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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243774, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278468

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação taxonômica, morfométrica e limnológica da ictiofauna comercialmente importante do Riacho Sakhakot, Malakand, Paquistão. A área de estudo foi dividida em três locais ao longo do curso de água, nomeadamente Riacho Dargai, Riacho Sakhakot e Riacho Shergarh. As amostras de peixes foram coletadas aleatoriamente durante janeiro e agosto de 2017, com a ajuda de artes de peixes. Uma chave taxonômica foi projetada para os espécimes de peixes coletados. Foram identificadas dez espécies de peixes pertencentes a 3 ordens e 4 famílias. A família Cyprinidae foi a família dominante, com sete espécies representativas, enquanto as famílias Siluridae, Nemacheilidae e Mastacembelidae foram representadas por uma espécie cada. O comprimento total médio mais baixo e o comprimento padrão foram registrados em Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) como 9.2 ± 0.6 cm e 7.3 ± 0.6 cm, respectivamente, enquanto o comprimento total médio e o comprimento padrão mais altos foram registrados em Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) como 28.1 ± 1.7 cm e 15.9 ± 2.4 cm, respectivamente. O pH médio da água variou de 6.1 no Riacho Shergarh em agosto a 8.7 no Riacho Sakhakot em janeiro. A faixa de temperatura média foi registrada de 10.9 °C em janeiro no Riacho Dargai a 18.7 °C em agosto no Riacho Shergarh. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa para temperatura (p = 0,96) e pH (p = 0,14) nos três cursos de água. O presente estudo fornecerá uma linha de base para a criação e aprimoramento do estoque selvagem da ictiofauna comercialmente importante no campo da aquicultura e pesca.

3.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the COVID-19 pandemic era, the numbers of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with peripheral blood (PB) versus bone marrow (BM) grafts increased significantly, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. METHODS: We compared outcomes of BM vs PB grafts in patients ≥18 years with hematological malignancy who underwent T-cell replete haploidentical HCT and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. FINDINGS: Of 264 patients, 180 (68%) received BM and 84 (32%) received PB graft. Median age was 50 years in both groups. Majority (n=199, 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. More patients had acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome in BM (n=152, 85%) than PB (n=46, 55%), p<0.01. The median time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment, and incidence of grade II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) was comparable in both groups. Among grade II-IV aGVHD, steroid-refractory aGVHD (SR-aGVHD) was 9% (95% CI 5-18) in BM vs 32% (95% CI 19-54) in PB; hazard ratio (HR) 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-9.3, p=0.006. Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI 4-13) vs 22% (95% CI 14-36); HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.6, p=0.005 and systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI 1-7) vs 14% (95% CI 7-27), respectively; HR 5.6, 95% CI 1.7-18, p=0.004 at 1 year. PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or survival. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest the use of BM over PB graft for haploidentical HCT.

