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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 153057, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term road traffic noise exposure is linked to cardio-metabolic disease morbidity, whereas evidence on mortality remains limited. OBJECTIVES: We investigated association of long-term exposure to road traffic noise with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We linked 22,858 females from the Danish Nurse Cohort (DNC), recruited into the Danish Register of Causes of Death up to 2014. Road traffic noise levels since 1970 were modelled by Nord2000 as the annual mean of a weighted 24 h average (Lden). Cox regression models examined the associations between Lden (5-year and 23-year means) and all-cause and cause-specific mortalities, adjusting for lifestyle and exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide). RESULTS: During follow-up (mean 17.4 years), 3902 nurses died: 1622 from cancer, 922 from CVDs (289 from stroke), 338 from respiratory diseases (186 from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 114 from lower respiratory tract infections [ALRIs]), 156 from dementia, 95 from psychiatric disorders, and 79 from diabetes. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality from fully-adjusted models were 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) and 1.09 (1.03, 1.15) per 10 dB of 5-year and 23-year mean Lden, respectively, which attenuated slightly in our main model (fully-adjusted plus PM2.5: 1.04 [1.00, 1.10]; 1.08 [1.02, 1.13]). Main model estimates suggested the strongest associations between 5-year mean Lden and diabetes (1.14: 0.81, 1.61), ALRIs (1.13: 0.84, 1.54), dementia (1.12: 0.90, 1.38), and stroke (1.10: 0.91, 1.31), whereas associations with 23-year mean Lden were suggested for respiratory diseases (1.15: 0.95, 1.39), psychiatric disorders (1.11: 0.78, 1.59), and all cancers (1.08: 0.99, 1.17). DISCUSSION: Among the female nurses from the DNC, we observed that long-term exposure to road traffic noise led to premature mortality, independently of air pollution, and its adverse effects may extend well beyond those on the cardio-metabolic system to include respiratory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

2.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 115, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of ischemic heart disease, yet evidence on stroke shows mixed results. We examine the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of stroke, overall and by subtype (ischemic or hemorrhagic), after adjustment for air pollution. METHODS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and sixty female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort recruited in 1993 or 1999 were followed for stroke-related first-ever hospital contact until December 31st, 2014. Full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained and annual means of road traffic noise (Lden [dB]) and air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm [PM2.5 and PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitrogen oxides [NOx]) were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for the associations of one-, three-, and 23-year running means of Lden preceding stroke (all, ischemic or hemorrhagic), adjusting for stroke risk factors and air pollutants. The World Health Organization and the Danish government's maximum exposure recommendations of 53 and 58 dB, respectively, were explored as potential Lden thresholds. RESULTS: Of 25,660 nurses, 1237 developed their first stroke (1089 ischemic, 148 hemorrhagic) during 16 years mean follow-up. For associations between a 1-year mean of Lden and overall stroke incidence, the estimated HR (95% CI) in the fully adjusted model was 1.06 (0.98-1.14) per 10 dB, which attenuated to 1.01 (0.93-1.09) and 1.00 (0.91-1.09) in models further adjusted for PM2.5 or NO2, respectively. Associations for other exposure periods or separately for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were similar. There was no evidence of a threshold association between Lden and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was suggestively positively associated with the risk of overall stroke, although not after adjusting for air pollution.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6555, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772927

RESUMO

We quantified the impacts of wildfire-related PM2.5 on 2 million hospital admissions records due to cardiorespiratory diseases in Brazil between 2008 and 2018. The national analysis shows that wildfire waves are associated with an increase of 23% (95%CI: 12%-33%) in respiratory hospital admissions and an increase of 21% (95%CI: 8%-35%) in circulatory hospital admissions. In the North (where most of the Amazon region is located), we estimate an increase of 38% (95%CI: 30%-47%) in respiratory hospital admissions and 27% (95%CI: 15%-39%) in circulatory hospital admissions. Here we report epidemiological evidence that air pollution emitted by wildfires is significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiorespiratory hospital admissions.

