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1.
Environ Pollut ; 320: 121056, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634862

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern. Several studies have found an increased diabetes risk associated with long-term air pollution exposure. However, most current studies are limited in their generalizability, exposure assessment, or the ability to differentiate incidence and prevalence cases. We assessed the association between air pollution and first documented diabetes occurrence in a national U.S. cohort of older adults to estimate diabetes risk. We included all Medicare enrollees 65 years and older in the fee-for-service program, part A and part B, in the contiguous United States (2000-2016). Participants were followed annually until the first recorded diabetes diagnosis, end of enrollment, or death (264, 869, 458 person-years). We obtained annual estimates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and warm-months ozone (O3) exposures from highly spatiotemporally resolved prediction models. We assessed the simultaneous effects of the pollutants on diabetes risk using survival analyses. We repeated the models in cohorts restricted to ZIP codes with air pollution levels not exceeding the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) during the study period. We identified 10, 024, 879 diabetes cases of 41, 780, 637 people (3.8% of person-years). The hazard ratio (HR) for first diabetes occurrence was 1.074 (95% CI 1.058; 1.089) for 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, 1.055 (95% CI 1.050; 1.060) for 5 ppb increase in NO2, and 0.999 (95% CI 0.993; 1.004) for 5 ppb increase in O3. Both for NO2 and PM2.5 there was evidence of non-linear exposure-response curves with stronger associations at lower levels (NO2 ≤ 36 ppb, PM2.5 ≤ 8.2 µg/m3). Furthermore, associations remained in the restricted low-level cohorts. The O3-diabetes exposure-response relationship differed greatly between models and require further investigation. In conclusion, exposures to PM2.5 and NO2 are associated with increased diabetes risk, even when restricting the exposure to levels below the NAAQS set by the U.S. EPA.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2211282119, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574646

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) likely increases the risks of dementia, yet little is known about the relative contributions of different constituents. Here, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study (2000 to 2017) by integrating the Medicare Chronic Conditions Warehouse database and two independently sourced datasets of high-resolution PM2.5 major chemical composition, including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), ammonium (NH4+), and soil dust (DUST). To investigate the impact of long-term exposure to PM2.5 constituents on incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), hazard ratios for dementia and AD were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, and penalized splines were used to evaluate potential nonlinear concentration-response (C-R) relationships. Results using two exposure datasets consistently indicated higher rates of incident dementia and AD for an increased exposure to PM2.5 and its major constituents. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 mass was associated with a 6 to 7% increase in dementia incidence and a 9% increase in AD incidence. For different PM2.5 constituents, associations remained significant for BC, OM, SO42-, and NH4+ for both end points (even after adjustments of other constituents), among which BC and SO42- showed the strongest associations. All constituents had largely linear C-R relationships in the low exposure range, but most tailed off at higher exposure concentrations. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to PM2.5 is significantly associated with higher rates of incident dementia and AD and that SO42-, BC, and OM related to traffic and fossil fuel combustion might drive the observed associations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Demência , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Medicare , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poeira , Demência/induzido quimicamente , Demência/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , China
3.
Environ Res ; 217: 114794, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410458

RESUMO

The established evidence associating air pollution with health is limited to populations from specific regions. Further large-scale studies in several regions worldwide are needed to support the literature to date and encourage national governments to act. Brazil is an example of these regions where little research has been performed on a large scale. To address this gap, we conducted a study looking at the relationship between daily PM2.5, NO2, and O3, and hospital admissions for circulatory and respiratory diseases across Brazil between 2008 and 2018. A time-series analytic approach was applied with a distributed lag modeling framework. We used a generalized conditional quasi-Poisson regression model to estimate relative risks (RRs) of the association of each air pollutant with the hospitalization for circulatory and respiratory diseases by sex, age group, and Brazilian regions. Our study population includes 23, 791, 093 hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory diseases in Brazil between 2008 and 2018. Among those, 53.1% are respiratory diseases, and 46.9% are circulatory diseases. Our findings suggest significant associations of ambient air pollution (PM2.5, NO2, and O3) with respiratory and circulatory hospital admissions in Brazil. The national meta-analysis for the whole population showed that for every increase of PM2.5 by 10 µg/m3, there is a 3.28% (95%CI: 2.61; 3.94) increase in the risk of hospital admission for respiratory diseases. For O3, we found positive associations only for some sub-group analyses by age and sex. For NO2, our findings suggest that a 10 ppb increase in this pollutant, there was a 35.26% (95%CI: 24.07; 46.44) increase in the risk of hospital admission for respiratory diseases. This study may better support policymakers to improve the air quality and public health in Brazil.