4.
J Exp Biol ; 224(16)2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435626

RESUMO

The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzymes are the predominant catabolic regulators of the major endocannabinoids (eCBs) anadamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), respectively. The expression and roles of eCBs during early embryogenesis remain to be fully investigated. Here, we inhibited FAAH and MAGL in zebrafish embryos during the first 24 h of life and examined motor neuron and locomotor development at 2 and 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Application of the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor, JZL195 (2 µmol l-1), resulted in a reduction in primary and secondary motor neuron axonal branching. JZL195 also reduced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression at neuromuscular junctions. Application of URB597 (5 µmol l-1), a specific inhibitor of the FAAH enzyme, also decreased primary motor neuron branching but did not affect secondary motor neuron branching and nAChR expression. Interestingly, JZL184 (5 µmol l-1), a specific inhibitor of MAGL, showed no effects on motor neuron branching or nAChR expression. Co-treatment of the enzyme inhibitors with the CB1R inhibitor AM251 confirmed the involvement of CB1R in motor neuron branching. Disruption of FAAH or MAGL reduced larval swimming activity, and AM251 attenuated the JZL195- and URB597-induced locomotor changes, but not the effects of JZL184. Together, these findings indicate that inhibition of FAAH, or augmentation of AEA acting through CB1R during early development, may be responsible for locomotor deficiencies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common autoimmune inflammatory skin disease, with no clear cause, treated with topical agents and phototherapy to conventional immunosuppressant drugs and biologic agents. Stem cell therapy has showed significant interest in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to use mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy compared to the topical application of the standard conventional corticosteroid cream. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 male adult albino rats were used, divided into 4 groups, 10 rats each. Group I (control), Group II (Psoriasis-like lesions induced by usage of Aldara cream), Group III (treated with Betamethasone) and Group IV (treated with mesenchymal stem cells). Specimens were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson's trichrome, immune-histochemical technique for CD4, CD8 and CD31. Ultra-sections were prepared for transmission electron microscope examination. RESULTS: MSCs demonstrated efficacy in reduction of disease severity in the form of uniform epidermal thickness covered by a very thin keratin layer. Normally- arranged layers of epidermal layers, with a clear border demarcation was seen between the epidermis and the dermis with apparently intact basement membrane. TEM showed absence of gaps between the tightly connected cells of the basal layer and the resting basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS: application of MSCs raises hope for developing a new, safe and effective therapy for psoriatic patients, avoiding the side effects of betamethasone.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
7.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113402, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333312

RESUMO

Inefficient water management in rice paddy is responsible for a large quantity of water and nutrient loss, which causes tremendous economic and environmental costs. Yet, quantified data on the water and nutrient losses are limited. A study was conducted during 2018-2019 with an Aman (wet)-Boro (dry)-Aman (wet) rice rotation to evaluate the effect of water management on water and nutrient losses through different pathways. The treatments in 2018 Aman season were: (i) rainfed, (ii) I6D (irrigation after six days of ponded water disappearance), and (iii) I3D. In 2019, the Boro season had (i) I6D and (ii) I3D, and the Aman season had (i) rainfed, (ii) I9D, and (iii) I1D treatments. The water input and output from the studied lysimeters were measured daily, and samples from the leachates, ponded water, and topsoil were routinely analyzed for nutrient content. In both Aman seasons, the rainfed cultivation had lower percolation losses (38-44 % of total input) than other treatments (45-70 %). Evapotranspiration in the Boro season (5.4-5.9 mm/day) was higher than that in the Aman seasons (4.2-4.6 mm/day) because of the drier Boro season. Ammonium (NH4⁺-N) leached at 0.6-6.7 mg/L and nitrate (NO3⁻-N) 0.6-5.6 mg/L in these rice seasons. Phosphorus concentration ranged 0.04-0.37 mg/L in the leachates and 0.04-0.51 mg/L in the ponded water. The rainfed and I9D exerted higher nutrient leaching concentration in some events and less so for the I6D treatment than the I3D and I1D, possibly because of the better nitrification and preferential flow paths induced by the prolonged drying processes. However, the rainfed, I9D, and I6D had less leaching load than the I3D and I1D because the latter had larger percolation volume. For example, the I6D treatment in the Boro season reduced the N leaching load by 44 % and P load by 39 % compared with the I3D, and the I9D in 2019 Aman season had 42 and 13 % less N and P leaching load, respectively, than the I1D treatment. The findings will contribute to the effort of developing a sustainable and climate-resilient rice production system.