5.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(10): e671-e680, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how environmental factors affect SARS-CoV-2 transmission could inform global containment efforts. Despite high scientific and public interest and multiple research reports, there is currently no consensus on the association of environmental factors and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To address this research gap, we aimed to assess the relative risk of transmission associated with weather conditions and ambient air pollution. METHODS: In this global analysis, we adjusted for the delay between infection and detection, estimated the daily reproduction number at 3739 global locations during the COVID-19 pandemic up until late April, 2020, and investigated its associations with daily local weather conditions (ie, temperature, humidity, precipitation, snowfall, moon illumination, sunlight hours, ultraviolet index, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, and pressure data) and ambient air pollution (ie, PM2·5, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulphur dioxide). To account for other confounding factors, we included both location-specific fixed effects and trends, controlling for between-location differences and heterogeneities in locations' responses over time. We built confidence in our estimations through synthetic data, robustness, and sensitivity analyses, and provided year-round global projections for weather-related risk of global SARS-CoV-2 transmission. FINDINGS: Our dataset included data collected between Dec 12, 2019, and April 22, 2020. Several weather variables and ambient air pollution were associated with the spread of SARS-CoV-2 across 3739 global locations. We found a moderate, negative relationship between the estimated reproduction number and temperatures warmer than 25°C (a decrease of 3·7% [95% CI 1·9-5·4] per additional degree), a U-shaped relationship with outdoor ultraviolet exposure, and weaker positive associations with air pressure, wind speed, precipitation, diurnal temperature, sulphur dioxide, and ozone. Results were robust to multiple assumptions. Independent research building on our estimates provides strong support for the resulting projections across nations. INTERPRETATION: Warmer temperature and moderate outdoor ultraviolet exposure result in a slight reduction in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2; however, changes in weather or air pollution alone are not enough to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 with other factors having greater effects. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Saúde Global , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021436, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612059

RESUMO

Background We examined the association of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with incident heart failure (HF). Methods And Results Using data on female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (aged >44 years), we investigated associations between 3-year mean exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise and incident HF using Cox regression models, adjusting for relevant confounders. Incidence of HF was defined as the first hospital contact (inpatient, outpatient, or emergency) between cohort baseline (1993 or 1999) and December 31, 2014, based on the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm since 1990 and NO2 and road traffic noise since 1970 were estimated at participants' residences. Of the 22 189 nurses, 484 developed HF. We detected associations with all 3 pollutants, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI, 0.99-1.22), and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26) per increase of 5.1 µg/m3 in particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm, 8.6 µg/m3 in NO2, and 9.3 dB in road traffic noise, respectively. We observed an enhanced risk of HF incidence for those exposed to high levels of the 3 pollutants; however, the effect modification of coexposure was not statistically significant. Former smokers and nurses with hypertension showed the strongest associations with particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (Peffect modification<0.05). Conclusions We found that long-term exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise were independently associated with HF.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87002, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise have been established for ischemic heart disease, but findings have been mixed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to examine associations of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution with AF. METHODS: Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of 1-, 3-, and 23-y mean road traffic noise and air pollution exposures with AF incidence in 23,528 women enrolled in the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44y at baseline in 1993 or 1999). AF diagnoses were ascertained via the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean weighted 24-h average road traffic noise levels (Lden) at the nurses' residences, since 1970, were estimated using the Nord2000 model, and annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using the DEHM/UBM/AirGIS model. RESULTS: Of 23,528 nurses with no prior AF diagnosis at the cohort baseline, 1,522 developed AF during follow-up. In a fully adjusted model (including PM2.5), the estimated risk of AF was 18% higher [hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18; 1.02, 1.36] in nurses with residential 3-y mean Lden levels >58 dB vs. <48 dB, with similar findings for 1-y mean exposures. A 3.9-µg/m3 increase in 3-y mean PM2.5 was associated with incident AF before and after adjustment for concurrent exposure to road traffic noise (HR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20 and 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19, respectively). Associations with 1-y mean PM2.5 exposures were positive but closer to the null and not significant. Associations with NO2 were null for all time periods before and after adjustment for road traffic noise and inverse when adjusted for concurrent PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of prospective data from a cohort of Danish female nurses followed for up to 14 y provided suggestive evidence of independent associations between incident AF and 1- and 3-y exposures to road traffic noise and PM2.5. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8090.