4.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 96, 2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36221093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have documented PM2.5's links with adverse health outcomes. Comparatively fewer studies have evaluated specific PM2.5 components. The lack of exposure measurements and high correlation among different PM2.5 components are two limitations. METHODS: We applied a novel exposure prediction model to obtain annual Census tract-level concentrations of 15 PM2.5 components (Zn, V, Si, Pb, Ni, K, Fe, Cu, Ca, Br, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, OC, EC) in Massachusetts from 2000 to 2015, to which we matched geocoded deaths. All non-accidental mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and respiratory mortality were examined for the population aged 18 or over. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression models were used to examine the cumulative associations between PM2.5 components mixture and outcomes and each component's contributions to the cumulative associations. We have fit WQS models on 15 PM2.5 components and a priori identified source groups (heavy fuel oil combustion, biomass burning, crustal matter, non-tailpipe traffic source, tailpipe traffic source, secondary particles from power plants, secondary particles from agriculture, unclear source) for the 15 PM2.5 components. Total PM2.5 mass analysis and single component associations were also conducted through quasi-Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Positive cumulative associations between the components mixture and all three outcomes were observed from the WQS models. Components with large contribution to the cumulative associations included K, OC, and Fe. Biomass burning, traffic emissions, and secondary particles from power plants were identified as important source contributing to the cumulative associations. Mortality rate ratios for cardiovascular mortality were of greater magnitude than all non-accidental mortality and respiratory mortality, which is also observed in cumulative associations estimated from WQS, total PM2.5 mass analysis, and single component associations. CONCLUSION: We have found positive associations between the mixture of 15 PM2.5 components and all non-accidental mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and respiratory mortality. Among these components, Fe, K, and OC have been identified as having important contribution to the cumulative associations. The WQS results also suggests potential source effects from biomass burning, traffic emissions, and secondary particles from power plants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Óleos Combustíveis , Doenças Respiratórias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Óleos Combustíveis/análise , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14386, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999246

RESUMO

We estimated mortality and economic loss attributable to PM2·5 air pollution exposure in 429 counties of Iran in 2018. Ambient PM2.5-related deaths were estimated using the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). According to the ground-monitored and satellite-based PM2.5 data, the annual mean population-weighted PM2·5 concentrations for Iran were 30.1 and 38.6 µg m-3, respectively. We estimated that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 contributed to 49,303 (95% confidence interval (CI) 40,914-57,379) deaths in adults ≥ 25 yr. from all-natural causes based on ground monitored data and 58,873 (95% CI 49,024-68,287) deaths using satellite-based models for PM2.5. The crude death rate and the age-standardized death rate per 100,000 population for age group ≥ 25 year due to ground-monitored PM2.5 data versus satellite-based exposure estimates was 97 (95% CI 81-113) versus 116 (95% CI 97-135) and 125 (95% CI 104-145) versus 149 (95% CI 124-173), respectively. For ground-monitored and satellite-based PM2.5 data, the economic loss attributable to ambient PM2.5-total mortality was approximately 10,713 (95% CI 8890-12,467) and 12,792.1 (95% CI 10,652.0-14,837.6) million USD, equivalent to nearly 3.7% (95% CI 3.06-4.29) and 4.3% (95% CI 3.6-4.5.0) of the total gross domestic product in Iran in 2018.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Morte Perinatal , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12086-12096, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968717

