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1.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872030

RESUMO

Fe-N-C with atomically dispersed Fe single atoms is the most promising candidate to replace platinum for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. However, the conventional synthesis procedures require quantities solvents and metal precursors, sluggish adsorption process, and tedious washing, resulting in limited metal doping and uneconomical for large-scale production. For the first time, Fe2O3 is adopted as the Fe precursor to derive abundant single Fe atoms dispersed on carbon surfaces. The Fe-N-C catalyst synthesized by this simple method shows an excellent ORR activity with half-wave potentials of 0.82 and 0.90 V in acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. A single fuel cell with an optimized Fe-N-C cathode shows a high peak power density of 0.84 W cm-2. The solid-state transformation synthesis method developed in this study may shed light on mass production of single-atom-based catalysts.

2.
Adv Mater ; 33(13): e2008194, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645858

RESUMO

Oxygen-redox of layer-structured metal-oxide cathodes has drawn great attention as an effective approach to break through the bottleneck of their capacity limit. However, reversible oxygen-redox can only be obtained in the high-voltage region (usually over 3.5 V) in current metal-oxide cathodes. Here, we realize reversible oxygen-redox in a wide voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V in a P2-layered Na0.7 Mg0.2 [Fe0.2 Mn0.6 □0.2 ]O2 cathode material, where intrinsic vacancies are located in transition-metal (TM) sites and Mg-ions are located in Na sites. Mg-ions in the Na layer serve as "pillars" to stabilize the layered structure during electrochemical cycling, especially in the high-voltage region. Intrinsic vacancies in the TM layer create the local configurations of "□-O-□", "Na-O-□" and "Mg-O-□" to trigger oxygen-redox in the whole voltage range of charge-discharge. Time-resolved techniques demonstrate that the P2 phase is well maintained in a wide potential window range of 1.5-4.5 V even at 10 C. It is revealed that charge compensation from Mn- and O-ions contributes to the whole voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V, while the redox of Fe-ions only contributes to the high-voltage region of 3.0-4.5 V. The orphaned electrons in the nonbonding 2p orbitals of O that point toward TM-vacancy sites are responsible for reversible oxygen-redox, and Mg-ions in Na sites suppress oxygen release effectively.

3.
Small ; : e2007760, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739573

RESUMO

Li-CO2 batteries with dual efficacy for greenhouse gas CO2 sequestration and high energy output have been regarded as a promising electrochemical energy storage technology. However, battery feasibility has been hampered by inferior electrochemical performance due to large overpotentials and low cyclability primarily caused by the difficult decomposition of ultra-stable Li2 CO3 during charge. The use of cathode catalysts has been highlighted as a promising solution and catalyst properties, as well as the nature of discharge products, are closely correlated with electrochemical performance. Here, the catalyst design strategies that include active site enrichment, electrical transport enhancement, and mass transfer improvement are summarized. Catalyst effects on product decomposition are then subsequently introduced, while product geometry and chemical composition will be explored, with an emphasis on the formation/decomposition of Li2 C2 O4 instead of Li2 CO3 . Building on previous research, future directions that facilitate improvements in catalyst design are put forward to reinforce the fundamental development of Li-CO2 batteries.

4.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523063

RESUMO

Energy storage and conversion systems, including batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, solar cells, and photoelectrochemical water splitting, have played vital roles in the reduction of fossil fuel usage, addressing environmental issues and the development of electric vehicles. The fabrication and surface/interface engineering of electrode materials with refined structures are indispensable for achieving optimal performances for the different energy-related devices. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques, the gas-phase thin film deposition processes with self-limiting and saturated surface reactions, have emerged as powerful techniques for surface and interface engineering in energy-related devices due to their exceptional capability of precise thickness control, excellent uniformity and conformity, tunable composition and relatively low deposition temperature. In the past few decades, ALD and MLD have been intensively studied for energy storage and conversion applications with remarkable progress. In this review, we give a comprehensive summary of the development and achievements of ALD and MLD and their applications for energy storage and conversion, including batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, solar cells, and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Moreover, the fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in different devices will be deeply reviewed. Furthermore, the large-scale potential of ALD and MLD techniques is discussed and predicted. Finally, we will provide insightful perspectives on future directions for new material design by ALD and MLD and untapped opportunities in energy storage and conversion.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(15): 8258-8267, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480154