Assuntos
Oryza , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Solo , Água
8.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329753

RESUMO

Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients because of higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for 6 days over a 2-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. However, the disease-specific efficacy of this regimen is not known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of fractionated busulfan regimen by estimating diseases specific survival outcomes. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and fludarabine. On days -13 and -12 before HCT, patients received 80 mg/m2 busulfan intravenously (IV) daily in an outpatient clinic. Additional chemotherapy was administered during inpatient treatment from day -6 through day -3, including fludarabine 40 mg/m2 and busulfan IV once daily. The dosing of busulfan was determined from pharmacokinetic analyses to achieve for the course a target area under the curve of 20,000 ± 12% µmol/min, which is close to the average exposure of myeloablative dose of busulfan. One hundred fifty patients with high-risk hematological malignancies up to 75 years were enrolled in this prospective phase II study. The objective was to evaluate NRM, relapse, survival, the rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and long-term complications. The median age of the patient population was 61 years (interquartile range, 55-67). The most common diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (AML; N = 59 [39.3%]), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 29 [19.3%]), and myelofibrosis (MF; N = 22 [14.7%]). Most had an unrelated donor (n = 93 [62%]) and received peripheral blood graft (n = 110 [73.3%]). Over half had an HCT-specific comorbidity index of ≥3 (n = 79 [52.7%]). The median follow-up among survivors was 43.4 months (interquartile range, 38.9-50.4). In patients with AML in complete remission, MDS, and myelofibrosis, 3-year overall survival was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2-88.5%), 43.6% (95% CI, 28.6-66.4%), and 59.1% (95% CI, 41.7-83.7%) respectively. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% (15.3%-28.7%), extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI, 20-34%), bronchiolitis obliterans was 4.7% (95% CI, 1.3-8.1%), and secondary malignancy was 8.7% (95% CI, 4.1-13.2%) at 3 years. Lengthening the duration of busulfan (fractionation) permits safe delivery of myeloablative conditioning in older patients, leading to prolonged survival. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 231: 106800, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246040

RESUMO

Reproductive traits are important for farm profitability because failure to reproduce is the primary reason for culling animals. Study objectives were to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate the trends for reproductive traits. Age at first calving (AFC), gestation length (GL), postpartum interval to pregnancy (PPIP), calving interval (CI) and calving ease score (CE) were recorded. A total of 38,906 records were available from 2426 buffalo cows. There was evaluation of genetic parameters using three models. The first model was applied to the first three parities fitting animal as a random effect. There was also a repeatability model utilized where data from all parities were evaluated to estimate heritability and repeatability. There was also a bivariate model to estimate genetic correlations between reproductive traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.0001 to 0.12 for PPIP and CE, respectively. Repeatability estimates were low to moderate ranging from 0.13 to 0.38 for PPIP and GL, respectively. There were close genetic correlations of 0.99 and - 0.93 between PPIP-CI and GL-CE, respectively. Genetic correlations between the other reproductive traits were low to moderate. Genetic trends for all reproductive traits were negative with and of a small magnitude, and regression coefficients were significant only for AFC and PPIP. The results from the current study supported the urgent need, not only for genetic or genomic selection improvement programs, but also for improving the farm management practices for reproductive traits in Egyptian buffalo.

11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 725-737, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226462

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistant Typhoid fever (resistant to previously used chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) has been commonly described in the South East Asia region and a recent report suggests that the salmonella typhi have reduced response to fluoroquinolones (nalidixic acid-resistant). The optimum treatment protocol for this type of serovar has not been established. This study compared different antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever which was conducted in the medicine ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and outdoor setting in private practice in Dhaka metropolitan city, Mymensingh and Sylhet town from January 2017 to December 2017. Bangladeshi adults with uncomplicated typhoid fever were included in this an open-label randomized controlled trial. Ciprofloxacin (20mg/kg of body weight/day for 14 days), azithromycin (20mg/kg/day for 14 days), and Cefixime (16mg/kg/day for 14 days) were compared. Of the 81 enrolled patients, 62 were eligible for analysis (61 S. enterica serovar Typhi, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A). Of the S enterica serovar Typhi isolates, 88.7% (55/62) were MDR and 93.5% (58/62) were nalidixic acid resistant (NAR). The clinical cure rate was 62% (13/21) with ciprofloxacin, 71% (15/21) with Cefixime, and 85% (17/20) with azithromycin (p=0.053). The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) fever clearance time for patients treated with azithromycin (5.8 days [5.1 to 6.5 days]) was shorter than that for patients treated with cefixime (7.1 days [6.2 to 8.1 days]) and ciprofloxacin (8.2 days [7.2 to 9.2 days]) (p<0.001). All three antibiotics were well tolerated. A 7-day course of azithromycin can be successfully used in uncomplicated typhoid fever due to isolates of MDR S enterica serovar Typhi.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Febre Tifoide , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161430