RESUMO

The COVID-19 containment response policies (CRPs) had a major impact on air quality (AQ). These CRPs have been time-varying and location-specific. So far, despite having numerous studies on the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on AQ, a knowledge gap remains on the association between stringency of CRPs and AQ changes across the world, regions, nations, and cities. Here, we show that globally across 1851 cities (each more than 300 000 people) in 149 countries, after controlling for the impacts of relevant covariates (e.g., meteorology), Sentinel-5P satellite-observed nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels decreased by 4.9% (95% CI: 2.2, 7.6%) during lockdowns following stringent CRPs compared to pre-CRPs. The NO2 levels did not change significantly during moderate CRPs and even increased during mild CRPs by 2.3% (95% CI: 0.7, 4.0%), which was 6.8% (95% CI: 2.0, 12.0%) across Europe and Central Asia, possibly due to population avoidance of public transportation in favor of private transportation. Among 1768 cities implementing stringent CRPs, we observed the most NO2 reduction in more populated and polluted cities. Our results demonstrate that AQ improved when and where stringent COVID-19 CRPs were implemented, changed less under moderate CRPs, and even deteriorated under mild CRPs. These changes were location-, region-, and CRP-specific.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 849: 157934, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence for the associations between atmospheric particle components exposure and psychiatric health. We aimed to identify the most toxic particle component(s) and source(s) related with psychiatric illness. METHODS: Using Health Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SIDs), we analyzed the relative risk (RR) of psychiatric hospitalization associated with increased residential exposure to 14 particle components (Zn, V, Si, Pb, Ni, K, Fe, Cu, Ca, Br, sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC)). We covered the residents of eight U.S. states, who contributed to 5,012,041 psychiatric admissions over 2002-2018. Single component models were conducted via fitting zero-inflated negative binomial regression for each component with aggregated counts of total psychiatric hospitalizations per ZIP code per year as dependent variable. We used Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) to identify particle source factors and obtained the source-specific estimates. Generalized Weighted Quantile Sum (gWQS) Regression was applied to obtain an overall mixture effect. Separate but similar models were fitted for different age groups (<30 yrs. vs. ≥ 30 yrs) and psychiatric illness sub-categories to assess effect heterogeneity. RESULTS: Sulfate, Fe, Pb and Zn were associated with the largest risk increases in single-component models. The biggest harmful associations were observed for metal industry source (high loadings of Pb and sulfate). For one quartile increase in components mixture score, we observed an adjusted RR of 1.24 (95 % CI, 1.21-1.26). Older population were more affected. We also observed higher increase in bipolar and psychotic admission risk for increased components source and mixture level. CONCLUSION: Living in areas with higher levels of particle components was associated with increased risk of psychiatric hospitalization among the residents in eight U.S. states. Certain components (i.e. Pb, sulfate) and sources (metal industry) were the most related.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hospitalização , Humanos , Chumbo , Nitratos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Sulfatos
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060562, 2022 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leukaemia is one of the most common cancers and may be associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens, especially outdoor air pollutants. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of ambient air pollution and leukaemia in Tehran, Iran. DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, data about the residential district of leukaemia cases diagnosed from 2010 to 2016 were inquired from the Ministry of Health cancer database. Data from a previous study were used to determine long-term average exposure to different air pollutants in 22 districts of Tehran. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify pollutants in two exposure profiles. The association between air pollutants and leukaemia incidence was analysed by negative binomial regression. SETTING: Twenty-two districts of Tehran megacity. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with leukaemia. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome variables were incidence rate ratios (IRR) of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukaemia across the districts of Tehran. RESULTS: The districts with higher concentrations for all pollutants were near the city centre. The IRR was positive but non-significant for most of the air pollutants. However, annual mean NOx was directly and significantly associated with total leukaemia incidence in the fully adjusted model (IRR (95% CI): 1.03 (1.003 to 1.06) per 10 ppb increase). Based on LPA, districts with a higher multiple air-pollutants profile were also associated with higher leukaemia incidence (IRR (95% CI): 1.003 (0.99 to 1.007) per 1 ppb increase). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that districts with higher air pollution (nitrogen oxides and multipollutants) have higher incidence rates of leukaemia in Tehran, Iran. This study warrants conducting further research with individual human data and better control of confounding.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Leucemia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Environ Int ; 164: 107241, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases is well established, yet the evidence for other diseases remains limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution with mortality from diabetes, dementia, psychiatric disorders, chronic kidney disease (CKD), asthma, acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), as well as mortality from all-natural and cardiorespiratory causes in the Danish nationwide administrative cohort. METHODS: We followed all residents aged ≥ 30 years (3,083,227) in Denmark from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2017. Annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (warm season) were estimated using European-wide hybrid land-use regression models (100 m × 100 m) and assigned to baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between air pollution and mortality, accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors. We additionally applied indirect adjustment for smoking and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: During 47,023,454 person-years of follow-up, 803,881 people died from natural causes. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 (mean: 12.4 µg/m3), NO2 (20.3 µg/m3), and/or BC (1.0 × 10-5/m) was statistically significantly associated with all studied mortality outcomes except CKD. A 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with higher mortality from all-natural causes (hazard ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.13), cardiovascular disease (1.09; 1.07-1.12), respiratory disease (1.11; 1.07-1.15), lung cancer (1.19; 1.15-1.24), diabetes (1.10; 1.04-1.16), dementia (1.05; 1.00-1.10), psychiatric disorders (1.38; 1.27-1.50), asthma (1.13; 0.94-1.36), and ALRI (1.14; 1.09-1.20). Associations with long-term exposure to ozone (mean: 80.2 µg/m3) were generally negative but became significantly positive for several endpoints in two-pollutant models. Generally, associations were attenuated but remained significant after indirect adjustment for smoking and BMI. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and/or BC in Denmark were associated with mortality beyond cardiorespiratory diseases, including diabetes, dementia, psychiatric disorders, asthma, and ALRI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Demência , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Ozônio , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(12): 1429-1439, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258439