RESUMO

Manganese-rich layered oxide materials hold great potential as low-cost and high-capacity cathodes for Na-ion batteries. However, they usually form a P2 phase and suffer from fast capacity fade. In this work, an O3 phase sodium cathode has been developed out of a Li and Mn-rich layered material by leveraging the creation of transition metal (TM) and oxygen vacancies and the electrochemical exchange of Na and Li. The Mn-rich layered cathode material remains primarily O3 phase during sodiation/desodiation and can have a full sodiation capacity of ca. 220 mAh g-1 . It delivers ca. 160 mAh g-1 specific capacity between 2-3.8 V with >86 % retention over 250 cycles. The TM and oxygen vacancies pre-formed in the sodiated material enables a reversible migration of TMs from the TM layer to the tetrahedral sites in the Na layer upon de-sodiation and sodiation. The migration creates metastable states, leading to increased kinetic barrier that prohibits a complete O3-P3 phase transition.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507072

RESUMO

The activation of commercial Li2S remains to be one of the key challenges against its commercialization as a starting cathode material for a sulfur-based Li-ion battery system. In this work we take advantage of the lower oxidation potential of commercial Na2S (1-3 wt%) to serve as an in situ and local polysulfide injector for the activation of commercial Li2S (70 wt%). In contrast to applying pre-solvated redox mediators, this technique allows for the activation of commercial Li2S at lower voltages with an electrolyte content as low as 3 µL mg-1Li2S at 3 mgmgLi2S cm-2 and 4 µL mg-1Li2S at 6.5 mgLi2S cm-2 without any other material modification.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6373, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311508

RESUMO

Direct formation of ultra-small nanoparticles on carbon supports by rapid high temperature synthesis method offers new opportunities for scalable nanomanufacturing and the synthesis of stable multi-elemental nanoparticles. However, the underlying mechanisms affecting the dispersion and stability of nanoparticles on the supports during high temperature processing remain enigmatic. In this work, we report the observation of metallic nanoparticles formation and stabilization on carbon supports through in situ Joule heating method. We find that the formation of metallic nanoparticles is associated with the simultaneous phase transition of amorphous carbon to a highly defective turbostratic graphite (T-graphite). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations suggest that the defective T-graphite provide numerous nucleation sites for the nanoparticles to form. Furthermore, the nanoparticles partially intercalate and take root on edge planes, leading to high binding energy on support. This interaction between nanoparticles and T-graphite substrate strengthens the anchoring and provides excellent thermal stability to the nanoparticles. These findings provide mechanistic understanding of rapid high temperature synthesis of metal nanoparticles on carbon supports and the origin of their stability.

9.
Adv Mater ; : e2001358, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251601

RESUMO

Lithium-rich layered oxides (LLOs) are prospective cathode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but severe voltage decay and energy attenuation with cycling still hinder their practical applications. Herein, a series of full concentration gradient-tailored agglomerated-sphere LLOs are designed with linearly decreasing Mn and linearly increasing Ni and Co from the particle center to the surface. The gradient-tailored LLOs exhibit noticeably reduced voltage decay, enhanced rate performance, improved cycle stability, and thermal stability. Without any material modifications or electrolyte optimizations, the gradient-tailored LLO with medium-slope shows the best electrochemical performance, with a very low average voltage decay of 0.8 mV per cycle as well as a capacity retention of 88.4% within 200 cycles at 200 mA g-1 . These excellent findings are due to spinel structure suppression, electrochemical stress optimization, and Jahn-Teller effect inhibition. Further investigation shows that the gradient-tailored LLO reduces the thermal release percentage by as much as about 41% when the battery is charged to 4.4 V. This study provides an effective method to suppress the voltage decay of LLOs for further practical utilization in LIBs and also puts forward a bulk-structure design strategy to prepare better electrode materials for different rechargeable batteries.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230316