RESUMO

The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Rios , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Limnologia , Paquistão
13.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(9): 729-737, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147469

RESUMO

Positive results from recent clinical trials have significantly expanded current therapeutic options for patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, new insights into the associations between clinical characteristics of chronic GVHD, pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease, and the clinical and biological effects of novel therapeutic agents are required to allow for a more individualized approach to treatment. The current report is focused on setting research priorities and direction in the treatment of chronic GVHD. Detailed correlative scientific studies should be conducted in the context of clinical trials to evaluate associations between clinical outcomes and the biological effect of systemic therapeutics. For patients who require systemic therapy but not urgent initiation of glucocorticoids, clinical trials for initial systemic treatment of chronic GVHD should investigate novel agents as monotherapy without concurrently starting glucocorticoids, to avoid confounding biological, pathological, and clinical assessments. Clinical trials for treatment-refractory disease should specifically target patients with incomplete or suboptimal responses to most recent therapy who are early in their disease course. Close collaboration between academic medical centers, medical societies, and industry is needed to support an individualized, biology-based strategic approach to chronic GVHD therapy.

14.
Appl Opt ; 60(16): 4613-4621, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143016

RESUMO

We report a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the $^4{{\rm F}_{9/2}}$ to $^6{{\rm H}_{13/2}}$ lasing transition of a dysprosium (${{\rm Dy}^{3 +}}$)-doped ZBLAN fiber, a strong candidate for future compact and highly efficient yellow laser emission. Experimentally, we used a gallium nitride laser diode emitting at 447 nm as a pump source and measured yellow laser output generated with a maximum slope efficiency of 33%, which is less than half of the Stokes limit (of ${\sim}78\%$). This result is commensurate with two other reports of yellow emission from ${{\rm Dy}^{3 +}}$. As a result, we developed a numerical model to understand and analyze the improvement potential of this fiber laser system. For reliable spectroscopic data input to the numerical model, we measured the absorption and emission cross sections from ${{\rm Dy}^{3 +}}$-doped ZBLAN glass. We investigated the potential causes of the low experimental slope efficiency and found contributions from the background loss of the fiber and excited-state absorption (ESA) of the intracavity yellow light. We estimated the signal re-absorption cross section using the emission cross section and the McCumber relation, which was subsequently used in our numerical model to compare successfully with our experimental results. We show that the ESA can be reduced for future ${{\rm Dy}^{3 +}}$-doped yellow laser systems by cascade lasing or co-doping with a suitable rare earth ion desensitizer.