RESUMO

Rationale: Ambient air pollution exposure has been linked to mortality from chronic cardiorespiratory diseases, while evidence on respiratory infections remains more limited. Objectives: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and pneumonia-related mortality in adults in a pool of eight European cohorts. Methods: Within the multicenter project ELAPSE (Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe), we pooled data from eight cohorts among six European countries. Annual mean residential concentrations in 2010 for fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone were estimated using Europe-wide hybrid land-use regression models. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the associations between air pollution and pneumonia, influenza, and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) mortality. Measurements and Main Results: Of 325,367 participants, 712 died from pneumonia and influenza combined, 682 from pneumonia, and 695 from ALRI during a mean follow-up of 19.5 years. NO2 and BC were associated with 10-12% increases in pneumonia and influenza combined mortality, but 95% confidence intervals included unity (hazard ratios, 1.12 [0.99-1.26] per 10 µg/m3 for NO2; 1.10 [0.97-1.24] per 0.5 10-5m-1 for BC). Associations with pneumonia and ALRI mortality were almost identical. We detected effect modification suggesting stronger associations with NO2 or BC in overweight, employed, or currently smoking participants compared with normal weight, unemployed, or nonsmoking participants. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to combustion-related air pollutants NO2 and BC may be associated with mortality from lower respiratory infections, but larger studies are needed to estimate these associations more precisely.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 820: 153057, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term road traffic noise exposure is linked to cardio-metabolic disease morbidity, whereas evidence on mortality remains limited. OBJECTIVES: We investigated association of long-term exposure to road traffic noise with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We linked 22,858 females from the Danish Nurse Cohort (DNC), recruited into the Danish Register of Causes of Death up to 2014. Road traffic noise levels since 1970 were modelled by Nord2000 as the annual mean of a weighted 24 h average (Lden). Cox regression models examined the associations between Lden (5-year and 23-year means) and all-cause and cause-specific mortalities, adjusting for lifestyle and exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide). RESULTS: During follow-up (mean 17.4 years), 3902 nurses died: 1622 from cancer, 922 from CVDs (289 from stroke), 338 from respiratory diseases (186 from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 114 from lower respiratory tract infections [ALRIs]), 234 from dementia, 95 from psychiatric disorders, and 79 from diabetes. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality from fully-adjusted models were 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) and 1.09 (1.03, 1.15) per 10 dB of 5-year and 23-year mean Lden, respectively, which attenuated slightly in our main model (fully-adjusted plus PM2.5: 1.04 [1.00, 1.10]; 1.08 [1.02, 1.13]). Main model estimates suggested the strongest associations between 5-year mean Lden and diabetes (1.14: 0.81, 1.61), ALRIs (1.13: 0.84, 1.54), dementia (1.12: 0.90, 1.38), and stroke (1.10: 0.91, 1.31), whereas associations with 23-year mean Lden were suggested for respiratory diseases (1.15: 0.95, 1.39), psychiatric disorders (1.11: 0.78, 1.59), and all cancers (1.08: 0.99, 1.17). DISCUSSION: Among the female nurses from the DNC, we observed that long-term exposure to road traffic noise led to premature mortality, independently of air pollution, and its adverse effects may extend well beyond those on the cardio-metabolic system to include respiratory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6555, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772927

