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1.
Prenat Diagn ; 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Here we trained an automatic phenotype assessment tool to recognize syndromic ears in two syndromes in fetuses-=CHARGE and Mandibulo-Facial Dysostosis Guion Almeida type (MFDGA)-versus controls. METHOD: We trained an automatic model on all profile pictures of children diagnosed with genetically confirmed MFDGA and CHARGE syndromes, and a cohort of control patients, collected from 1981 to 2023 in Necker Hospital (Paris) with a visible external ear. The model consisted in extracting landmarks from photographs of external ears, in applying geometric morphometry methods, and in a classification step using machine learning. The approach was then tested on photographs of two groups of fetuses: controls and fetuses with CHARGE and MFDGA syndromes. RESULTS: The training set contained a total of 1489 ear photographs from 526 children. The validation set contained a total of 51 ear photographs from 51 fetuses. The overall accuracy was 72.6% (58.3%-84.1%, p < 0.001), and 76.4%, 74.9%, and 86.2% respectively for CHARGE, control and MFDGA fetuses. The area under the curves were 86.8%, 87.5%, and 90.3% respectively for CHARGE, controls, and MFDGA fetuses. CONCLUSION: We report the first automatic fetal ear phenotyping model, with satisfactory classification performances. Further validations are required before using this approach as a diagnostic tool.

3.
Science ; 384(6694): eadf5489, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662826

RESUMO

Tubulin, one of the most abundant cytoskeletal building blocks, has numerous isotypes in metazoans encoded by different conserved genes. Whether these distinct isotypes form cell type- and context-specific microtubule structures is poorly understood. Based on a cohort of 12 patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia as well as mouse mutants, we identified and characterized variants in the TUBB4B isotype that specifically perturbed centriole and cilium biogenesis. Distinct TUBB4B variants differentially affected microtubule dynamics and cilia formation in a dominant-negative manner. Structure-function studies revealed that different TUBB4B variants disrupted distinct tubulin interfaces, thereby enabling stratification of patients into three classes of ciliopathic diseases. These findings show that specific tubulin isotypes have distinct and nonredundant subcellular functions and establish a link between tubulinopathies and ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Axonema , Centríolos , Cílios , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Tubulina (Proteína) , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Axonema/metabolismo , Centríolos/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/metabolismo , Mutação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos Knockout
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 194(7): e63531, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421086

RESUMO

Duplications of the 3q29 cytoband are rare chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) (overlapping or recurrent ~1.6 Mb 3q29 duplications). They have been associated with highly variable neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) with various associated features or reported as a susceptibility factor to the development of learning disabilities and neuropsychiatric disorders. The smallest region of overlap and the phenotype of 3q29 duplications remain uncertain. We here report a French cohort of 31 families with a 3q29 duplication identified by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), including 14 recurrent 1.6 Mb duplications, eight overlapping duplications (>1 Mb), and nine small duplications (<1 Mb). Additional genetic findings that may be involved in the phenotype were identified in 11 patients. Focusing on apparently isolated 3q29 duplications, patients present mainly mild NDD as suggested by a high rate of learning disabilities in contrast to a low proportion of patients with intellectual disabilities. Although some are de novo, most of the 3q29 duplications are inherited from a parent with a similar mild phenotype. Besides, the study of small 3q29 duplications does not provide evidence for any critical region. Our data suggest that the overlapping and recurrent 3q29 duplications seem to lead to mild NDD and that a severe or syndromic clinical presentation should warrant further genetic analyses.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Fenótipo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Adulto , Lactente
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1640, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388531

RESUMO

THOC6 variants are the genetic basis of autosomal recessive THOC6 Intellectual Disability Syndrome (TIDS). THOC6 is critical for mammalian Transcription Export complex (TREX) tetramer formation, which is composed of four six-subunit THO monomers. The TREX tetramer facilitates mammalian RNA processing, in addition to the nuclear mRNA export functions of the TREX dimer conserved through yeast. Human and mouse TIDS model systems revealed novel THOC6-dependent, species-specific TREX tetramer functions. Germline biallelic Thoc6 loss-of-function (LOF) variants result in mouse embryonic lethality. Biallelic THOC6 LOF variants reduce the binding affinity of ALYREF to THOC5 without affecting the protein expression of TREX members, implicating impaired TREX tetramer formation. Defects in RNA nuclear export functions were not detected in biallelic THOC6 LOF human neural cells. Instead, mis-splicing was detected in human and mouse neural tissue, revealing novel THOC6-mediated TREX coordination of mRNA processing. We demonstrate that THOC6 is required for key signaling pathways known to regulate the transition from proliferative to neurogenic divisions during human corticogenesis. Together, these findings implicate altered RNA processing in the developmental biology of TIDS neuropathology.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , RNA , Estilbenos , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , RNA/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Transporte de RNA , Mamíferos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2330, 2024 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282012

