the association between physical activity and incident CHD events (non-fatal and fatal).Compared to inactive participants without the respective CHD risk factor (referent), excess CHD risk was highest in physically inactive and lowest in moderately active participants with CHD risk factors. Corresponding excess CHD risk estimates amongst those with obesity were 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32-64%] and 21% (95%CI 2-44%), with hypercholesterolaemia were 80% (95%CI 55-108%) and 48% (95%CI 22-81%), with hypertension were 80% (95%CI 65-96%) and 49% (95%CI 28-74%), with diabetes were 142% (95%CI 63-260%), and 100% (95%CI 32-204%), and amongst smokers were 152% (95%CI 122-186%) and 109% (95%CI 74-150%). CONCLUSIONS: In people with CHD risk factors, moderate physical activity, equivalent to 40 mins of walking per day, attenuates but does not completely offset CHD risk.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(4): 1751-1762, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia prevention can be addressed if the intervention is applied early. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate competing risk models to predict the late risk of dementia based on variables assessed in middle age in a southern European population. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of the EPIC-Spain cohort that included 25,015 participants. Dementia cases were identified from electronic health records and validated by neurologists. Data were gathered on sociodemographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors. To stratify dementia risk, Fine and Gray competing risk prediction models were constructed for the entire sample and for over-55-year-olds. Risk scores were calculated for low (the 30% of the sample with the lowest risk), moderate (> 30% -60%), and high (> 60% -100%) risk. RESULTS: The 755 cases of dementia identified represented a cumulative incidence of 3.1% throughout the study period. The AUC of the model for over-55-year-olds was much higher (80.8%) than the overall AUC (68.5%) in the first 15 years of follow-up and remained that way in the subsequent follow-up. The weight of the competing risk of death was greater than that of dementia and especially when the entire population was included. CONCLUSION: This study presents the first dementia risk score calculated in a southern European population in mid-life and followed up for 20 years. The score makes it feasible to achieve the early identification of individuals in a southern European population who could be targeted for the prevention of dementia based on the intensive control of risk factors.


Assuntos
Demência , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated reproductive aging, in women indicated by early natural menopause, is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in observational studies. Conversely, an adverse CHD risk profile has been suggested to accelerate menopause. OBJECTIVES: To study the direction and evidence for causality of the relationship between reproductive aging and (non-)fatal CHD and CHD risk factors in a bidirectional Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach, using age at natural menopause (ANM) genetic variants as a measure for genetically determined reproductive aging in women. We also studied the association of these variants with CHD risk (factors) in men. DESIGN: Two-sample MR, using both cohort data as well as summary statistics, with four methods: simple and weighted median-based, standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) regression, and MR-Egger regression. PARTICIPANTS: Data from EPIC-CVD and summary statistics from UK Biobank and publicly available GWAS were pooled for the different analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CHD, CHD risk factors and ANM. RESULTS: Across different methods of MR no association was found between genetically determined reproductive aging and CHD risk in women (Relative Risk Estimate (RRE)IVW=0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.97;1.01), or any of the CHD risk factors. Similarly, no associations were found in men. Neither did the reversed analyses show evidence for an association between CHD (risk factors) and reproductive aging. CONCLUSION: Genetically determined reproductive aging is not causally associated with CHD risk (factors) in women, nor were the genetic variants associated in men. We found no evidence for a reverse association in a combined sample of women and men.

9.
Front Nutr ; 9: 827307, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284440

RESUMO

Background: Current evidence suggests that egg composition might have potential neuroprotective effects. Our aim was to determine the association between egg consumption and the risk of dementia in a Mediterranean population. Methods: This study was carried out in 3 centers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort, i.e., 25,015 participants aged 30-70 years, recruited in 1992-1996, and followed up for a mean of 21.5 years. Results: A total of 774 incident dementia cases were diagnosed and validated, of which 518 were Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data on egg consumption were estimated using a validated dietary history questionnaire at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders, were used in the analyses. No association was observed between egg consumption and either total dementia [hazard ratio between extreme quartiles (HRQ4vs.Q1: 1.05; 95% CI 0.85-1.31; p-trend = 0.93)] or AD (HRQ4vs.Q1 0.93; 95% CI 0.72-1.21; p-trend = 0.50) risks. After dividing the population by adherence to the relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) score, a borderline inverse association was found between egg intake and both total dementia (HRQ4vs.Q1: 0.52; 95% CI 0.30-0.90; p-trend = 0.10) and AD (HRQ4vs.Q1: 0.52; 95% CI 0.27-1.01; p-trend = 0.13) risks within participants with low adherence to rMED score. However, no association was observed in participants with medium and high adherence to rMED score. Conclusion: This prospective study suggests that egg consumption is associated with a reduced risk of dementia, and specifically of AD, in the adult population with low adherence to rMED score; whereas it has no impact in subjects with moderate and high MD adherence.