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur batteries are attractive alternatives to lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical specific energy and natural abundance of sulfur. However, the practical specific energy and cycle life of Li-S pouch cells are significantly limited by the use of thin sulfur electrodes, flooded electrolytes and Li metal degradation. Here we propose a cathode design concept to achieve good Li-S pouch cell performances. The cathode is composed of uniformly embedded ZnS nanoparticles and Co-N-C single-atom catalyst to form double-end binding sites inside a highly oriented macroporous host, which can effectively immobilize and catalytically convert polysulfide intermediates during cycling, thus eliminating the shuttle effect and lithium metal corrosion. The ordered macropores enhance ionic transport under high sulfur loading by forming sufficient triple-phase boundaries between catalyst, conductive support and electrolyte. This design prevents the formation of inactive sulfur (dead sulfur). Our cathode structure shows improved performances in a pouch cell configuration under high sulfur loading and lean electrolyte operation. A 1-A-h-level pouch cell with only 100% lithium excess can deliver a cell specific energy of >300 W h kg-1 with a Coulombic efficiency >95% for 80 cycles.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(46): 19745-19753, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147025

RESUMO

The intrinsic poor thermal stability of layered LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 (NCM) cathodes and the exothermic side reactions triggered by the associated oxygen release are the main safety threats for their large-scale implantation. In the NCM family, it is widely accepted that Ni is the stability troublemaker, while Mn has long been considered as a structure stabilizer, whereas the role of Co remains elusive. Here, via Co/Mn exchange in a Ni-rich LiNi0.83Co0.11Mn0.06O2 cathode, we demonstrate that the chemical and structural stability of the deep delithiated NCM cathodes are significantly dominated by Co rather than the widely reported Mn. Operando synchrotron X-ray characterization coupling with in situ mass spectrometry reveal that the Co4+ reduces prior to the reduction of Ni4+ and could thus prolong the Ni migration by occupying the tetrahedra sites and, hence, postpone the oxygen release and thermal failure. In contrast, the Mn itself is stable, but barely stabilizes the Ni4+. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the intrinsic role of compositional tuning on the Ni-rich/Co-free layered oxide cathode materials to guarantee the safe operation of high-energy Li-ion batteries.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(51): 22978-22982, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017504

RESUMO

Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) batteries have attracted extensive research interest due to their high energy density. Other than Li2 O2 (a typical discharge product in Li-O2 batteries), LiOH has proved to be electrochemically active as an alternative product. Here we report a simple strategy to achieve a reversible LiOH-based Li-O2 battery by using a cation additive, sodium ions, to the lithium electrolyte. Without redox mediators in the cell, LiOH is detected as the sole discharge product and it charges at a low charge potential of 3.4 V. A solution-based reaction route is proposed, showing that the competing solvation environment of the catalyst and Li+ leads to LiOH precipitation at the cathode. It is critical to tune the cell chemistry of Li-O2 batteries by designing a simple system to promote LiOH formation/decomposition.

13.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(23): 8790-8839, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107869

RESUMO

All-solid-state lithium ion batteries (ASSLBs) are considered next-generation devices for energy storage due to their advantages in safety and potentially high energy density. As the key component in ASSLBs, solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) with non-flammability and good adaptability to lithium metal anodes have attracted extensive attention in recent years. Among the current SSEs, composite solid-state electrolytes (CSSEs) with multiple phases have greater flexibility to customize and combine the advantages of single-phase electrolytes, which have been widely investigated recently and regarded as promising candidates for commercial ASSLBs. Based on existing investigations, herein, we present a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in CSSEs. Initially, we introduce the historical development from solid-state ionic conductors to CSSEs, and then summarize the fundamentals including mechanisms of lithium ion transport, key evaluation parameters, design principles, and key materials. Four main types of advanced structures for CSSEs are classified and highlighted according to the recent progress. Moreover, advanced characterization and computational simulation techniques including machine learning are reviewed for the first time, and the main challenges and perspectives of CSSEs are also provided for their future development.