RESUMO

The field of dysmorphology has been changed by the use Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the development of Next Generation Phenotyping (NGP). The aim of this study was to propose a new NGP model for predicting KS (Kabuki Syndrome) on 2D facial photographs and distinguish KS1 (KS type 1, KMT2D-related) from KS2 (KS type 2, KDM6A-related). We included retrospectively and prospectively, from 1998 to 2023, all frontal and lateral pictures of patients with a molecular confirmation of KS. After automatic preprocessing, we extracted geometric and textural features. After incorporation of age, gender, and ethnicity, we used XGboost (eXtreme Gradient Boosting), a supervised machine learning classifier. The model was tested on an independent validation set. Finally, we compared the performances of our model with DeepGestalt (Face2Gene). The study included 1448 frontal and lateral facial photographs from 6 centers, corresponding to 634 patients (527 controls, 107 KS); 82 (78%) of KS patients had a variation in the KMT2D gene (KS1) and 23 (22%) in the KDM6A gene (KS2). We were able to distinguish KS from controls in the independent validation group with an accuracy of 95.8% (78.9-99.9%, p < 0.001) and distinguish KS1 from KS2 with an empirical Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.805 (0.729-0.880, p < 0.001). We report an automatic detection model for KS with high performances (AUC 0.993 and accuracy 95.8%). We were able to distinguish patients with KS1 from KS2, with an AUC of 0.805. These results outperform the current commercial AI-based solutions and expert clinicians.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Inteligência Artificial , Face/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas , Doenças Vestibulares , Humanos , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Fenótipo , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Genótipo
8.
Genet Med ; 26(1): 101007, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37860968

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BCL11B-related disorder (BCL11B-RD) arises from rare genetic variants within the BCL11B gene, resulting in a distinctive clinical spectrum encompassing syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder, with or without intellectual disability, associated with facial features and impaired immune function. This study presents an in-depth clinico-biological analysis of 20 newly reported individuals with BCL11B-RD, coupled with a characterization of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns of this genetic condition. METHODS: Through an international collaboration, clinical and molecular data from 20 individuals were systematically gathered, and a comparative analysis was conducted between this series and existing literature. We further scrutinized peripheral blood DNA methylation profile of individuals with BCL11B-RD, contrasting them with healthy controls and other neurodevelopmental disorders marked by established episignature. RESULTS: Our findings unveil rarely documented clinical manifestations, notably including Rubinstein-Taybi-like facial features, craniosynostosis, and autoimmune disorders, all manifesting within the realm of BCL11B-RD. We refine the intricacies of T cell compartment alterations of BCL11B-RD, revealing decreased levels naive CD4+ T cells and recent thymic emigrants while concurrently observing an elevated proportion of effector-memory expressing CD45RA CD8+ T cells (TEMRA). Finally, a distinct DNA methylation episignature exclusive to BCL11B-RD is unveiled. CONCLUSION: This study serves to enrich our comprehension of the clinico-biological landscape of BCL11B-RD, potentially furnishing a more precise framework for diagnosis and follow-up of individuals carrying pathogenic BCL11B variant. Moreover, the identification of a unique DNA methylation episignature offers a valuable diagnosis tool for BCL11B-RD, thereby facilitating routine clinical practice by empowering physicians to reevaluate variants of uncertain significance within the BCL11B gene.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
9.
Genet Med ; 26(4): 101059, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38158857