10.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35204183

RESUMO

Oxidative Balance Scores (OBS) are tools that allow us to assess the individual's antioxidant state by ranking both antioxidant and pro-oxidant components of dietary and lifestyle factors. Our aim was to develop novel OBSs accounting for either the global supply of nutrient antioxidants in the diet, or the intake of antioxidant-rich foods, in combination with lifestyle factors. Pro-oxidant factors were also considered. Within two centers of the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, EPIC-Granada and EPIC-Gipuzkoa (N = 14,756 participants), we developed the Nurient, Food and Lifestyle OBS (NutrientL-OBS and FoodL-OBS), and their simplified versions (solely with dietary or lifestyle factors, the Nutrient-OBS, Food-OBS and L-OBS). Their antioxidant potential was evaluated considering their relationship with: (i) 20 scores of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD); and, (ii) 25 biomarkers of antioxidant nutrients (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene, etc.), inflammation (CRP, TNF-alpha, etc.) and oxidative stress (uric acid), among 210 participants. Spearman correlation and multivariate linear regression analyses were applied to analyze these associations. Some statistically significant relationships were encountered between the NutrientL-OBS and the FoodL-OBS with the MD scores, and with ascorbic acid (per one-unit increase in OBS: ß = 0.012 and 0.015; p = 0.022 and 0.008, respectively) and CRP (per one-unit increase in both OBS: ß = -0.02; p = 0.02); the latter appeared to be restricted to the OBS´s lifestyle components. In conclusion, the NutrientL- and FoodL-OBSs and their sub-versions are related to antioxidant-rich dietary patterns and to biomarkers of antioxidant nutrient intake and inflammation, supporting that these tools are valid to assess the individual´s oxidative/antioxidant status.

11.
Environ Res ; 210: 112959, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a ubiquitous and persistent metal, associated with different harmful health effects and with increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding the main sources of exposure is essential to identify at risk populations and to design public health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cadmium exposure in a random-sample of general adult population from three regions of Spain, assessed by the urinary cadmium (U-Cd) concentration, and to identify its potential determinants and sex-specific differences, including sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured U-Cd (µg/g creatinine) in single urine spot samples from 1282 controls enrolled in the multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) with inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry equipped with an octopole reaction systems (ICP-ORS-MS). The association between sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary characteristics and U-Cd concentrations was evaluated using geometric mean ratios (GMR) estimated by multiple log-linear regression models. RESULTS: Overall, geometric mean U-Cd concentration was 0.40 (95%CI: 0.38, 0.41) µg/g creatinine. Levels were higher in women than in men (GMR]: 1.19; 95%CI: 1.07, 1.32), and increased with age in males (ptrend< 0.001). Cigarette smoking was clearly associated to U-Cd levels (GMRformer vs non-smokers: 1.16; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.29; GMRcurrent vs non-smokers: 1.42; 95%CI: 1.26, 1.60); the relationship with secondhand tobacco exposure in non-smokers, was restricted to women (pinteraction = 0.02). Sampling season and region also seemed to influence U-Cd concentrations, with lower levels in summer (GMRsummer vs average: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.88), and higher levels in North-Spain Asturias (GMRAsturias vs average: 1.13; 95%CI: 1.04, 1.23). Regarding diet, higher U-Cd concentration was associated with eggs consumption only in men (pinteraction = 0.04), just as rice intake was associated in women (pinteraction = 0.03). CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that tobacco exposure is the main modifiable predictor of U-Cd concentrations, and remark that the role of dietary/sociodemographic factors on U-Cd levels may differ by sex.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Exposição Ambiental , Adulto , Cádmio/urina , Creatinina/urina , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
12.
Br J Cancer ; 126(9): 1301-1309, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9-18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone. CONCLUSION: Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0-9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Antígeno Ca-125 , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Curva ROC
13.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is existing evidence on the potential role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer (PC) and on how risk may be modulated by dietary factors. Pro-inflammatory diets are suggested to be associated with increased risk of PC but, so far, evidence remains not conclusive. We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory potential and PC risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which includes 450,112 participants. METHODS: After a 14-year follow-up, a total of 1239 incident PC cases were included in this study. The inflammatory potential of the diet was estimated using an Inflammatory Score of the Diet (ISD). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the ISD and PC were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for known risk factors for PC. RESULTS: Participants with higher ISDs had a higher risk of developing PCs. In the fully adjusted multivariate model, the risk of PC increased by 11% (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) for 1 point each standard deviation increase in the ISD score. Neither obesity nor any other known risk factor for PC showed statistically significant interactions. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective study reporting a positive relationship between the inflammatory potential of diet and PC. Since early diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer might be challenging, prevention remains the major hope for reducing the burden of this disease.