8.
Environ Res ; 202: 111770, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331926

RESUMO

Investigations of the educational implications of children's exposure to air pollutants at school are crucial to enhance our understanding of the hazards for children. Most of the existing literature is based on studies performed in North America and Europe. Further investigation is required in low- and middle-income countries, where there are important challenges related to public health, transportation, environment, and education sector. In response, in this present study, we studied the association between proximity of schools to roads and the academic achievement of the students in the Federal District, Brazil. We accessed academic achievement data at the student level. The data consist of 256 schools (all the public schools in the FD) and a total of 344,175 students (all the students enrolled in the public schools in the FD in 2017-2020). We analyzed the association between the length of all roads within buffers around schools and student-level academic performance using mixed-effects regression models. After adjustments for several covariates, the results of the primary analysis indicate that the presence of roads surrounding schools is negatively associated with student-level academic performance in the FD. This association varies significantly depending on the buffer size surrounding schools. We found that the highest effects occur in the first buffer, with 250 m. While in the first buffer we estimated that an increase of 1 km of length of roads around schools was associated with a statistically significant decrease of 0.011 (95%CI: 0.008; 0.013) points in students' grades (students' academic performance varies from 0 to 10), in the buffer of 1 km we found a decrease of 0.002 (95%CI: 0.002; 0.002) points in the student-level academic performance. Findings from our investigation provide support for the creation of effective health, educational and urban planning policies for local intervention in the FD. This is essential to improve the environmental quality surrounding schools to protect children from exposure to environmental hazards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudantes
9.
Eur Respir J ; 58(6)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While air pollution has been linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), evidence on the role of environmental noise is just emerging. We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. METHODS: We defined COPD incidence for 24 538 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44 years) as the first hospital contact between baseline (1993 or 1999) and 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model/Urban Background Model/Air Geographic Information System modelling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 using the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were applied to assess the associations of air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. RESULTS: 977 nurses developed COPD during a mean of 18.6 years' follow-up. We observed associations with COPD for all three exposures with HRs and 95% CIs of 1.19 (1.01-1.41) per 6.26 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.13 (1.05-1.20) per 8.19 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (1.06-1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. Associations with NO2 and Lden attenuated slightly after mutual adjustment, but were robust to adjustment for PM2.5. Associations with PM2.5 were attenuated to null after adjustment for either NO2 or Lden. No potential interaction effect was observed between air pollutants and noise. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially traffic-related NO2, and to road traffic noise were independently associated with COPD.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9239, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927268

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most rapidly increasing malignancy worldwide with an estimated 2.1 million cancer cases in the latest, 2018 World Health Organization (WHO) report. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of air pollution and lung cancer, in Tehran, Iran. Residential area information of the latest registered lung cancer cases that were diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 (N = 1,850) were inquired from the population-based cancer registry of Tehran. Long-term average exposure to PM10, SO2, NO, NO2, NOX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and BTEX in 22 districts of Tehran were estimated using land use regression models. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to generate multi-pollutant exposure profiles. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine the association between air pollutants and lung cancer incidence. The districts with higher concentrations for all pollutants were mostly in downtown and around the railway station. Districts with a higher concentration for NOx (IRR = 1.05, for each 10 unit increase in air pollutant), benzene (IRR = 3.86), toluene (IRR = 1.50), ethylbenzene (IRR = 5.16), p-xylene (IRR = 9.41), o-xylene (IRR = 7.93), m-xylene (IRR = 2.63) and TBTEX (IRR = 1.21) were significantly associated with higher lung cancer incidence. Districts with a higher multiple air-pollution profile were also associated with more lung cancer incidence (IRR = 1.01). Our study shows a positive association between air pollution and lung cancer incidence. This association was stronger for, respectively, p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, benzene, m-xylene and toluene.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/envenenamento , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/envenenamento , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/envenenamento , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tolueno/análise , Tolueno/envenenamento , Xilenos/análise , Xilenos/envenenamento
11.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e148, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912785