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndromes are genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders, caused by pathogenic variants in genes involved in primary cilia formation and function. We identified a previously undescribed type of OFD with brain anomalies, ranging from alobar holoprosencephaly to pituitary anomalies, in 6 unrelated families. METHODS: Exome sequencing of affected probands was supplemented with alternative splicing analysis in patient and control lymphoblastoid and fibroblast cell lines, and primary cilia structure analysis in patient fibroblasts. RESULTS: In 1 family with 2 affected males, we identified a germline variant in the last exon of ZRSR2, NM_005089.4:c.1211_1212del NP_005080.1:p.(Gly404GlufsTer23), whereas 7 affected males from 5 unrelated families were hemizygous for the ZRSR2 variant NM_005089.4:c.1207_1208del NP_005080.1:p.(Arg403GlyfsTer24), either occurring de novo or inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. ZRSR2, located on chromosome Xp22.2, encodes a splicing factor of the minor spliceosome complex, which recognizes minor introns, representing 0.35% of human introns. Patient samples showed significant enrichment of minor intron retention. Among differentially spliced targets are ciliopathy-related genes, such as TMEM107 and CIBAR1. Primary fibroblasts containing the NM_005089.4:c.1207_1208del ZRSR2 variant had abnormally elongated cilia, confirming an association between defective U12-type intron splicing, OFD and abnormal primary cilia formation. CONCLUSION: We introduce a novel type of OFD associated with elongated cilia and differential splicing of minor intron-containing genes due to germline variation in ZRSR2.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais , Masculino , Humanos , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Splicing de RNA , Íntrons , Spliceossomos/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 110(12): 2112-2119, 2023 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963460

RESUMO

Over two dozen spliceosome proteins are involved in human diseases, also referred to as spliceosomopathies. WW domain-binding protein 4 (WBP4) is part of the early spliceosomal complex and has not been previously associated with human pathologies in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. Through GeneMatcher, we identified ten individuals from eight families with a severe neurodevelopmental syndrome featuring variable manifestations. Clinical manifestations included hypotonia, global developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, brain abnormalities, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Genetic analysis revealed five different homozygous loss-of-function variants in WBP4. Immunoblotting on fibroblasts from two affected individuals with different genetic variants demonstrated a complete loss of protein, and RNA sequencing analysis uncovered shared abnormal splicing patterns, including in genes associated with abnormalities of the nervous system, potentially underlying the phenotypes of the probands. We conclude that bi-allelic variants in WBP4 cause a developmental disorder with variable presentations, adding to the growing list of human spliceosomopathies.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Humanos , Spliceossomos/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Síndrome , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Fenótipo
11.
Acta Paediatr ; 112(12): 2601-2610, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37786287

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to investigate the developmental outcome of children with Robin sequence (RS) for whom continuous positive airway pressure was the main strategy to release upper airway obstruction. METHODS: We included children with isolated RS or RS associated with Stickler syndrome who were aged 15 months to 6 years. We used the French version of the Child Development Inventory and calculated the developmental quotient (DQ) for eight different domains and the global DQ (DQ-global). We searched for determinants of risk of delay. RESULTS: Of the 87 children, for 71%, the developmental evolution was within the norm (DQ-global ≥86 or ≥-1 SD), 29% were at high risk of delay (DQ-global <86 or <-1 SD), and only 3% were at very high risk of delay (DQ-global <70 or <-2 SD). The DQs for expressive language and language comprehension were lower in our study population than the general population, but an improvement was noticed with the children's growth. CONCLUSION: Risk of a developmental delay was not greater for children with the most severe respiratory phenotype than the others. Children whose mothers had low education levels were more at risk than the others.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Síndrome de Pierre Robin , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/complicações , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/terapia , Paris , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães
12.
J Med Genet ; 60(11): 1084-1091, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37666660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syngnathia is an ultrarare craniofacial malformation characterised by an inability to open the mouth due to congenital fusion of the upper and lower jaws. The genetic causes of isolated bony syngnathia are unknown. METHODS: We used whole exome and Sanger sequencing and microsatellite analysis in six patients (from four families) presenting with syngnathia. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate vgll2a and vgll4l germline mutant zebrafish, and performed craniofacial cartilage analysis in homozygous mutants. RESULTS: We identified homozygous truncating variants in vestigial-like family member 2 (VGLL2) in all six patients. Two alleles were identified: one in families of Turkish origin and the other in families of Moroccan origin, suggesting a founder effect for each. A shared haplotype was confirmed for the Turkish patients. The VGLL family of genes encode cofactors of TEAD transcriptional regulators. Vgll2 is regionally expressed in the pharyngeal arches of model vertebrate embryos, and morpholino-based knockdown of vgll2a in zebrafish has been reported to cause defects in development of pharyngeal arch cartilages. However, we did not observe craniofacial anomalies in vgll2a or vgll4l homozygous mutant zebrafish nor in fish with double knockout of vgll2a and vgll4l. In Vgll2 -/- mice, which are known to present a skeletal muscle phenotype, we did not identify defects of the craniofacial skeleton. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that although loss of VGLL2 leads to a striking jaw phenotype in humans, other vertebrates may have the capacity to compensate for its absence during craniofacial development.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 11: 1171277, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37664547