15.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135465

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is associated with older age and an increased risk of myeloid malignancies and cardiovascular complications. We analyzed donor DNA samples in patients with AML/MDS who underwent first allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) to investigate the association between donor CH and transplant outcomes. We performed targeted deep sequencing of 300 genes on donor blood samples and identified CH with the minimum variant allele frequency of 2%. Among 363 donors, 65 (18%) had CH. The most frequently mutated genes were DNMT3A (31 of 65; 48%), TET2 (16 of 65; 25%), PPM1D (5 of 65, 8%), and ASXL1 (7 of 65; 11%). Transplant outcomes: time to neutrophil and platelet recovery, relapse incidence, transplant-related mortality and progression-free survival, were comparable by donor CH. However, risk of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) at 6 months after transplant was higher with donor CH vs. without donor CH (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.6-3.6, p < 0.001 and HR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6-8.9, p = 0.003). In this homogenous population of AML/MDS patients, donor CH was associated with increased risk of grade II-IV and III-IV aGvHD. Further studies to investigate the mechanisms of increased aGvHD and therapeutic interventions to improve aGvHD in the context of donor CH are warranted.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare in-hospital outcomes of bailout support to prophylactic support with percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVAD) for high-risk nonemergent percutaneous coronary intervention (HRPCI). BACKGROUND: Prophylactic support with pVAD for a HRPCI is used in patients felt to be at risk for hemodynamic collapse during PCI. An alternative strategy of bailout pVAD support in the event of hemodynamic collapse is also entertained. METHODS: We compared the outcomes of patients entered in the cVAD database who underwent Impella Protected PCI (ProPCI group) with patients from the cVAD and USpella databases receiving bailout Impella support for hemodynamic collapse during HRPCI (Bailout group). RESULTS: A total of 1,028 patients supported with Impella pVAD were entered into the cVAD database as of July 2019 and were included in this analysis. Of those 971 were in the ProPCI group and 57 in the Bailout group. Patients in the Bailout group were more often female (50.9%vs. 27.2%, p = .0002) with higher median baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (40%vs. 30%, p < .0001) and with lower prevalence of both heart failure (42.1%vs. 56.9%, p = .0385) and left main disease (40.0%vs. 56.1%, p = .0250) compared to the ProPCI group. Unadjusted and adjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the Bailout group (49.1%vs. 4.3%, and 57.8%vs. 4.4%, p < .0001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, the bailout group was associated with significant increased mortality compared to ProPCI group. Female gender was more frequently observed in patients requiring bailout pVAD. Further investigation is warranted in order to generalize the findings of our study.

17.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 205: 106102, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Malignant ventricular arrhythmias (MAs) occur unpredictably and lead to emergencies. A new approach that uses a timely tracking device e.g., photoplethysmogram (PPG) solely to predict MAs would be irreplaceably valuable and it is natural to expect the approach can predict the occurrence as early as possible. METHOD: We assumed that with an appropriate metric based on signal complexity, the heartbeat interval time series (HbIs) can be used to manifest the intrinsic characteristics of the period immediately precedes the MAs (preMAs). The approach first characterizes the patterns of preMAs by a new complexity metric (the refined composite multi-scale entropy). The MAs detector is then constructed by checking the discriminability of the MAs against the sinus rhythm and other prevalent arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation and premature ventricular contraction) of three machine-learning models (SVM, Random Forest, and XGboost). RESULTS: Two specifications are of interest: the length of the HbIs needed to delineate the preMAs patterns sufficiently (lspec) and how long before the occurrence of MAs will the HbIs manifest specific patterns that are distinct enough to predict the impending MAs (tspec). Our experimental results confirmed the best performance came from a Random-Forest model with an average precision of 99.99% and recall of 88.98% using a HbIs of 800 heartbeats (the lspec), 108 seconds (the tspec) before the occurrence of MAs. CONCLUSION: By experimental validation of the unique pattern of the preMAs in HbIs and using it in the machine learning model, we showed the high possibility of MAs prediction in a broader circumstance, which may cover daily healthcare using the alternative sensor in HbIs monitoring. Therefore, this research is theoretically and practically significant in cardiac arrest prevention.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Parada Cardíaca , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros , Estudos de Viabilidade , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/diagnóstico
18.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), elevated serum interleukin-34 (IL-34) levels are linked with increased disease severity. IL-34 binds to 2 receptors, macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and syndecan 1, which are coexpressed in RA macrophages. Expression of both IL-34 and syndecan 1 is strikingly elevated in the RA synovium, yet their mechanisms of action remain undefined. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of action of IL-34 in RA. METHODS: To characterize the significance of IL-34 in immunometabolism, its mechanism of action was elucidated in joint macrophages, fibroblasts, and T effector cells using RA and preclinical models. RESULTS: Intriguingly, syndecan 1 activated IL-34-induced M-CSFR phosphorylation and reprogrammed RA naive cells into distinctive CD14+CD86+GLUT1+ M34 macrophages that expressed elevated levels of IL-1ß, CXCL8, and CCL2. In murine M34 macrophages, the inflammatory phenotype was accompanied by potentiated glycolytic activity, exhibited by transcriptional up-regulation of GLUT1, c-Myc, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and amplified pyruvate and l-lactate secretion. Local expression of IL-34 provoked arthritis by expanding the glycolytic F4/80-positive, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-positive macrophage population, which in turn attracted fibroblasts and polarized Th1/Th17 cells. The cross-talk between murine M34 macrophages and Th1/Th17 cells broadened the inflammatory and metabolic phenotypes, resulting in the expansion of IL-34 pathogenicity. Consequently, IL-34-instigated joint inflammation was alleviated in RAG-/- mice compared to wild-type mice. Syndecan 1 deficiency attenuated IL-34-induced arthritis by interfering with joint glycolytic M34 macrophage and osteoclast remodeling. Similarly, inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-d-glucose reversed the joint swelling and metabolic rewiring triggered by IL-34 via HIF-1α and c-Myc induction. CONCLUSION: IL-34 is a novel endogenous factor that remodels hypermetabolic M34 macrophages and facilitates their cross-regulation with T effector cells to advance inflammatory bone destruction in RA.