RESUMO

Background: Evidence of nonauditory health effects of road traffic noise exposure is growing. This prospective cohort study aimed to estimate the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise above a threshold and incident myocardial infarction (MI) in Denmark. Methods: In the Danish Nurse Cohort study, we used data of 22,378 women, at recruitment in 1993 and 1999, who reported information on MI risk factors. The participants' first hospital contact or out-of-hospital death due to MI were followed-up until 2014. We investigated a relationship between residential exposures to road traffic noise levels (Lden) up to 23 years and incident MI (overall, nonfatal, and fatal) using time-varying Cox regression models adjusting for potential confounders and air pollutants. We estimated thresholds of road traffic noise (53, 56, and 58 dB) associated with incident MI in a piece-wise linear regression model. Results: Of the 22,378 participants, 633 developed MI, 502 of which were nonfatal. We observed a non-linear relationship between the 23-year running mean of Lden and incident MI with a threshold level of 56 dB, above which hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.30 (0.97, 1.75) for overall and 1.46 (1.05, 2.03) for nonfatal MI per 10 dB. The association with nonfatal MI attenuated slightly to 1.34 (0.95, 1.90) after adjustment for fine particles. Conclusions: We found that long-term exposure to road traffic noise above 56 dB may increase the risk of MI. The study findings suggest that road traffic noise above 56 dB may need regulation in addition to the regulation of ambient pollutants.

12.
Environ Int ; 152: 106464, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is likely a risk factor for asthma, and recent evidence suggests the possible relevance of road traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with adult-asthma incidence. METHODS: We followed 28,731 female nurses (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, recruited in 1993 and 1999, for first hospital contact for asthma from 1977 until 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 with the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 with the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to associate air pollution and road traffic noise exposure with asthma incidence. RESULTS: During 18.6 years' mean follow-up, 528 out of 23,093 participants had hospital contact for asthma. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for asthma incidence associated with 3-year moving average exposures were 1.29 (1.03, 1.61) per 6.3 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.07, 1.27) per 8.2 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.12 (1.00, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. The HR for NO2 remained unchanged after adjustment for either PM2.5 or Lden, while the HRs for PM2.5 and Lden attenuated to unity after adjustment for NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with adult-asthma incidence independently of road traffic noise, with NO2 most relevant. Road traffic noise was not independently associated with adult-asthma incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Environ Res ; 194: 110631, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the role of melatonin, xenograft experiments, and epidemiological studies suggests that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disturb circadian rhythms, possibly increasing the risk of developing breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and the incidence of breast cancer: overall and subtypes classified by estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status. METHODS: We used data on 16,941 nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort who were followed-up from the cohort baseline in 1993 or 1999 through 2012 in the Danish Cancer Registry for breast cancer incidence and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group for breast cancer ER and PR status. LAN exposure data were obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) available for 1996, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2010 in nW/cm2/sr unit, and assigned to the study participants' residence addresses during the follow-up. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between LAN and breast cancer, adjusting for individual characteristics, road traffic noise, and air pollution. RESULTS: Of 16,941 nurses, 745 developed breast cancer in total during 320,289 person-years of follow-up. We found no association between exposure to LAN and overall breast cancer. In the fully adjusted models, HRs for the highest (65.8-446.4 nW/cm2/sr) and medium (22.0-65.7 nW/cm2/sr) LAN tertiles were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.23) and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.31), respectively, compared to the lowest tertile of LAN exposure (0-21.9 nW/cm2/sr). We found a suggestive association between LAN and ER-breast cancer. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study of Danish female nurses suggests weak evidence of the association between LAN and breast cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Luz , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Environ Health Sci Eng ; 18(2): 733-742, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312598