RESUMO

Introduction: Mandibulo-Facial Dysostosis with Microcephaly (MFDM) is a rare disease with a broad spectrum of symptoms, characterized by zygomatic and mandibular hypoplasia, microcephaly, and ear abnormalities. Here, we aimed at describing the external ear phenotype of MFDM patients, and train an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based model to differentiate MFDM ears from non-syndromic control ears (binary classification), and from ears of the main differential diagnoses of this condition (multi-class classification): Treacher Collins (TC), Nager (NAFD) and CHARGE syndromes. Methods: The training set contained 1,592 ear photographs, corresponding to 550 patients. We extracted 48 patients completely independent of the training set, with only one photograph per ear per patient. After a CNN-(Convolutional Neural Network) based ear detection, the images were automatically landmarked. Generalized Procrustes Analysis was then performed, along with a dimension reduction using PCA (Principal Component Analysis). The principal components were used as inputs in an eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model, optimized using a 5-fold cross-validation. Finally, the model was tested on an independent validation set. Results: We trained the model on 1,592 ear photographs, corresponding to 1,296 control ears, 105 MFDM, 33 NAFD, 70 TC and 88 CHARGE syndrome ears. The model detected MFDM with an accuracy of 0.969 [0.838-0.999] (p < 0.001) and an AUC (Area Under the Curve) of 0.975 within controls (binary classification). Balanced accuracies were 0.811 [0.648-0.920] (p = 0.002) in a first multiclass design (MFDM vs. controls and differential diagnoses) and 0.813 [0.544-0.960] (p = 0.003) in a second multiclass design (MFDM vs. differential diagnoses). Conclusion: This is the first AI-based syndrome detection model in dysmorphology based on the external ear, opening promising clinical applications both for local care and referral, and for expert centers.

14.
Res Sq ; 2023 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37720017

RESUMO

THOC6 is the genetic basis of autosomal recessive THOC6 Intellectual Disability Syndrome (TIDS). THOC6 facilitates the formation of the Transcription Export complex (TREX) tetramer, composed of four THO monomers. The TREX tetramer supports mammalian mRNA processing that is distinct from yeast TREX dimer functions. Human and mouse TIDS model systems allow novel THOC6-dependent TREX tetramer functions to be investigated. Biallelic loss-of-functon(LOF) THOC6 variants do not influence the expression and localization of TREX members in human cells, but our data suggests reduced binding affinity of ALYREF. Impairment of TREX nuclear export functions were not detected in cells with biallelic THOC6 LOF. Instead, mRNA mis-splicing was observed in human and mouse neural tissue, revealing novel insights into THOC6-mediated TREX coordination of mRNA processing. We demonstrate that THOC6 is required for regulation of key signaling pathways in human corticogenesis that dictate the transition from proliferative to neurogenic divisions that may inform TIDS neuropathology.

15.
Clin Genet ; 104(5): 554-563, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37580112

RESUMO

The PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses various conditions caused by mosaic activating PIK3CA variants. PIK3CA somatic variants are also involved in various cancer types. Some generalized overgrowth syndromes are associated with an increased risk of Wilms tumor (WT). In PROS, abdominal ultrasound surveillance has been advocated to detect WT. We aimed to determine the risk of embryonic and other types of tumors in patients with PROS in order to evaluate surveillance relevance. We searched the clinical charts from 267 PROS patients for the diagnosis of cancer, and reviewed the medical literature for the risk of cancer. In our cohort, six patients developed a cancer (2.2%), and Kaplan Meier analyses estimated cumulative probabilities of cancer occurrence at 45 years of age was 5.6% (95% CI = 1.35%-21.8%). The presence of the PIK3CA variant was only confirmed in two out of four tumor samples. In the literature and our cohort, six cases of Wilms tumor/nephrogenic rests (0.12%) and four cases of other cancers have been reported out of 483 proven PIK3CA patients, in particular the p.(His1047Leu/Arg) variant. The risk of WT in PROS being lower than 5%, this is insufficient evidence to recommend routine abdominal imaging. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the risk of other cancer types, as well as the relationship with the extent of tissue mosaicism and the presence or not of the variant in the tumor samples.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais , Tumor de Wilms , Humanos , Mutação , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico , Tumor de Wilms/epidemiologia , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 31(10): 1117-1124, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37500725