14.
Clin Nutr ; 41(1): 122-130, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The specific association of olive oil consumption with coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke has not been totally established. OBJECTIVE: to examine whether olive oil consumption is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, the risk of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), CHD, and stroke. METHODS: Three cohorts were included: AWHS (2318 men), SUN Project (18,266 men and women), and EPIC-Spain (39,393 men and women). Olive oil consumption was measured at baseline using validated questionnaires. RESULTS: In the AWHS, 747 participants had a positive coronary artery calcium score (CACS>0), and the OR (95% CI) was 0.89 (0.72, 1.10) in those with virgin olive oil consumption ≥30 g/day (v. <10 g/day). In the SUN Project (follow-up 10.8 years) 261 total CVD cases occurred, and the HR was 0.57 (0.34, 0.96) for consumptions ≥30 g/day (v. <10 g/day). In the EPIC-Spain (follow-up 22.8 years) 1300 CHD cases and 938 stroke cases occurred; the HRs for stroke according, 0 to <10 (ref), 10 to <20, 20 to <30, and ≥30 g/day of olive oil consumption, were 0.84 (0.70, 1.02), 0.80 (0.66, 0.96), 0.89 (0.74, 1.07). A weaker association was observed for CHD. The association was stronger among those consuming virgin olive oil, instead of common (refined). CONCLUSIONS: Olive oil is associated with lower risk of CVD and stroke. The maximum benefit could be obtained with a consumption between 20 and 30 g/day. The association could be stronger for virgin olive oil and might operate from the early stages of the disease.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Cancer ; 150(8): 1255-1268, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843121