RESUMO

We quantified the impacts of wildfire-related PM2.5 on 2 million hospital admissions records due to cardiorespiratory diseases in Brazil between 2008 and 2018. The national analysis shows that wildfire waves are associated with an increase of 23% (95%CI: 12%-33%) in respiratory hospital admissions and an increase of 21% (95%CI: 8%-35%) in circulatory hospital admissions. In the North (where most of the Amazon region is located), we estimate an increase of 38% (95%CI: 30%-47%) in respiratory hospital admissions and 27% (95%CI: 15%-39%) in circulatory hospital admissions. Here we report epidemiological evidence that air pollution emitted by wildfires is significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiorespiratory hospital admissions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brasil , Humanos
13.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 115, 2021 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of ischemic heart disease, yet evidence on stroke shows mixed results. We examine the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of stroke, overall and by subtype (ischemic or hemorrhagic), after adjustment for air pollution. METHODS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and sixty female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort recruited in 1993 or 1999 were followed for stroke-related first-ever hospital contact until December 31st, 2014. Full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained and annual means of road traffic noise (Lden [dB]) and air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm [PM2.5 and PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitrogen oxides [NOx]) were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for the associations of one-, three-, and 23-year running means of Lden preceding stroke (all, ischemic or hemorrhagic), adjusting for stroke risk factors and air pollutants. The World Health Organization and the Danish government's maximum exposure recommendations of 53 and 58 dB, respectively, were explored as potential Lden thresholds. RESULTS: Of 25,660 nurses, 1237 developed their first stroke (1089 ischemic, 148 hemorrhagic) during 16 years mean follow-up. For associations between a 1-year mean of Lden and overall stroke incidence, the estimated HR (95% CI) in the fully adjusted model was 1.06 (0.98-1.14) per 10 dB, which attenuated to 1.01 (0.93-1.09) and 1.00 (0.91-1.09) in models further adjusted for PM2.5 or NO2, respectively. Associations for other exposure periods or separately for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were similar. There was no evidence of a threshold association between Lden and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was suggestively positively associated with the risk of overall stroke, although not after adjusting for air pollution.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87002, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise have been established for ischemic heart disease, but findings have been mixed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to examine associations of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution with AF. METHODS: Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of 1-, 3-, and 23-y mean road traffic noise and air pollution exposures with AF incidence in 23,528 women enrolled in the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44y at baseline in 1993 or 1999). AF diagnoses were ascertained via the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean weighted 24-h average road traffic noise levels (Lden) at the nurses' residences, since 1970, were estimated using the Nord2000 model, and annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using the DEHM/UBM/AirGIS model. RESULTS: Of 23,528 nurses with no prior AF diagnosis at the cohort baseline, 1,522 developed AF during follow-up. In a fully adjusted model (including PM2.5), the estimated risk of AF was 18% higher [hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18; 1.02, 1.36] in nurses with residential 3-y mean Lden levels >58 dB vs. <48 dB, with similar findings for 1-y mean exposures. A 3.9-µg/m3 increase in 3-y mean PM2.5 was associated with incident AF before and after adjustment for concurrent exposure to road traffic noise (HR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20 and 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19, respectively). Associations with 1-y mean PM2.5 exposures were positive but closer to the null and not significant. Associations with NO2 were null for all time periods before and after adjustment for road traffic noise and inverse when adjusted for concurrent PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of prospective data from a cohort of Danish female nurses followed for up to 14 y provided suggestive evidence of independent associations between incident AF and 1- and 3-y exposures to road traffic noise and PM2.5. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8090.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Fibrilação Atrial , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Environ Res ; 202: 111770, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331926

RESUMO

Investigations of the educational implications of children's exposure to air pollutants at school are crucial to enhance our understanding of the hazards for children. Most of the existing literature is based on studies performed in North America and Europe. Further investigation is required in low- and middle-income countries, where there are important challenges related to public health, transportation, environment, and education sector. In response, in this present study, we studied the association between proximity of schools to roads and the academic achievement of the students in the Federal District, Brazil. We accessed academic achievement data at the student level. The data consist of 256 schools (all the public schools in the FD) and a total of 344,175 students (all the students enrolled in the public schools in the FD in 2017-2020). We analyzed the association between the length of all roads within buffers around schools and student-level academic performance using mixed-effects regression models. After adjustments for several covariates, the results of the primary analysis indicate that the presence of roads surrounding schools is negatively associated with student-level academic performance in the FD. This association varies significantly depending on the buffer size surrounding schools. We found that the highest effects occur in the first buffer, with 250 m. While in the first buffer we estimated that an increase of 1 km of length of roads around schools was associated with a statistically significant decrease of 0.011 (95%CI: 0.008; 0.013) points in students' grades (students' academic performance varies from 0 to 10), in the buffer of 1 km we found a decrease of 0.002 (95%CI: 0.002; 0.002) points in the student-level academic performance. Findings from our investigation provide support for the creation of effective health, educational and urban planning policies for local intervention in the FD. This is essential to improve the environmental quality surrounding schools to protect children from exposure to environmental hazards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudantes
17.
Eur Respir J ; 58(6)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While air pollution has been linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), evidence on the role of environmental noise is just emerging. We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. METHODS: We defined COPD incidence for 24 538 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44 years) as the first hospital contact between baseline (1993 or 1999) and 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model/Urban Background Model/Air Geographic Information System modelling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 using the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were applied to assess the associations of air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. RESULTS: 977 nurses developed COPD during a mean of 18.6 years' follow-up. We observed associations with COPD for all three exposures with HRs and 95% CIs of 1.19 (1.01-1.41) per 6.26 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.13 (1.05-1.20) per 8.19 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (1.06-1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. Associations with NO2 and Lden attenuated slightly after mutual adjustment, but were robust to adjustment for PM2.5. Associations with PM2.5 were attenuated to null after adjustment for either NO2 or Lden. No potential interaction effect was observed between air pollutants and noise. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially traffic-related NO2, and to road traffic noise were independently associated with COPD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9239, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927268