19.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 404.e1-404.e5, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965178

RESUMO

The cell of origin (COO) classification into germinal center B cell (GCB) and non-GCB types has been shown to predict survival outcomes in newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In the relapsed/refractory (R/R) setting, there is building evidence that COO does not predict prognosis after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The present analysis aimed to compare survival outcomes based on COO classification in R/R DLBCL patients who underwent auto-SCT. This retrospective study included adult patients with R/R DLBCL who underwent auto-SCT at MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 2007 and December 2016. The Hans algorithm using CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 markers was used to classify patients by COO. A total of 122 patients with DLBCL (71 GCB, 51 non-GCB) were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the 2 groups, except for older median age in the GCB cohort (64 years versus 58 years; P < .004). The median overall survival (OS) time was 68.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3 to not reached) months for the total population, 68.5 (95% CI, 44.8 to not reached) for GCB, and not reached for non-GCB. The 3-year OS rate was 0.659 (95% CI, 0.575 to 0.755) for the total population, 0.653 (95% CI, 0.547 to 0.779) for GCB, and 0.666 (95% CI, 0.537 to 0.824) for non-GCB. When adjusted for age and other factors of interest, no statistically significant associations for OS or progression-free survival were observed between the 2 cohorts. Our results confirm that COO loses its prognostic potential in patients with R/R DLBCL who receive high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT and both GCB and non-GCB types of DLBCL derive similar benefit from auto-SCT. Younger age, female sex, and pretransplantation disease status were associated with better OS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Adulto , Feminino , Centro Germinativo , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
20.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 430.e1-430.e7, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965187

RESUMO

Prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in up to 37% of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with adverse prognosis and increased risk of bleeding. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can increase platelet counts in thrombocytopenic patients. We conducted a phase II study, adaptively randomizing patients at ≥35 days post-HSCT to receive placebo or eltrombopag at a platelet count ≤20,000/µL for 7 days or platelet transfusion-dependent and a neutrophil count ≥1500/µL. Sixty patients were randomized to eltrombopag (n = 42) or placebo (n = 18) and received at least 1 dose. Fifteen patients (36%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥30,000/µL, compared with 5 patients (28%) in the placebo arm, with a posterior probability of 0.75. (The protocol required this probability to be >0.975 to declare a winner; thus, the results are inconclusive.) However, 9 patients (21%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL, compared with no patients in the placebo arm (P = .046). The overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality were similar in the 2 arms. In conclusion, compared with placebo, treatment with eltrombopag led to a higher percentage of patients achieving a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after HSCT.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Trombocitopenia , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
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