RESUMO

Purpose: To advance knowledge about childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and study their environmental determinants, we conducted a study in Tehran, Iran to assess the feasibility of prospective birth cohort study. Methods: We evaluated participation of pregnant women, feasibility of sampling biological material, and health care services availability in Tehran in four steps: (1) first trimester of pregnancy; (2) third trimester of pregnancy; (3) at delivery; and (4) two to three months after delivery. We collected related data through questionnaires, also various biological samples were obtained from mothers (blood, urine, milk and nails-hands and feet) and newborns (umbilical cord blood, meconium, and urine samples) from February 2016 to October 2017. Results: overall 838 eligible pregnant women were approached. The participation rate was 206(25%) in our study and about 185(90%) of subjects were recruited in hospitals. Out of 206 participants in the first trimester, blood, urine, hand nail, and foot nail samples were collected from 206(100%),193(93%), 205(99%), and 205(99%), respectively. These values dropped to 65(54%), 83(69%), 84(70%), and 84(70%) for the remaining participants 120(58%) in the third trimester, respectively. Also, we gathered milk samples from 125(60%) of mothers at two to three months after delivery. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hospitals were better places for recruitment of subjects in a birth cohort in Tehran. We further concluded that birth cohort study recruitment can be improved by choosing appropriate gestational ages. Obtaining the newborn's urine, meconium, and umbilical cord blood were challenging procedures and require good collaboration between hospital staff and researchers.

15.
Environ Int ; 143: 105983, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (Lden) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 µg/m3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM2.5 < 20 µg/m3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM10 and none with NO2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM2.5 and PM10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(18): 11037-11047, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808786

RESUMO

In this paper, we integrated multiple types of predictor variables and three types of machine learners (neural network, random forest, and gradient boosting) into a geographically weighted ensemble model to estimate the daily maximum 8 h O3 with high resolution over both space (at 1 km × 1 km grid cells covering the contiguous United States) and time (daily estimates between 2000 and 2016). We further quantify monthly model uncertainty for our 1 km × 1 km gridded domain. The results demonstrate high overall model performance with an average cross-validated R2 (coefficient of determination) against observations of 0.90 and 0.86 for annual averages. Overall, the model performance of the three machine learning algorithms was quite similar. The overall model performance from the ensemble model outperformed those from any single algorithm. The East North Central region of the United States had the highest R2, 0.93, and performance was weakest for the western mountainous regions (R2 of 0.86) and New England (R2 of 0.87). For the cross validation by season, our model had the best performance during summer with an R2 of 0.88. This study can be useful for the environmental health community to more accurately estimate the health impacts of O3 over space and time, especially in health studies at an intra-urban scale.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , New England , Ozônio/análise , Estados Unidos
17.
Environ Res ; 191: 110068, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846179

RESUMO

In this study, human exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), along with their respective risk assessment is studied in four major units (n = 14-point sources) of the largest municipal solid waste management facilities (MSWF) in Iran. The results were compared with four urban sites in Tehran, capital of Iran. Workers at the pre-processing unit are exposed to the highest total BTEX (151 µg m-3). In specific, they were exposed to benzene concentrations of 11 µg m-3. Moreover, the total BTEX (t-BTEX) concentrations measured over the conveyor belt was 198 µg m-3 at most, followed by trommel (104), and active landfills (43). The mean concentration of ambient t-BTEX in Tehran is 100 µg m-3. On average, xylenes and toluene have the highest concentrations in both on-site and urban environments, with mean values of 24 and 21, and 41 and 37 µg m-3, respectively. Even though the non-carcinogenic risk of occupational exposure is negligible, BTEX is likely to increase the chance of carcinogenic risks (1.7E-05) for workers at the pre-processing unit. A definite carcinogenic risk of 1.3E-04, and non-carcinogenic effect, of HI = 1.6 were observed in one urban site. With the exception of the pre-processing unit, the citizens of Tehran had higher exposure to BTEX. Overall, BTEX concentrations in the largest MSWF of Iran remains an issue of public health concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Xilenos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/toxicidade , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Resíduos Sólidos , Tolueno/análise , Tolueno/toxicidade , Xilenos/análise , Xilenos/toxicidade
18.
Environ Int ; 142: 105891, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593048