RESUMO

Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 2 (NR2F2 or COUP-TF2) encodes a transcription factor which is expressed at high levels during mammalian development. Rare heterozygous Mendelian variants in NR2F2 were initially identified in individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD), then subsequently in cohorts of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and 46,XX ovotesticular disorders/differences of sexual development (DSD); however, the phenotypic spectrum associated with pathogenic variants in NR2F2 remains poorly characterized. Currently, less than 40 individuals with heterozygous pathogenic variants in NR2F2 have been reported. Here, we review the clinical and molecular details of 17 previously unreported individuals with rare heterozygous NR2F2 variants, the majority of which were de novo. Clinical features were variable, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), CHD, CDH, genital anomalies, DSD, developmental delays, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, congenital and acquired microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, renal failure, hearing loss, strabismus, asplenia, and vascular malformations, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with NR2F2 variants. The variants seen were predicted loss of function, including a nonsense variant inherited from a mildly affected mosaic mother, missense and a large deletion including the NR2F2 gene. Our study presents evidence for rare, heterozygous NR2F2 variants causing a highly variable syndrome of congenital anomalies, commonly associated with heart defects, developmental delays/intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and genital anomalies. Based on the new and previous cases, we provide clinical recommendations for evaluating individuals diagnosed with an NR2F2-associated disorder.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Deficiência Intelectual , Animais , Humanos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Fator II de Transcrição COUP/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular , Síndrome
17.
J Pediatr ; 259: 113451, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37169337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between congenital abnormalities and pediatric malignancies and evaluate the potential underlying molecular basis by collecting information on pediatric patients with cancer and congenital abnormalities. STUDY DESIGN: Tumeur Et Développement is a national, prospective, and retrospective multicenter study recording data of children with cancer and congenital abnormalities. When feasible, blood and tumoral samples are collected for virtual biobanking. RESULTS: From June 2013 to December 2019, 679 associations between pediatric cancers and congenital abnormalities were recorded. The most represented cancers were central nervous system tumors (n = 139; 20%), leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (n = 123; 18.1%), and renal tumors (n = 101; 15%). Congenital abnormalities were not related to any known genetic disorder in 66.5% of cases. In this group, the most common anomaly was intellectual disability (22.3%), followed by musculoskeletal (14.2%) and genitourinary anomalies (12.4%). Intellectual disability was mostly associated with hematologic malignancies. Embryonic tumors (neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma) were associated with consistent abnormalities, sometimes with a close anatomical neighborhood between the abnormality and the neoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: In the first Tumeur Et Développement analysis, 3 major themes have been identified: (1) germline mutations with or without known cancer predisposition, (2) postzygotic events responsible for genomic mosaicism, (3) coincidental associations. New pathways involved in cancer development need to be investigated to improve our understanding of childhood cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Anormalidades Congênitas , Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética
18.
Front Genet ; 14: 1099995, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37035737

RESUMO

Introduction: Prenatal ultrasound (US) anomalies are detected in around 5%-10% of pregnancies. In prenatal diagnosis, exome sequencing (ES) diagnostic yield ranges from 6% to 80% depending on the inclusion criteria. We describe the first French national multicenter pilot study aiming to implement ES in prenatal diagnosis following the detection of anomalies on US. Patients and methods: We prospectively performed prenatal trio-ES in 150 fetuses with at least two US anomalies or one US anomaly known to be frequently linked to a genetic disorder. Trio-ES was only performed if the results could influence pregnancy management. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) was performed before or in parallel. Results: A causal diagnosis was identified in 52/150 fetuses (34%) with a median time to diagnosis of 28 days, which rose to 56/150 fetuses (37%) after additional investigation. Sporadic occurrences were identified in 34/56 (60%) fetuses and unfavorable vital and/or neurodevelopmental prognosis was made in 13/56 (24%) fetuses. The overall diagnostic yield was 41% (37/89) with first-line trio-ES versus 31% (19/61) after normal CMA. Trio-ES and CMA were systematically concordant for identification of pathogenic CNV. Conclusion: Trio-ES provided a substantial prenatal diagnostic yield, similar to postnatal diagnosis with a median turnaround of approximately 1 month, supporting its routine implementation during the detection of prenatal US anomalies.