14.
Nature ; 585(7823): 63-67, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879503

RESUMO

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high energy density that can be safely charged and discharged at high rates are desirable for electrified transportation and other applications1-3. However, the sub-optimal intercalation potentials of current anodes result in a trade-off between energy density, power and safety. Here we report that disordered rock salt4,5 Li3+xV2O5 can be used as a fast-charging anode that can reversibly cycle two lithium ions at an average voltage of about 0.6 volts versus a Li/Li+ reference electrode. The increased potential compared to graphite6,7 reduces the likelihood of lithium metal plating if proper charging controls are used, alleviating a major safety concern (short-circuiting related to Li dendrite growth). In addition, a lithium-ion battery with a disordered rock salt Li3V2O5 anode yields a cell voltage much higher than does a battery using a commercial fast-charging lithium titanate anode or other intercalation anode candidates (Li3VO4 and LiV0.5Ti0.5S2)8,9. Further, disordered rock salt Li3V2O5 can perform over 1,000 charge-discharge cycles with negligible capacity decay and exhibits exceptional rate capability, delivering over 40 per cent of its capacity in 20 seconds. We attribute the low voltage and high rate capability of disordered rock salt Li3V2O5 to a redistributive lithium intercalation mechanism with low energy barriers revealed via ab initio calculations. This low-potential, high-rate intercalation reaction can be used to identify other metal oxide anodes for fast-charging, long-life lithium-ion batteries.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645250

RESUMO

Electrolyte modulation simultaneously suppresses polysulfide the shuttle effect and lithium dendrite formation of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, the sluggish S redox kinetics, especially under high S loading and lean electrolyte operation, has been ignored, which dramatically limits the cycle life and energy density of practical Li-S pouch cells. Herein, we demonstrate that a rational combination of selenium doping, core-shell hollow host structure, and fluorinated ether electrolytes enables ultrastable Li stripping/plating and essentially no polysulfide shuttle as well as fast redox kinetics. Thus, high areal capacity (>4 mAh cm-2 ) with excellent cycle stability and Coulombic efficiency were both demonstrated in Li metal anode and thick S cathode (4.5 mg cm-2 ) with a low electrolyte/sulfur ratio (10 µL mg-1 ). This research further demonstrates a durable Li-Se/S pouch cell with high specific capacity, validating the potential practical applications.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(41): 18229-18233, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638459

RESUMO

Despite the exceptionally high energy density of lithium metal anodes, the practical application of lithium-metal batteries (LMBs) is still impeded by the instability of the interphase between the lithium metal and the electrolyte. To formulate a functional electrolyte system that can stabilize the lithium-metal anode, the solvation behavior of the solvent molecules must be understood because the electrochemical properties of a solvent can be heavily influenced by its solvation status. We unambiguously demonstrated the solvation rule for the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) enabler in an electrolyte system. In this study, fluoroethylene carbonate was used as the SEI enabler due to its ability to form a robust SEI on the lithium metal surface, allowing relatively stable LMB cycling. The results revealed that the solvation number of fluoroethylene carbonate must be ≥1 to ensure the formation of a stable SEI in which the sacrificial reduction of the SEI enabler subsequently leads to the stable cycling of LMBs.

17.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(8): 1436-1444, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634307