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution has been linked to stroke, but few studies have examined in detail stroke subtypes and confounding by road traffic noise, which was recently associated with stroke. Here we examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of stroke (overall, ischemic, hemorrhagic), adjusting for road traffic noise. In a nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort consisting of 23,423 nurses, recruited in 1993 or 1999, we identified 1,078 incident cases of stroke (944 ischemic and 134 hemorrhagic) up to December 31, 2014, defined as first-ever hospital contact. The full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained for each participant and the annual means of air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and road traffic noise were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) for the associations of one-, three, and 23-year running mean of air pollutants with stroke adjusting for potential confounders and noise. In fully adjusted models, the HRs (95% CI) per interquartile range increase in one-year running mean of PM2.5 and overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke were 1.12 (1.01-1.25), 1.13 (1.01-1.26), and 1.07 (0.80-1.44), respectively, and remained unchanged after adjustment for noise. Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 was associated with the risk of stroke independent of road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
19.
J Environ Health Sci Eng ; 18(1): 267-278, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399238

RESUMO

Introduction: Developing countries, particularly those with a rapid development, are experiencing increasing pollution by sulfur dioxide (SO2). Despite the considerable SO2 exposure effect on health, there is little evidence regarding this fact in Iran, as one of the largest oil and gas producing countries in the world. The present study, therefore, was designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributed to the SO2 exposure in Iran, over a 26-year period. Materials and methods: All measured SO2 levels were collected from 92 air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) in 29 cities, during 1996-2013. Since the study years were from 1990 to 2015, and also due to missing data at existing stations, the spatiotemporal model was used to estimate the exposure to this gas during this period. To calculate the burden of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, the population attributable fraction (PAF) value was calculated, and the SO2-attributed mortality and years of life lost (YLL) were determined per province, and in the whole country. Results: The results of this study showed that the SO2 concentration was increased from 22.00 ppb (7.69-67.28) in 1990 to 27.81 ppb (9.88-82.27), in 2015. The lowest annual value of 11.53 ppb (4.68-32.06) and the highest value of 45.11 ppb (16.58-1226) were estimated at 2004 and 1997, respectively. There was a sinusoidal trend in the gas concentration changes. The highest occurrence of SO2-attributed deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were 0.080 (0.024-0.168) and 0.076 (0.026-0.165), and the lowest levels were 0.017 (0.004-0.044) and 0.047 (0.017-0.124), respectively. Conclusions: According to the results in our country, the SO2 trend was sinusoidal during 26 years, with a recurrent rise occurring after each declining period. It is recommended to design the sustainable national method policies and programs with the continuous evaluation and modification for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and further implementation in the use of clean energy.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1372-1384, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851499

RESUMO

NO2 is a combustion byproduct that has been associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. To assess NO2 levels with high accuracy, we propose the use of an ensemble model to integrate multiple machine learning algorithms, including neural network, random forest, and gradient boosting, with a variety of predictor variables, including chemical transport models. This NO2 model covers the entire contiguous U.S. with daily predictions on 1-km-level grid cells from 2000 to 2016. The ensemble produced a cross-validated R2 of 0.788 overall, a spatial R2 of 0.844, and a temporal R2 of 0.729. The relationship between daily monitored and predicted NO2 is almost linear. We also estimated the associated monthly uncertainty level for the predictions and address-specific NO2 levels. This NO2 estimation has a very high spatiotemporal resolution and allows the examination of the health effects of NO2 in unmonitored areas. We found the highest NO2 levels along highways and in cities. We also observed that nationwide NO2 levels declined in early years and stagnated after 2007, in contrast to the trend at monitoring sites in urban areas, where the decline continued. Our research indicates that the integration of different predictor variables and fitting algorithms can achieve an improved air pollution modeling framework.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Algoritmos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Incerteza , Estados Unidos
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