19.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 11(1): 29, 2023 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36803301

RESUMO

Congenital hydrocephalus is a common condition caused by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricular system. Four major genes are currently known to be causally involved in hydrocephalus, either isolated or as a common clinical feature: L1CAM, AP1S2, MPDZ and CCDC88C. Here, we report 3 cases from 2 families with congenital hydrocephalus due to bi-allelic variations in CRB2, a gene previously reported to cause nephrotic syndrome, variably associated with hydrocephalus. While 2 cases presented with renal cysts, one case presented with isolated hydrocephalus. Neurohistopathological analysis allowed us to demonstrate that, contrary to what was previously proposed, the pathological mechanisms underlying hydrocephalus secondary to CRB2 variations are not due to stenosis but to atresia of both Sylvius Aqueduct and central medullar canal. While CRB2 has been largely shown crucial for apico-basal polarity, immunolabelling experiments in our fetal cases showed normal localization and level of PAR complex components (PKCι and PKCζ) as well as of tight (ZO-1) and adherens (ß-catenin and N-Cadherin) junction molecules indicating a priori normal apicobasal polarity and cell-cell adhesion of the ventricular epithelium suggesting another pathological mechanism. Interestingly, atresia but not stenosis of Sylvius aqueduct was also described in cases with variations in MPDZ and CCDC88C encoding proteins previously linked functionally to the Crumbs (CRB) polarity complex, and all 3 being more recently involved in apical constriction, a process crucial for the formation of the central medullar canal. Overall, our findings argue for a common mechanism of CRB2, MPDZ and CCDC88C variations that might lead to abnormal apical constriction of the ventricular cells of the neural tube that will form the ependymal cells lining the definitive central canal of the medulla. Our study thus highlights that hydrocephalus related to CRB2, MPDZ and CCDC88C constitutes a separate pathogenic group of congenital non-communicating hydrocephalus with atresia of both Sylvius aqueduct and central canal of the medulla.


Assuntos
Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo , Hidrocefalia , Humanos , Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo/patologia , Polaridade Celular/genética , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Proteínas , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 191(5): 1210-1221, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36714960

RESUMO

Two to three thousand syndromes modify facial features: their screening requires the eye of an expert in dysmorphology. A widely used tool in shape characterization is geometric morphometrics based on landmarks, which are precise and reproducible anatomical points. Landmark positioning is user dependent and time consuming. Many automatic landmarking tools are currently available but do not work for children, because they have mainly been trained using photographic databases of healthy adults. Here, we developed a method for building an automatic landmarking pipeline for frontal and lateral facial photographs as well as photographs of external ears. We evaluated the algorithm on patients diagnosed with Treacher Collins (TC) syndrome as it is the most frequent mandibulofacial dysostosis in humans and is clinically recognizable although highly variable in severity. We extracted photographs from the photographic database of the maxillofacial surgery and plastic surgery department of Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades in Paris, France with the diagnosis of TC syndrome. The control group was built from children admitted for craniofacial trauma or skin lesions. After testing two methods of object detection by bounding boxes, a Haar Cascade-based tool and a Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN)-based tool, we evaluated three different automatic annotation algorithms: the patch-based active appearance model (AAM), the holistic AAM, and the constrained local model (CLM). The final error corresponding to the distance between the points placed by automatic annotation and those placed by manual annotation was reported. We included, respectively, 1664, 2044, and 1375 manually annotated frontal, profile, and ear photographs. Object recognition was optimized with the Faster R-CNN-based detector. The best annotation model was the patch-based AAM (p < 0.001 for frontal faces, p = 0.082 for profile faces and p < 0.001 for ears). This automatic annotation model resulted in the same classification performance as manually annotated data. Pretraining on public photographs did not improve the performance of the model. We defined a pipeline to create automatic annotation models adapted to faces with congenital anomalies, an essential prerequisite for research in dysmorphology.


Assuntos
Disostose Mandibulofacial , Doenças Raras , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Algoritmos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia
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