RESUMO

Bile acids (BAs) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may modulate BA metabolism increasing concentration of carcinogenic BAs. Observations from prospective cohorts are sparse. We conducted a study (233 HCC case-control pairs) nested within a large observational prospective cohort with blood samples taken at recruitment when healthy with follow-up over time for later cancer development. A targeted metabolomics method was used to quantify 17 BAs (primary/secondary/tertiary; conjugated/unconjugated) in prediagnostic plasma. Odd ratios (OR) for HCC risk associations were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Positive HCC risk associations were observed for the molar sum of all BAs (ORdoubling  = 2.30, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.76-3.00), and choline- and taurine-conjugated BAs. Relative concentrations of BAs showed positive HCC risk associations for glycoholic acid and most taurine-conjugated BAs. We observe an association between increased HCC risk and higher levels of major circulating BAs, from several years prior to tumor diagnosis and after multivariable adjustment for confounders and liver functionality. Increase in BA concentration is accompanied by a shift in BA profile toward higher proportions of taurine-conjugated BAs, indicating early alterations of BA metabolism with HCC development. Future studies are needed to assess BA profiles for improved stratification of patients at high HCC risk and to determine whether supplementation with certain BAs may ameliorate liver dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(1): 125-136, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The variation in breast cancer (BC)-risk factor associations between screen-detected (SD) and non-screen-detected (NSD) tumors has been poorly studied, despite the interest of this aspect in risk assessment and prevention. This study analyzes the differences in breast cancer-risk factor associations according to detection method and tumor phenotype in Spanish women aged between 50 and 69. METHODS: We examined 900 BC cases and 896 controls aged between 50 and 69, recruited in the multicase-control MCC-Spain study. With regard to the cases, 460 were detected by screening mammography, whereas 144 were diagnosed by other means. By tumor phenotype, 591 were HR+, 153 were HER2+, and 58 were TN. Lifestyle, reproductive factors, family history of BC, and tumor characteristics were analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to compare cases vs. controls and SD vs. NSD cases. Multinomial regression models (controls used as a reference) were adjusted for case analysis according to phenotype and detection method. RESULTS: TN was associated with a lower risk of SD BC (OR 0.30 IC 0.10-0.89), as were intermediate (OR 0.18 IC 0.07-0.44) and advanced stages at diagnosis (OR 0.11 IC 0.03-0.34). Nulliparity in postmenopausal women and age at menopause were related to an increased risk of SD BC (OR 1.60 IC 1.08-2.36; OR 1.48 IC 1.09-2.00, respectively). Nulliparity in postmenopausal women was associated with a higher risk of HR+ (OR 1.66 IC 1.15-2.40). Age at menopause was related to a greater risk of HR+ (OR 1.60 IC 1.22-2.11) and HER2+ (OR 1.59 IC 1.03-2.45) tumors. CONCLUSION: Reproductive risk factors are associated with SD BC, as are HR+ tumors. Differences in BC-risk factor associations according to detection method may be related to prevailing phenotypes among categories.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): 864-873.e13, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(1): 101-114, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess iron is involved in the development of non-communicable diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. We aimed to describe the prevalence of excess iron and its determinants in healthy European adults. METHODS: Sociodemographic, lifestyle, iron status, dietary information, and HFE genotyping were obtained from controls from the nested case-control study EPIC-EurGast study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to address possible systemic inflammation. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to assess iron status and its determinants. RESULTS: Out of the 828 participants (median age: 58.7 years), 43% were females. Median serum ferritin and prevalence of excess iron were 143.7 µg/L and 35.2% in males, respectively, and 77 µg/L and 20% in females, both increasing with latitude across Europe. Prevalence of HFE C282Y mutation was significantly higher in Northern and Central Europe (~ 11%) than in the South (5%). Overweight/obesity, age, and daily alcohol and heme iron intake were independent determinants for iron status, with sex differences even after excluding participants with hsCRP > 5 mg/L. Obese males showed a greater consumption of alcohol, total and red meat, and heme iron, compared with those normal weight. CONCLUSION: Obesity, higher alcohol and heme iron consumption were the main risk factors for excess iron in males while only age was associated with iron overload in females. Weight control and promoting healthy lifestyle may help prevent iron overload, especially in obese people. Further research is needed to clarify determinants of excess iron in the healthy adult population, helping to reduce the associated comorbidities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemocromatose , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ferritinas , Hemocromatose/epidemiologia , Hemocromatose/genética , Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Ferro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 312, 2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool for identifying novel etiological pathways leading to cancer. In an earlier prospective study among pre- and postmenopausal women not using exogenous hormones, we observed a higher risk of breast cancer associated with higher blood concentrations of one metabolite (acetylcarnitine) and a lower risk associated with higher blood concentrations of seven others (arginine, asparagine, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) aa C36:3, ae C34:2, ae C36:2, ae C36:3, and ae C38:2). METHODS: To identify determinants of these breast cancer-related metabolites, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to identify their lifestyle and anthropometric correlates in 2358 women, who were previously included as controls in case-control studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and not using exogenous hormones at blood collection. Associations of each metabolite concentration with 42 variables were assessed using linear regression models in a discovery set of 1572 participants. Significant associations were evaluated in a validation set (n = 786). RESULTS: For the metabolites previously associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, concentrations of PCs ae C34:2, C36:2, C36:3, and C38:2 were negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with total and saturated fat intakes. PC ae C36:2 was also negatively associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with two scores reflecting adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Asparagine concentration was negatively associated with adiposity. Arginine and PC aa C36:3 concentrations were not associated to any of the factors examined. For the metabolite previously associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, acetylcarnitine, a positive association with age was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These associations may indicate possible mechanisms underlying associations between lifestyle and anthropometric factors, and risk of breast cancer. Further research is needed to identify potential non-lifestyle correlates of the metabolites investigated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959986

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may promote oxidative stress and inflammation and have been linked to multiple chronic diseases, including cancer. However, the association of AGEs with mortality after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis has not been previously investigated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for associations between dietary intake of AGEs with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality among 5801 participant cases diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study between 1993 and 2013. Dietary intakes of AGEs were estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires, linked to an AGE database, that accounted for food preparation and processing. During a median of 58 months of follow-up, 2421 cases died (1841 from CRC). Individually or combined, dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with all-cause and CRC-specific mortality among cases. However, there was a suggestion for a positive association between AGEs and all-cause or CRC-specific mortality among CRC cases without type II diabetes (all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.05) and CRC cases with the longest follow-up between recruitment and cancer diagnosis (CRC-specific, Pinteraction = 0.003; all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.01). Our study suggests that pre-diagnostic dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC patients. Further investigations using biomarkers of AGEs and stratifying by sex, diabetes status, and timing of exposure to AGEs are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
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