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most rapidly increasing malignancy worldwide with an estimated 2.1 million cancer cases in the latest, 2018 World Health Organization (WHO) report. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of air pollution and lung cancer, in Tehran, Iran. Residential area information of the latest registered lung cancer cases that were diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 (N = 1,850) were inquired from the population-based cancer registry of Tehran. Long-term average exposure to PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, NOX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and BTEX in 22 districts of Tehran were estimated using land use regression models. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to generate multi-pollutant exposure profiles. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between air pollutants and lung cancer incidence. The districts with higher concentrations for all pollutants were mostly in downtown and around the railway station. Districts with a higher concentration for NOx (IRR = 1.05, for each 10 unit increase in air pollutant), benzene (IRR = 3.86), toluene (IRR = 1.50), ethylbenzene (IRR = 5.16), p-xylene (IRR = 9.41), o-xylene (IRR = 7.93), m-xylene (IRR = 2.63) and TBTEX (IRR = 1.21) were significantly associated with higher lung cancer incidence. Districts with a higher multiple air-pollution profile were also associated with more lung cancer incidence (IRR = 1.01). Our study shows a positive association between air pollution and lung cancer incidence. This association was stronger for, respectively, p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, benzene, m-xylene and toluene.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/envenenamento , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/envenenamento , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/envenenamento , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tolueno/análise , Tolueno/envenenamento , Xilenos/análise , Xilenos/envenenamento
19.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e148, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of nonauditory health effects of road traffic noise exposure is growing. This prospective cohort study aimed to estimate the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise above a threshold and incident myocardial infarction (MI) in Denmark. METHODS: In the Danish Nurse Cohort study, we used data of 22,378 women, at recruitment in 1993 and 1999, who reported information on MI risk factors. The participants' first hospital contact or out-of-hospital death due to MI were followed-up until 2014. We investigated a relationship between residential exposures to road traffic noise levels (Lden) up to 23 years and incident MI (overall, nonfatal, and fatal) using time-varying Cox regression models adjusting for potential confounders and air pollutants. We estimated thresholds of road traffic noise (53, 56, and 58 dB) associated with incident MI in a piece-wise linear regression model. RESULTS: Of the 22,378 participants, 633 developed MI, 502 of which were nonfatal. We observed a non-linear relationship between the 23-year running mean of Lden and incident MI with a threshold level of 56 dB, above which hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.30 (0.97, 1.75) for overall and 1.46 (1.05, 2.03) for nonfatal MI per 10 dB. The association with nonfatal MI attenuated slightly to 1.34 (0.95, 1.90) after adjustment for fine particles. CONCLUSIONS: We found that long-term exposure to road traffic noise above 56 dB may increase the risk of MI. The study findings suggest that road traffic noise above 56 dB may need regulation in addition to the regulation of ambient pollutants.

20.
Environ Int ; 152: 106464, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is likely a risk factor for asthma, and recent evidence suggests the possible relevance of road traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with adult-asthma incidence. METHODS: We followed 28,731 female nurses (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, recruited in 1993 and 1999, for first hospital contact for asthma from 1977 until 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 with the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 with the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to associate air pollution and road traffic noise exposure with asthma incidence. RESULTS: During 18.6 years' mean follow-up, 528 out of 23,093 participants had hospital contact for asthma. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for asthma incidence associated with 3-year moving average exposures were 1.29 (1.03, 1.61) per 6.3 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.07, 1.27) per 8.2 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.12 (1.00, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. The HR for NO2 remained unchanged after adjustment for either PM2.5 or Lden, while the HRs for PM2.5 and Lden attenuated to unity after adjustment for NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with adult-asthma incidence independently of road traffic noise, with NO2 most relevant. Road traffic noise was not independently associated with adult-asthma incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
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