RESUMO

ConspectusThe importance of current Li-ion batteries (LIBs) in modern society cannot be overstated. While the energy demands of devices increase, the corresponding enhancements in energy density of battery technologies are highly sought after. Currently, many different battery concepts, such as Li-S and metal-air among many others, have been investigated. However, their practical implementation has mostly been restricted to the prototyping stage. In fact, most of these technologies require rework of existing Li-ion battery manufacturing facilities and will naturally incur resistance to change from industry. For this reason, one specifically attractive technology, anionic redox in transition metal oxides, has gained much attention in the recent years. Its ability to be directly used in already established processes and higher energy density with similar electrolyte formulation make it a key materials research direction for next generation Li-ion batteries. In regular LIBs, the redox active centers are the transition metal cation. In anion redox, both the anion (typically O) and the transition metal cation are utilized as redox centers with enormous implications for increasing energy density. This new material can be highly competitive for replacing the current LIB technologies. However, much is still unknown about its cycling mechanism. Upon activating the O redox couples, most cationic and anionic redox active materials will either evolve O2 or undergo irreversible structural degradation with associated severe decreases in electrochemical performance. By understanding the transition from full anion redox to partial cationic and anionic redox, we hope readers can gain a deeper understanding of the topic.This Account will focus mainly on the work that was conducted by our group at Argonne National Laboratory. The phenomenon of cationic and anionic redox in a lithium-ion battery cathode will first be discussed. Our work in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering to investigate the spectroscopic features of O after delithiation has found potential "fingerprint" signals that could likely be used to identify and confirm reversible O redox if corroborated with other techniques. To follow, we will examine our work on Li-O2 batteries. While our group and the research community have had many significant contributions and improvements to the field of Li-O2 (such as decreasing overpotential and achieving cyclability in air environment), its practical application is still far from realization. Perhaps our most important contribution to this area is the discovery that Ir deposited on reduced graphene oxide can be used to halt the reduction of O2 at the LiO2 oxidation state. This not only significantly decreases the charge overpotential but also presents the important concept of oxidation-state controlled discharge. Subsequently, we will focus on our oxidation state-controlled redox-based charging of oxygen in a pure oxygen redox Li-ion battery. Future implications of this technology will be emphasized.

18.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(15): 5407-5445, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658219

RESUMO

Developing high-safety Li-metal anodes (LMAs) is extremely important for the application of high-energy Li-metal batteries (LMBs), especially Li-S and Li-O2 battery systems. However, the notorious Li-dendrite growth problem results in serious safety concerns for any energy storage application. Through a recent combination of interface-based science, nanotechnology-based solutions and characterization methods, the LMA is now primed for a technological boom. In this review, the recent emerging strategies and perspectives on LMAs are summarized, following which the current huge evolution in interfacial chemistry regulation, optimizing electrolyte components, designing a rational 'host' for lithium metal, optimizing "solid-state electrolytes" and other emerging strategies for developing high-safety LMAs is highlighted. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art in situ/operando synchrotron-based X-ray techniques for high safety LMB research are introduced. With the further development of LMAs in the future, subsequent application in high energy LMBs is to be expected.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(14): 4667-4680, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567623

RESUMO

The ever-increasing demand for high-performance batteries has been driving the fundamental understanding of the crystal/surface structural and electrochemical properties of intercalation cathode materials, among which the olivine-type, spinel, and layered lithium transition metal oxide materials have received particular attention in the past decade due to their successful commercialization. While the most current studies focus on the macroscopic and bulk crystal structure of these materials, our previous work suggests that, as a confined region wherein charge transfer takes place, the electrochemical performances of the interfacial structures of cathode materials are largely dictated by the break in the structural symmetry from 3D (bulk) to 2D (surface), which leads to reconstructions under different chemical/electrochemical conditions. By summarizing various works in this subject and offering our perspectives, this tutorial review will reveal for the first time the correlation between the surface structure and interface reconstruction at atomic/molecular scales and their direct impact on the corresponding electrochemical performances. More importantly, by extending the knowledge obtained from these three well-studied system, we believe that the same established principles could universally apply to other cathode materials that have been the frontiers of new battery chemistries.

20.
Nano Lett ; 20(6): 4681-4686, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426983

RESUMO

Metal-air batteries have attracted extensive research interests due to their high theoretical energy density. However, most of the previous studies were limited by applying pure oxygen in the cathode, sacrificing the gravimetric and volumetric energy density. Here, we develop a real sodium-"air" battery, in which the rechargeability of the battery relies on the reversible reaction of the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2·2H2O). After an oxygen evolution reaction catalyst is applied, the charge overpotential is largely reduced to achieve a high energy efficiency. The sodium-air batteries deliver high areal capacity of 4.2 mAh·cm-2 and have a decent cycle life of 100 cycles. The oxygen crossover effect is largely suppressed by replacing the oxygen with air, whereas the dense solid electrolyte interphase formed on the sodium anode further prolongs the cycle life.

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